Biology Bulletin

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 321–330 | Cite as

Homologous Protein Domains in Superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota and the Problem of the Origin of Eukaryotes

  • A. V. Markov
  • A. M. Kulikov
Theoretical Biology


The distribution of protein domains was analyzed in superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota. About a half of eukaryotic domains have prokaryotic origin. Many domains related to information processing in the nucleocytoplasm were inherited from archaea. Sets of domains associated with metabolism and regulatory and signaling systems were inherited from bacteria. Many signaling and regulatory domains common for bacteria and eukaryotes were responsible for the cellular interaction of bacteria with other components of the microbial community but were involved in coordination of the activity of eukaryotic organelles and cells in multicellular organisms. Many eukaryotic domains of bacterial origin could not originate from ancestral mitochondria and plastids but rather were adopted from other bacteria. An archaeon with the induced incorporation of alien genetic material could be the ancestor of the eukaryotic nucleocytoplasm.


Microbial Community Information Processing Protein Domain Genetic Material Signaling System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. V. Markov
    • 1
  • A. M. Kulikov
    • 2
  1. 1.Paleontological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Kol’tsov Institute of Developmental BiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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