The immune risk profile is associated with age and gender: findings from three Swedish population studies of individuals 20–100 years of age
- 553 Downloads
Earlier we identified an Immune Risk Profile (IRP) of very old individuals, 86–94 years of age, characterised by an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio and associated with persistent cytomegalovirus infection and an increase in the numbers of CD3+CD8+CD28− cells. In the present study we included data from a population-based sample in the age range of 20–79 years to examine the prevalence of individuals with an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio relative to age and gender across the entire adult lifespan. Immunological monitoring that was conducted included analysis of the numbers of T-cells in the subsets CD3+, CD3+CD4+, and CD3+CD8+ as well as CD3+CD8+CD28+, CD3+CD8+CD28−, and CD8+CD45RA+CCR7+. There was found to be a significant lowering of the numbers of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, and CD3+CD8+, and of the CD8+CD45RA+CCR7+ cells across the adult life-span. Notably, the prevalence of individuals with an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio increased from about 8% in the age range of 20–59 years to about 16% in the age range of 60–94 years. The mortality rate in individuals with an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio also increased significantly above the age of 60. Interestingly, the proportion of individuals with an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio was found to be significantly higher in men, whereas the numbers of CD3+CD4+ helper and CD8+CD45RA+CCR7+ naïve cells and the CD4/CD8 ratio were found to be significantly higher in women. These results highlight the importance of functioning of the thymus in the development of IRP and may partly account for the differences between sexes in terms of longevity.
KeywordsImmune risk T-cells Age Gender
The authors acknowledge the considerable support provided by the Kristianstad Survey Project (former County Council of Kristinstad), by the EU project “T cell immunity and ageing”, T-CIA, contract no (QLK6-CT-2001–02283) and the Medical Research Council of South-eastern Sweden for funding of the project. We also gratefully acknowledge Centrallasarettet Kristianstad and Länssjukhuset Ryhov for providing laboratory resources for completion of the studies. We are also indebted to our co-workers Sten-Erik Bäck, Sven Björnsson, Nils Tryding, Jan-Erik Nilsson, Sture Löfgren, Bengt-Olof Nilsson and Jan Ernerudh.
- Ferguson F, Wikby A, Maxson P, Olsson J, Johansson B (1995) Immune parameters in a longitudinal study of a very old population of swedish people: a comparison between survivors and nonsurvivors. J Gerontol Biol Sci 50A:B378–B382Google Scholar
- Johansson B, Zarit SH, Berg S (1992) Changes in cognitive functioning of the oldest old. J Gerontol Psychol Sci 47:P75–P80Google Scholar
- Månsson I, Bäck SE, Nilsson JE, Björnsson S (2002) Lymphocyte subset reference intervals in healthy individuals. Lab Hematol 8:70–77Google Scholar
- Nilsson SE, Lindholm H, Bülow S, Frostberg N, Emilsson T, Stenkula G (1964) The Kristianstad survey, 1963–1964. Studies in a normal adult population for variation and correlation in some clinical, anthropometric, and laboratory values, especially the peroral glucose tolerance test. Acta Med Scand 177(428):1–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reker-Hadrup S, Strindhall J, Kollgaard T, Seremet T, Johansson B, Pawelec G, thor Straten P, Wikby A (2006) Longitudinal studies of clonally expanded CD8 T cells reveal a repertoire shrinkage predicting mortality and increased number of dysfunctional cytomegalovirus-specific T cells in the elderly. J Immunol 176:2645–2653Google Scholar
- Saule P, Trauet J, Dutriez V, Lekeux V, Dessaint JP, Labalette M (2006) Accumulation of memory T cells from childhood to old age: central and effector memory cells in CD4+ versus effector memory and terminally differentiated memory cells in CD8+ compartment. Mech Ageing Dev 127:274–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wikby A, Ferguson F, Strindhall J, Forsey R, Fulop T, Reker-Hadrup S, Straten Pt, Pawelec G, Johansson B (2007) Immune risk phenotypes and associated parameters in very old humans: a review of findings in the Swedish NONA immune longitudinal study. Eurekah Bioscience Database (http://Eurekha.com) Landes Bioscience, pp 1–14