BioControl

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 5–21

Harmonia axyridis in Europe: spread and distribution of a non-native coccinellid

  • P. M. J. Brown
  • T. Adriaens
  • H. Bathon
  • J. Cuppen
  • A. Goldarazena
  • T. Hägg
  • M. Kenis
  • B. E. M. Klausnitzer
  • I. Kovář
  • A. J. M. Loomans
  • M. E. N. Majerus
  • O. Nedved
  • J. Pedersen
  • W. Rabitsch
  • H. E. Roy
  • V. Ternois
  • I. A. Zakharov
  • D. B. Roy
Article

Abstract

Native to Asia, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is considered an invasive alien ladybird in Europe and North America, where it was widely introduced as a biological control agent of aphids and coccids. In Europe, H. axyridis was sold by various biological control companies from 1995 in France, Belgium and the Netherlands, and was also intentionally released in at least nine other countries. It has spread very rapidly, particularly since 2002, and is now regarded as established in thirteen European countries. The established range extends from Denmark in the north to southern France in the south, and from Czech Republic in the east to Great Britain in the west. In this paper we map the spread and distribution of H. axyridis in Europe, and examine the situation on a country-by-country basis. We report first records of the species in five countries; Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Czech Republic and Italy; and first evidence of H. axyridis establishment in the latter three countries. Despite releases of H. axyridis in Portugal, Spain and Greece, there is little evidence of establishment in southern Europe. It is predicted that the spread and increase within Europe will continue and that H. axyridis will become one of the most widely distributed coccinellids in the continent.

Keywords

Biological control Coccinellidae Halloween beetle Harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis Introduced species Invasive species Multicolored Asian lady beetle Non-native species 

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Copyright information

© International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. M. J. Brown
    • 1
    • 2
  • T. Adriaens
    • 3
  • H. Bathon
    • 4
  • J. Cuppen
    • 5
  • A. Goldarazena
    • 6
  • T. Hägg
    • 7
  • M. Kenis
    • 8
  • B. E. M. Klausnitzer
    • 9
  • I. Kovář
    • 10
  • A. J. M. Loomans
    • 11
  • M. E. N. Majerus
    • 12
  • O. Nedved
    • 13
  • J. Pedersen
    • 14
  • W. Rabitsch
    • 15
  • H. E. Roy
    • 1
    • 2
  • V. Ternois
    • 16
  • I. A. Zakharov
    • 17
  • D. B. Roy
    • 1
  1. 1.NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology – Monks WoodHuntingdonUK
  2. 2.Department of Life SciencesAnglia Ruskin UniversityCambridgeUK
  3. 3.Instituut voor Natuur- en BosonderzoekBrusselBelgium
  4. 4.Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and ForestryInstitute for Biological ControlDarmstadtGermany
  5. 5.Wageningen UniversityWageningenNetherlands
  6. 6.Neiker-Tecnalia, Instituto Vasco de Investigación y Desarrollo AgrarioCentro ArkauteVitoria-Gasteiz Alava, Pais VascoSpain
  7. 7.MalmoSweden
  8. 8.CABI Europe-SwitzerlandDelemontSwitzerland
  9. 9.Institut für Ökologie und EntomologieDresdenGermany
  10. 10.The Natural History MuseumPraha 4Czech Republic
  11. 11.Department of Entomology, National Reference LaboratoryPlant Protection ServiceWageningenNetherlands
  12. 12.Department of GeneticsUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  13. 13.Faculty of ScienceUniversity of South BohemiaCeske BudejoviceCzech Republic
  14. 14.Zoological MuseumUniversity of CopenhagenKobenhavnDenmark
  15. 15.Federal Environment AgencyWienAustria
  16. 16.Observatoire permanent pour le suivi de la Coccinelle asiatique en France, CPIE du Pays de Soulaines, Domaine de Saint-VictorSoulaines-DhuysFrance
  17. 17.Vavilov Institute of General Genetics RASMoscowRussia

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