Advertisement

Behavior Genetics

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 171–180 | Cite as

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescents’ Smoking Involvement: A Multi-informant Twin Study

  • Karoline Brobakke SeglemEmail author
  • Trine Waaktaar
  • Helga Ask
  • Svenn Torgersen
Original Research

Abstract

Studying monozygotic and dizygotic adolescent twin pairs of both sexes reared together, the present study examined the extent to which the variance in smoking involvement is attributable to genetic and environmental effects, and to what extent there are sex differences in the etiology. Questionnaire data on how often the adolescent had ever smoked tobacco was collected from a population-based twin sample consisting of seven national birth cohorts (ages 12–18), their mothers, and their fathers (N = 1,394 families). The data was analyzed with multivariate genetic modeling, using a multi-informant design. The etiological structure of smoking involvement was best represented in an ACE common pathway model, with smoking defined as a latent factor loading onto all three informants’ reports. Estimates could be set equal across sexes. Results showed that adolescent lifetime smoking involvement was moderately heritable (37 %). The largest influence was from the shared environment (56 %), while environmental effects unique to each twin had minimal influence (7 %).

Keywords

Tobacco smoking Twin study Adolescents Genetic and environmental effects Heritability Multi-informant 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Norwegian Research Council (Grant ref: 170089) provides core support for the longitudinal twin cohort study, and funding for this specific research (Grant ref: 213760). We would also like to thank Hermine Maes for providing assistance with OpenMx scripts.

Conflict of Interest

Karoline Brobakke Seglem, Trine Waaktaar, Helga Ask, and Svenn Torgersen declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Agrawal A, Heath AC, Grant JD, Pergadia ML, Statham DJ, Bucholz KK, Martin NG, Madden PAF (2006) Assortative mating for cigarette smoking and for alcohol consumption in female Australian twins and their spouses. Behav Genet 36(4):553–566CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akaike H (1987) Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika 52(3):317–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ask H, Rognmo K, Torvik FA, Røysamb E, Tambs K (2012) Non-random mating and convergence over time for alcohol consumption, smoking, and exercise: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Behav Genet 42(3):354–365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartels M, Boomsma DI, Hudziak JJ, Van Beijsterveldt T, Van den Oord E (2007) Twins and the study of rater (dis) agreement. Psychol Methods 12(4):451–466CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergen SE, Gardner CO, Kendler KS (2007) Age-related changes in heritability of behavioral phenotypes over adolescence and young adulthood: a meta-analysis. Twin Res Hum Genet 10(03):423–433CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bierut LJ (2011) Genetic vulnerability and susceptibility to substance dependence. Neuron 69(4):618–627CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Boker S, Neale M, Maes H, Wilde M, Spiegel M, Brick T, Spies J, Estabrook R, Kenny S, Bates T, Mehta P, Fox J (2011) OpenMx: an open source extended structural equation modeling framework. Psychometrika 76(2):306–317CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Boomsma DI, Koopmans JR, Van Doornen LJ, Orlebeke JF (1994) Genetic and social influences on starting to smoke: A study of Dutch adolescent twins and their parents. Addiction 89(2):219–226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chassin L, Presson CC, Rose JS, Sherman SJ (1996) The natural history of cigarette smoking from adolescence to adulthood: demographic predictors of continuity and change. Health Psychol 15(6):478–484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dick DM, Barman S, Pitkänen T (2006) Genetic and environmental influences on the initiation and continuation of smoking and drinking. In: Pulkkinen L, Kaprio J, Rose RJ (eds) Socioemotional development and health from adolescence to adulthood. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 127–145Google Scholar
  11. Dick DM, Viken R, Purcell S, Kaprio J, Pulkkinen L, Rose RJ (2007) Parental monitoring moderates the importance of genetic and environmental influences on adolescent smoking. J Abnorm Psychol 116(1):213CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fowler T, Lifford K, Shelton K, Rice F, Thapar A, Neale MC, McBride A, van den Bree MB (2007) Exploring the relationship between genetic and environmental influences on initiation and progression of substance use. Addiction 102(3):413–422CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Friend K, Levy DT (2002) Reductions in smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption associated with mass-media campaigns. Health Educ Res 17(1):85–98CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Han C, McGue MK, Iacono WG (1999) Lifetime tobacco, alcohol and other substance use in adolescent Minnesota twins: univariate and multivariate behavioral genetic analyses. Addiction 94(7):981–993CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Heath AC, Martin NG, Lynskey MT, Todorov AA, Madden PA (2002) Estimating two-stage models for genetic influences on alcohol, tobacco or drug use initiation and dependence vulnerability in twin and family data. Twin Res 5(2):113–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hibell B, Guttormsson U, Ahlström S, Balakireva O, Bjarnason T, Kokkevi A, Kraus L (2009) The 2007 ESPAD report: substance use among students in 35 European countries. The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  17. Hopfer CJ, Crowley TJ, Hewitt JK (2003) Review of twin and adoption studies of adolescent substance use. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42(6):710–719CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hopper JL, White VM, Macaskill GT, Hill DJ, Clifford CA (1992) Alcohol use, smoking habits and the adult Eysenck personality questionnaire in adolescent Australian twins [corrected].[Erratum appears in Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma) 1993;42(2):185]. Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma) 41(4):311–324Google Scholar
  19. Hughes JR (1986) Genetics of smoking: a brief review. Behav Ther 17(4):335–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE (2005) Monitoring the future national results on adolescent drug use: overview of key findings, 2004 (NIH Publication No. 05–5726). National Institute on Drug Abuse, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  21. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Sullivan P, Corey LA, Gardner CO, Prescott CA (1999) A population-based twin study in women of smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. Psychol Med 29(2):299–308CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Koopmans JR, van Doornen LJ, Boomsma DI (1997) Association between alcohol use and smoking in adolescent and young adult twins: a bivariate genetic analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 21(3):537–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Koopmans JR, Slutske WS, Heath AC, Neale MC, Boomsma DI (1999) The genetics of smoking initiation and quantity smoked in Dutch adolescent and young adult twins. Behav Genet 29(6):383–393CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Korhonen T, Latvala A, Dick D, Pulkkinen L, Rose R, Kaprio J, Huizink A (2012) Genetic and environmental influences underlying externalizing behaviors, cigarette smoking and illicit drug use across adolescence. Behav Genet 42(4):614–625CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Li MD, Cheng R, Ma JZ, Swan GE (2003) A meta-analysis of estimated genetic and environmental effects on smoking behavior in male and female adult twins. Addiction 98(1):23–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Maes HH, Woodard CE, Murrelle L, Meyer JM, Silberg JL, Hewitt JK, Rutter M, Simonoff E, Pickles A, Carbonneau R, Neale MC, Eaves LJ (1999) Tobacco, alcohol and drug use in eight- to sixteen-year-old twins: the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. J Stud Alcohol 60(3):293–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Maes HH, Sullivan PF, Bulik CM, Neale MC, Prescott CA, Eaves LJ, Kendler KS (2004) A twin study of genetic and environmental influences on tobacco initiation, regular tobacco use and nicotine dependence. Psychol Med 34(7):1251–1261CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Maes HH, Neale MC, Kendler KS, Martin NG, Heath AC, Eaves LJ (2006) Genetic and cultural transmission of smoking initiation: an extended twin kinship model. Behav Genet 36(6):795–808CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Markon KE, Krueger RF (2004) An empirical comparison of information-theoretic selection criteria for multivariate behavior genetic models. Behav Genet 34(6):593–610CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Martin N, Boomsma D, Machin G (1997) A twin-pronged attack on complex traits. Nat Genet 17:387–392CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Mayhew K, Flay BR, Mott JA (2000) Stages in the development of adolescent smoking. Drug Alcohol Depend 59(Suppl 1):S61–S81CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. McGue M, Elkins I, Iacono WG (2000) Genetic and environmental influences on adolescent substance use and abuse. Am J Med Genet 96(5):671–677CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Neale MC, Cardon LR (1992) Methodology for genetic studies of twins and families. Kluwer Academics, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Neale MC, Roysamb E, Jacobson K (2006) Multivariate genetic analysis of sex limitation and G × E interaction. Twin Res Hum Genet 9(4):481–489CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. R Core Team (2013) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org. Accessed 11 April 2014
  36. Rende R, Slomkowski C, McCaffery J, Lloyd-Richardson EE, Niaura R (2005) A twin-sibling study of tobacco use in adolescence: etiology of individual differences and extreme scores. Nicotine Tob Res 7(3):413–419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Rhee SH, Hewitt JK, Young SE, Corley RP, Crowley TJ, Stallings MC (2003) Genetic and environmental influences on substance initiation, use, and problem use in adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60(12):1256–1264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Rijsdijk FV, Sham PC (2002) Analytic approaches to twin data using structural equation models. Brief Bioinform 3(2):119–133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Rose RJ, Broms U, Korhonen T, Dick DM, Kaprio J (2009) Genetics of smoking behavior. In: Kim Y-K (ed) Handbook of behavior genetics. Springer, New York, pp 411–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schepis TS, Rao U (2005) Epidemiology and etiology of adolescent smoking. Curr Opin Pediatr 17(5):607–612CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. South SC, Krueger RF (2011) Genetic and environmental influences on internalizing psychopathology vary as a function of economic status. Psychol Med 41(1):107–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Statistics Norway (1998-2008) Smoking habits [Statbank]. http://ssb.no/helse/statistikker/royk. Accessed 20 May 2013
  43. Sullivan PF, Kendler KS (1999) The genetic epidemiology of smoking. Nicotine Tob Res 1(Suppl 2):S51–S57CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Tuvblad C, Grann M, Lichtenstein P (2006) Heritability for adolescent antisocial behavior differs with socioeconomic status: gene–environment interaction. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 47(7):734–743CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2012) Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: a report of the surgeon general. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  46. Vedøy TF, Skretting A (2009) Ungdom og rusmidler: resultater fra spørreskjemaundersøkelser 1968-2008 [The use of alcohol and drugs among youth: results from surveys 1968-2008]. Statens institutt for rusmiddelforskning, OsloGoogle Scholar
  47. Vink JM, Boomsma DI (2011) Interplay between heritability of smoking and environmental conditions? A comparison of two birth cohorts. BMC Public Health 11(1):316CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Waaktaar T, Torgersen S (2012) Genetic and environmental causes of variation in trait resilience in young people. Behav Genet 42(3):366–377CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Waaktaar T, Torgersen S (2013) Self-efficacy is mainly genetic, not learned: a Multiple-Rater Twin Study on the causal structure of general self-efficacy in young people. Twin Res Hum Genet 16(3):651–660CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. White VM, Hopper JL, Wearing AJ, Hill DJ (2003) The role of genes in tobacco smoking during adolescence and young adulthood: a multivariate behaviour genetic investigation. Addiction 98(8):1087–1100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. WHO (2009) Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. World Health Organization, Geneva. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/global_health_risks/en/. Accessed 15 April 2013
  52. WHO (2011) WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic World Health Organization, Geneva. http://www.who.int/tobacco/global_report/2011/en/index.html. Accessed 20 May 2013
  53. Young SE, Rhee SH, Stallings MC, Corley RP, Hewitt JK (2006) Genetic and environmental vulnerabilities underlying adolescent substance use and problem use: general or specific? Behav Genet 36(4):603–615CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karoline Brobakke Seglem
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Trine Waaktaar
    • 2
  • Helga Ask
    • 1
    • 2
  • Svenn Torgersen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Eastern and Southern NorwayOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations