Advertisement

Behavior Genetics

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 265–277 | Cite as

Genetic and Environmental Structure of DSM-IV Criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder: A Twin Study

  • Tom Rosenström
  • Eivind Ystrom
  • Fartein Ask Torvik
  • Nikolai Olavi Czajkowski
  • Nathan A. Gillespie
  • Steven H. Aggen
  • Robert F. Krueger
  • Kenneth S. Kendler
  • Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Original Research

Abstract

Results from previous studies on DSM-IV and DSM-5 Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) have suggested that the construct is etiologically multidimensional. To our knowledge, however, the structure of genetic and environmental influences in ASPD has not been examined using an appropriate range of biometric models and diagnostic interviews. The 7 ASPD criteria (section A) were assessed in a population-based sample of 2794 Norwegian twins by a structured interview for DSM-IV personality disorders. Exploratory analyses were conducted at the phenotypic level. Multivariate biometric models, including both independent and common pathways, were compared. A single phenotypic factor was found, and the best-fitting biometric model was a single-factor common pathway model, with common-factor heritability of 51% (95% CI 40–67%). In other words, both genetic and environmental correlations between the ASPD criteria could be accounted for by a single common latent variable. The findings support the validity of ASPD as a unidimensional diagnostic construct.

Keywords

Unidimensionality Common pathway Multivariate biometric model Psychometrics Diagnostics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge funding from the US National Institutes of Health and National Institute on Drug Abuse (1R01DA037558-01A1), the Research Council of Norway (226985), the Norwegian Foundation for Health and Rehabilitation, the Norwegian Council for Mental Health, and the European Commission under the program “Quality of Life and Management of the Living Resources” of the Fifth Framework Program (QLG2-CT-2002-01254). THR had full access to all the data in this study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Tom Rosenström, Eivind Ystrom, Fartein Ask Torvik, Nikolai Olavi Czajkowski, Nathan A. Gillespie, Steven H. Aggen, Robert F. Krueger, Kenneth S. Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

Approval was received from The Norwegian Data Inspectorate and the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants after a complete description of the study.

Human and Animal Rights

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10519_2016_9833_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (599 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 599 KB)

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fifth Edition. American Psychiatric Association, ArlingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asparouhov T (2005) Sampling weights in latent variable modeling. Struct Equ Model 12:411–434. doi: 10.1207/s15328007sem1203_4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blais MA, Norman DK (1997) A psychometric evaluation of the DSM-IV personality disorder criteria. J Personal Disord 11:168–176. doi: 10.1521/pedi.1997.11.2.168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boker S, Neale M, Maes H et al (2011) OpenMx: an open source extended structural equation modeling framework. Psychometrika 76:306–317. doi: 10.1007/s11336-010-9200-6 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Brüne M (2016) Borderline personality disorder: why “fast and furious”? Evol Med Public Health. doi: 10.1093/emph/eow002 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bulteel K, Wilderjans TF, Tuerlinckx F, Ceulemans E (2013) CHull as an alternative to AIC and BIC in the context of mixtures of factor analyzers. Behav Res Methods 45:782–791. doi: 10.3758/s13428-012-0293-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Choi SW, Gibbons LE, Crane PK (2011) lordif: An R package for detecting differential item functioning using iterative hybrid ordinal logistic regression/item response theory and Monte Carlo simulations. J Stat Softw 39:1–30. doi: 10.18637/jss.v039.i08 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Coid J, Ulrich S (2010) Antisocial personality disorder is on a continuum with psychopathy. Compr Psychiatry 51:426–433. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2009.09.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Colman AM & Wilson JC (1997) Antisocial personality disorder: an evolutionary game theory analysis. Legal Criminol Psychol 2:23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Del Giudice M, Ellis BJ, Shirtcliff EA (2011) The adaptive calibration model of stress responsivity. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:1562–1592. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.11.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Derefinko KJ, Widiger TA (2016) Antisocial personality disorder. In: Fatemi SH, Clayton PJ (Eds.), The medical basis of psychiatry, 4th edn. Springer, New York, pp 229–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ellis L (1988) Criminal behavior and r/K selection: An extension of gene-based evolutionary theory. Person Individ Diff 9:697–708. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(88)90059-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ficks CA, Waldman ID (2014) Candidate genes for aggression and antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis of association studies of the 5HTTLPR and MAOA-uVNTR. Behav Genet 44:427–444. doi: 10.1007/s10519-014-9661-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Franić S, Dolan CV, Borsboom D et al (2013) Can genetics help psychometrics? Improving dimensionality assessment through genetic factor modeling. Psychol Methods 18:406–433. doi: 10.1037/a0032755 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Franić S, Borsboom D, Dolan CV, Boomsma DI (2014) The big five personality traits: psychological entities or statistical constructs? Behav Genet 44:591–604. doi: 10.1007/s10519-013-9625-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Goldstein RB, Grant BF, Huang B, Smith SM, Stinson FS, Dawson DA, Chou SP (2006) Lack of remorse in antisocial personality disorder: sociodemographic correlates, symptomatic presentation, and comorbidity with Axis I and Axis II disorders in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Comp Psychiatry 47:289–297. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2005.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Good P (2005) Permutation, parametric, and bootstrap tests of hypotheses, 3rd edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Harris JR, Magnus P, Tambs K (2002) The Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel: a description of the sample and program of research. Twin Res 5:415–423. doi: 10.1375/136905202320906192 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hayashi K, Bentler PM, Yuan K-H (2007) On the likelihood ratio test for the number of factors in exploratory factor analysis. Struct Equ Model 14:505–526. doi: 10.1080/10705510701301891 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heath AC, Eaves LJ, Martin NG (1989) The genetic structure of personality III. Multivariate genetic item analysis of the EPQ scales. Personal Individ Differ 10:877–888. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(89)90023-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Helgeland MI, Kjelsberg E, Torgersen S (2005) Continuities between emotional and disruptive behavior disorders in adolescence and personality disorders in adulthood. Am J Psychiatry 162:1941–1947. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.10.1941 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Horn JL (1965) A rationale and test for the number of factors in factor analysis. Psychometrika 30:179–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Humphreys LG, Montanelli RG Jr (1975) An investigation of the parallel analysis criterion for determining the number of common factors. Multivar Behav Res 10:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huprich SK, Schmitt TA, Richard DCS, et al (2010) Comparing factor analytic models of the DSM-IV personality disorders. Personal Disord 1:22–37. doi: 10.1037/a0018245 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hyde LW, Waller R, Trentacosta CJ, Shaw DS, Neiderhiser JM, Ganiban JM, Reiss D, Leve LD (2016) Heritable and nonheritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. Am J Psychiatry 173:903–910. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15111381 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacobson KC, Prescott CA, Kendler KS (2002) Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the development of antisocial behavior. Dev Psychopathol 14:395–416. doi: 10.1017/S0954579402002110 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Jane JS, Oltmanns TF, South SC, Turkheimer E (2007) Gender bias in diagnostic criteria for personality disorders: an item response theory analysis. J Abnorm Psychol 116:166–175. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.166 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Jang KL, Livesley WJ, Angleitner A, et al (2002) Genetic and environmental influences on the covariance of facets defining the domains of the five-factor model of personality. Personal Individ Differ 33:83–101. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00137-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnson W, Krueger RF (2004) Genetic and environmental structure of adjectives describing the domains of the Big Five Model of personality: A nationwide US twin study. J Res Personal 38:448–472. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2003.11.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jones RH (2011) Bayesian information criterion for longitudinal and clustered data. Stat Med 30:3050–3056. doi: 10.1002/sim.4323 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kass RE, Raftery AE (1995) Bayes factors. J Am Stat Assoc 90:773–795. doi: 10.1080/01621459.1995.10476572 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kendler KS (2006) Reflections on the relationship between psychiatric genetics and psychiatric nosology. Am J Psychiatry 163:1138–1146. doi: 10.1176/ajp.2006.163.7.1138 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kendler KS, Silberg JL, Neale MC et al (1992) Genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of menstrual, premenstrual and neurotic symptoms: a population-based twin study. Psychol Med 22:85–100. doi: 10.1017/S0033291700032761 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kendler KS, Prescott CA, Myers J, Neale MC (2002) The joint analysis of personal interview and family history diagnoses: evidence for validity of diagnosis and increased heritability estimates. Psychol Med 32:829–842. doi: 10.1017/S0033291702005858 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kendler KS, Aggen SH, Czajkowski N et al (2008) The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for DSM-IV personality disorders: a multivariate twin study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:1438–1446. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.65.12.1438 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Kendler KS, Aggen SH, Patrick CJ (2012) A multivariate twin study of the DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Biol Psychiatry 71:247–253. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.05.019 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kendler KS, Aggen SH, Patrick CJ (2013) Familial influences on conduct disorder reflect 2 genetic factors and 1 shared environmental factor. JAMA Psychiatry 70:78–86. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.267 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Larsson H, Andershed H, Lichtenstein P (2006) A genetic factor explains most of the variation in the psychopathic personality. J Abnorm Psychol 115:221–230. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.115.2.221 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Larsson H, Tuvblad C, Rijsdijk FV et al (2007) A common genetic factor explains the association between psychopathic personality and antisocial behavior. Psychol Med 37:15–26. doi: 10.1017/S003329170600907X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Lawley DN, Maxwell AE (1971) Factor Analysis as a Statistical Method., 2nd edn. Butterworths & Co, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Livesley WJ (2005) Behavioral and molecular genetic contributions to a dimensional classification of personality disorder. J Personal Disord 19:131–155. doi: 10.1521/pedi.19.2.131.62631 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. MacIntosh R, Hashim S (2003) Variance estimation for converting MIMIC model parameters to IRT parameters in DIF analysis. Appl Psychol Meas 27:372–379. doi: 10.1177/0146621603256021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Marcus DK, Lilienfeld SO, Edens JF, Poythress NG (2006) Is antisocial personality continuous or categorical? A taxometric analysis. Psychol Med 36:1571–1581. doi: 10.1017/S0033291706008245 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Markon KE, Krueger RF (2004) An empirical comparison of information-theoretic selection criteria for multivariate behavior genetic models. Behav Genet 34:593–610. doi: 10.1007/s10519-004-5587-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Muthén BO (1989) Using item-specific instructional information in achievement modeling. Psychometrika 54:385–396. doi: 10.1007/BF02294624 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Muthén BO, Kao C-F, Burstein L (1991) Instructionally sensitive psychometrics: application of a new IRT-based detection technique to mathematics achievement test items. J Educ Meas 28:1–22. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3984.1991.tb00340.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Neale MC (2003) A finite mixture distribution model for data collected from twins. Twin Res 6:235–239. doi: 10.1375/136905203765693898 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Neale MC, Maes HHM (2002) Methodology for genetic studies of twins and families (an online version revised from Neale MC & Cardon L, 1992, Methodology for genetic studies of twins and families. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, the Netherlands). http://ibgwww.colorado.edu/twins2003/cdrom/HTML/BOOK/book2002c.pdf
  49. Neale MC, Miller MB (1997) The use of likelihood-based confidence intervals in genetic models. Behav Genet 27:113–120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Neale MC, Lubke G, Aggen SH, Dolan CV (2005) Problems with using sum scores for estimating variance components: contamination and measurement noninvariance. Twin Res Hum Genet Off J Int Soc Twin Stud 8:553–568. doi: 10.1375/183242705774860231 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Neale MC, Røysamb E, Jacobson K (2006) Multivariate genetic analysis of sex limitation and G x E interaction. Twin Res Hum Genet 9:481–489. doi: 10.1375/183242706778024937 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Nettle D, Gibson MA, Lawson DW, Sear R (2013) Human behavioral ecology: current research and future prospects. Behav Ecol 24:1031–1040. doi: 10.1093/beheco/ars222 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Neumann GS, Hare RD, Pardini DA (2015) Antisociality and the construct of psychopathy: Data from across the globe. J Pers 86:678–692. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nylund KL, Asparouhov T, Muthén BO (2007) Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: a monte carlo simulation study. Struct Equ Model 14:535–569. doi: 10.1080/10705510701575396 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pappa I, St Pourcain B, Benke K et al (2016) A genome-wide approach to children’s aggressive behavior: the EAGLE consortium. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 171:562–572. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32333 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Penfield RD, Camilli G (2007) Differential item functioning and item bias. In: Rao CR, Sinharay S (eds) Handbook of statistics, vol 26: Psychometrics. Noth-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 125–167Google Scholar
  57. Pfohl B, Blum N, Zimmerman M (1995) Structured interview for DSM-IV personality (SIDP-IV). University of Iowa, Department of Psychiatry, IowaGoogle Scholar
  58. Plomin R, DeFries JC, Knopik VS, Neiderheiser J (2012) Behavioral Genetics, 6th edn. Worth Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. Pornprasertmanit S, Lee J, Preacher KJ (2014) Ignoring clustering in confirmatory factor analysis: Some consequences for model fit and standardized parameter estimates. Multivariate Behav Res 49:518–543. doi: 10.1080/00273171.2014.933762 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Ystrom E, Neale MC et al (2013) Structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder. JAMA Psychiatry 70:1206–1214. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1944 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Czajkowski N, Ystrøm E et al (2015) A longitudinal twin study of borderline and antisocial personality disorder traits in early to middle adulthood. Psychol Med 45:3121–3131. doi: 10.1017/S0033291715001117 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Rhee SH, Waldman ID (2002) Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. Psychol Bull 128:490–529. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.128.3.490 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Ribeiro da Silva D, Rijo D, Salekin RT (2015) The evolutionary roots of psychopathy. Aggress Violent Behav 21:85–96. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2015.01.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Salvatore JE, Edwards AC, McClintick JN et al (2015) Genome-wide association data suggest ABCB1 and immune-related gene sets may be involved in adult antisocial behavior. Trans Psychiatry 5:e558. doi: 10.1038/tp.2015.36 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sclove SL (1987) Application of model-selection criteria to some problems in multivariate analysis. Psychometrika 52:333–343. doi: 10.1007/BF02294360 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tambs K, Rønning T, Prescott CA et al (2009) The Norwegian Institute of Public Health twin study of mental health: examining recruitment and attrition bias. Twin Res Hum Genet 12:158–168. doi: 10.1375/twin.12.2.158 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Tielbeek JJ, Medland SE, Benyamin B et al (2012) Unraveling the genetic etiology of adult antisocial behavior: a genome-wide association study. PLoS One 7:e45086. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045086 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Torgersen S, Kringlen E, Cramer V (2001) The prevalence of personality disorders in a community sample. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:590–596. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.58.6.590 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Torgersen S, Czajkowski N, Jacobson K et al (2008) Dimensional representations of DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders in a population-based sample of Norwegian twins: a multivariate study. Psychol Med 38:1617–1625. doi: 10.1017/S0033291708002924 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Torgersen S, Myers J, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Røysamb E, Kubarych TS, Kendler KS (2012) The heritability of Cluster B personality disorders assessed both by personal interview and questionnaire. J Personal Disord 26:848–866. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2012.26.6.848 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. van der Maas HLJ, Dolan CV, Grasman RPPP et al (2006) A dynamical model of general intelligence: the positive manifold of intelligence by mutualism. Psychol Rev 113:842–861CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Venables NC, Hall JR, Patrick CJ (2014) Differentiating psychopathy from antisocial personality disorder: a triarchic model perspective. Psychol Med 44:1005–1013. doi: 10.1017/S003329171300161X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Viding E, McCrory EJ (2012) Genetic and neurocognitive contributions to the development of psychopathy. Dev Psychopathol 24:969–983. doi: 10.1017/S095457941200048X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Vrieze SI (2012) Model selection and psychological theory: a discussion of the differences between the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Psychol Methods 17:228–243. doi: 10.1037/a0027127 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Warren JI, South SC (2009) A symptom level examination of the relationship between Cluster B personality disorders and patterns of criminality and violence in women. Int J Law Psychiatry 32:10–17. doi: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2008.11.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Wygant DB, Sellbom M, Sleep CE, et al (2016) Examining the DSM-5 alternative personality disorder model operationalization of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a male correctional sample. Personal Disord. doi: 10.1037/per0000179 PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom Rosenström
    • 1
  • Eivind Ystrom
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fartein Ask Torvik
    • 1
  • Nikolai Olavi Czajkowski
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nathan A. Gillespie
    • 4
  • Steven H. Aggen
    • 4
  • Robert F. Krueger
    • 5
  • Kenneth S. Kendler
    • 4
    • 6
    • 7
  • Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
    • 1
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Mental DisordersNorwegian Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.PharmacoEpidemiology and Drug Safety Research Group, School of PharmacyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral GeneticsVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  6. 6.Deparment of Human and Molecular GeneticsVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  7. 7.Department of PsychiatryVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  8. 8.Institute of Clinical MedicineUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations