Decoupling of Behavioral Trait Correlation Across Life Stages in Two Holometabolous Insects
- 336 Downloads
Many animal behaviors have a genetic base, and behavioral traits often correlate with one another. In this study, we tested for a behavioral correlation between tonic immobility and walking distance in the larval and adult stages independently of two holometabolous insects. We confirmed a negative correlation of traits between strains in adults of both the species; however, we did not find it in larvae of either species. This suggests that the negative correlation between tonic immobility and walking is decoupled across life stages from larva to adult. In contrast, previous studies have reported that phenotypic correlations between behavioral traits are maintained from larvae to adults in hemimetabolous insects. In addition, our present results differ from previous results with holometabolous insects. Therefore, our results suggest that metamorphosis can change trade-offs between behavioral traits.
KeywordsMetamorphosis Tonic immobility Walking distance Trade-off Tribolium castaneum Tribolium confusum
We thank technical advices and valuable comments for Drs. Satoshi Nakayama and Kensuke Okada during the experiments. We thank Tomohito Noda for checking English. We also thank two anonymous reviewers for many suggestions on our manuscript. This work was supported by a Grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI 26291091 and 16K14810 to TM, and 16J0445818 to KM.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
K. Matsumura, T. Fuchikawa and T. Miyatake declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights and Informed consent
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Dudley R (1989) The biomechanics of insect flight: form, function, evolution. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
- Edmunds M (1974) Defense in animals: a survey of anti-predator defenses. Longman, HarlowGoogle Scholar
- Heming BS (2003) Insect development and evolution. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NYGoogle Scholar
- Kent CF, Daskalchuk T, Cook L, Sokolowski MB, Greenspan RJ (2009) The Drosophila foraging gene mediates adult plasticity and gene-environment interactions in behaviour, metabolites, and gene expression in response to food deprivation. PLOS Genet 5(8):e1000609CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kristensen NP (1991) Phylogeny of extant hexapods. In: Naumann ID (ed) Insects of Australia. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY, Pp. 125–139Google Scholar
- R Core Team (2016) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing.Google Scholar
- Suzuki T, Nakakita H (1991) Tribolium castaneum (HERBEST), T. confusum J. du V., T. freemani HINTON. In: Yushima K, Kamano S, Tamaki Y (eds) Rearing methods of insects. Nihon Shokubutsu-Boueki Kyokai, Tokyo, pp 251–254Google Scholar