Dual Antagonism of Aldehydes and Epiphytic Bacteria from Strawberry Leaf Surfaces against the Pathogenic Fungus Botrytis cinerea in vitro
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Dual culture experiments were conducted in vitro to evaluate the potential combined biological effect of epiphytic bacteria and plant volatiles formed during fatty acids degradation on the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. The aliphatic aldehydes hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal and (E)-2-nonenal showed an enhancing effect on the antagonistic interaction between the epiphytic bacteria Pseudomonas lurida, Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae, Pseudomonas parafulva, and Bacillus megaterium against the pathogenic fungus. The unsaturated aldehydes were found to be the most potent with the minimum effective concentration being 1 ppm. Increasing volatile concentrations led to the inhibition of Botrytis cinerea growth with concomitant increase of colony diameters of epiphytic bacteria. Especially (E)-2-nonenal showed a stronger inhibitory effect on different strains of the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea than on the epiphytic bacteria. These results suggest that co-application of antagonistic bacteria with natural plant volatiles can enhance the effectiveness of the biocontrol agents against B. cinerea.
KeywordsBotrytis cinerea dual cultures epiphytic bacteria α,β-unsaturated aldehydes
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