Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide emerges as a therapeutic target in aging and ischemic conditions
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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) has been described as central coenzyme of redox reactions and is a key regulator of stress resistance and longevity. Aging is a multifactorial and irreversible process that is characterized by a gradual diminution in physiological functions in an organism over time, leading to development of age-associated pathologies and eventually increasing the probability of death. Ischemia is the lack of nutritive blood flow that causes damage and mortality that mostly occurs in various organs during aging. During the process of aging and related ischemic conditions, NAD+ levels decline and lead to nuclear and mitochondrial dysfunctions, resulting in age-related pathologies. The majority of studies have shown that restoring of NAD+ using supplementation with intermediates such as nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside can be a valuable strategy for recovery of ischemic injury and age-associated defects. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms responsible for the reduction in NAD+ levels during ischemic disorders and aging, as well as a particular focus is given to the recent progress in the understanding of NAD+ precursor’s effects on aging and ischemia.
KeywordsAging Ischemic disorders Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Nicotinamide mononucleotide Mitochondria Longevity
This work has been supported by Aging Research Institute, Drug Applied Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz-Iran.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
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