Advertisement

Behavior Genetics

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 592–602 | Cite as

A Longitudinal, Genetically Informative, Study of Associations Between Anxiety Sensitivity, Anxiety and Depression

  • Helena M. S. Zavos
  • Frühling V. Rijsdijk
  • Thalia C. Eley
Original Research

Abstract

The current study sought to examine the direction of influences on longitudinal associations between anxiety sensitivity, anxiety and depression. The continuity of genetic and environmental influences on these traits over adolescence was also investigated. Self reports of anxiety sensitivity, anxiety and depression were collected from approximately 1,300 twin and sibling pairs, on two occasions (mean ages 15 and 17). The direction and etiology of the associations between these traits were examined using longitudinal genetic cross-lagged models. All traits were stable over time and this stability accounted for the largest proportion of variance at time 2. There was, however, also evidence of reciprocal associations between variables over time. Genetic effects were fairly stable across time, although new genetic influences were evident at the second time point. Environmental effects tended to be more time specific. This study adds to our understanding of the direction of effects between anxiety sensitivity, anxiety and depression in adolescence, and the risks underlying their associations.

Keywords

Anxiety Depression Cognitive biases Twin studies 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The G1219 study was supported by the W T Grant Foundation, the University of London Central Research fund and a Medical Research Council Training Fellowship and Career Development Award to Thalia Eley. Wave 4 of the G1219 study was supported by a research grant from the UK Economic and Social Research Council (RES-000-22-2206) and a grant from the Institute of Social Psychiatry to Alice Gregory. Helena Zavos is supported by a Medical Research Council doctoral studentship. The authors declare no conflicts of interests. We thank the families for their participation as well as numerous staff and students from the Social Genetic Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, London and Goldsmiths, University of London.

Supplementary material

10519_2012_9535_MOESM1_ESM.doc (228 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 228 kb)

References

  1. Angold A, Costello EJ, Messer SC, Pickles A, Winder F, Silver D (1995) The development of the short questionnaire for use in epidemiological studies of depression in children and adolescents. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 5:1–12Google Scholar
  2. Angold A, Costello EJ, Erkanli A (1999a) Comorbidity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40:57–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angold A, Costello EJ, Farmer EM, Burns BJ, Erkanli A (1999b) Impaired but undiagnosed. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:129–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avenevoli S, Stolar M, Li J, Dierker L, Ries Merikangas K (2001) Comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents: models and evidence from a prospective high-risk family study. Biol Psychiatry 49:1071–1081PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benitez CI, Shea MT, Raffa S, Rende R, Dyck IR, Ramsawh HJ, Edelen MO, Keller MB, Benitez CIP, Shea MT, Raffa S, Rende R, Dyck IR, Ramsawh HJ, Edelen MO, Keller MB (2009) Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of the clinical course of panic disorder: a 1-year follow-up study. Depress Anxiety 26:335–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Birmaher B, Bridge JA, Williamson DE, Brent DA, Dahl RE, Axelson DA, Dorn LD, Ryan ND (2004) Psychosocial functioning in youths at high risk to develop major depressive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:839–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burt SA, McGue M, Krueger RF, Iacono WG (2005) How are parent–child conflict and childhood externalizing symptoms related over time? Results from a genetically informative cross-lagged study. Dev Psychopathol 17:145–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eley TC, Liang H, Plomin R, Sham P, Sterne A, Williamson R, Purcell S (2004) Parental familial vulnerability, family environment, and their interactions as predictors of depressive symptoms in adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:298–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Essau CA, Conradt J, Petermann F (2000) Frequency, comorbidity, and psychosocial impairment of anxiety disorders in German adolescents. J Anxiety Disord 14:263–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goodyer IM, Kolvin I, Gatzanis S (1987) The impact of recent undesirable life events on psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Br J Psychiatry 151:179–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grant DM, Beck JG, Davila J (2007) Does anxiety sensitivity predict symptoms of panic, depression, and social anxiety? Behav Res Ther 45:2247–2255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gregory AM, Rijsdijk FV, Lau JY, Dahl RE, Eley TC (2009) The direction of longitudinal associations between sleep problems and depression symptoms: a study of twins aged 8 and 10 years. Sleep 32:189–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hankin BL, Abramson LY, Moffitt TE, Silva PA, McGee R, Angell KE (1998) Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. J Abnorm Psychol 107:128–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kendler KS, Gardner CO, Annas P, Neale MC, Eaves LJ, Lichtenstein P (2008a) A longitudinal twin study of fears from middle childhood to early adulthood: evidence for a developmentally dynamic genome. Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:421–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kendler KS, Gardner CO, Lichtenstein P (2008b) A developmental twin study of symptoms of anxiety and depression: evidence for genetic innovation and attenuation. Psychol Med 38:1567–1575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kenny DA (1975) Cross-lagged panel correlation: a test for spuriousness. Psychol Bull 82:887–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (2005) Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:593–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kovacs M, Gatsonis C, Paulauskas SL, Richards C (1989) Depressive disorders in childhood. IV. A longitudinal study of comorbidity with and risk for anxiety disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 46:776–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Larsson H, Viding E, Rijsdijk FV, Plomin R (2008) Relationships between parental negativity and childhood antisocial behavior over time: a bidirectional effects model in a longitudinal genetically informative design. J Abnorm Child Psychol 36:633–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lau JY, Eley TC (2006) Changes in genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood. Br J Psychiatry 189:422–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lau JY, Rijsdijk F, Eley TC (2006) I think, therefore I am: a twin study of attributional style in adolescents. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 47:696–703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lewinsohn PM, Steinmetz JL, Larson DW, Franklin J (1981) Depression-related cognitions: antecedent or consequence? J Abnorm Psychol 90:213–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liang H, Eley TC (2005) A monozygotic twin differences study of nonshared environmental influence on adolescent depressive symptoms. Child Dev 76:1247–1260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meltzer H, Gatward R, Goodman R, Ford T (2000) Mental health of children and adolescents in Great Britain. The Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Moffitt TE, Harrington H, Caspi A, Kim-Cohen J, Goldberg D, Gregory AM, Poulton R (2007) Depression and generalized anxiety disorder: cumulative and sequential comorbidity in a birth cohort followed prospectively to age 32 years. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:651–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Muris P, Field AP (2008) Distorted cognition and pathological anxiety in children and adolescents. Cogn Emot 22:395–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Muris P, Schmidt H, Merckelbach H, Schouten E (2001) Anxiety sensitivity in adolescents: factor structure and relationships to trait anxiety and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression. Behav Res Ther 39:89–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Naragon-Gainey K (2010) Meta-analysis of the relations of anxiety sensitivity to the depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychol Bull 136:128–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Neale MC (1997) Mx: statistical modeling (Version 1.1). Department of Psychiatry, Box 710 MCV, Richmond, VA 23298Google Scholar
  30. Olatunji BO, Wolitzky-Taylor KB (2009) Anxiety sensitivity and the anxiety disorders: a meta-analytic review and synthesis. Psychol Bull 135:974–999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Parker G, Wilhelm K, Mitchell P, Austin MP, Roussos J, Gladstone G (1999) The influence of anxiety as a risk to early onset major depression. J Affect Disord 52:11–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Plehn K, Peterson RA (2002) Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of the development of panic symptoms, panic attacks, and panic disorder: a prospective study. J Anxiety Disord 16:455–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Plomin R, Defries JC, McClearn GE, McGuffin P (2008) Behavioural Genetics, 5th edn. Worth Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Rabian B, Embry L, MacIntyre D (1999) Behavioral validation of the childhood anxiety sensitivity index in children. J Clin Child Psychol 28:105–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schmidt NB, Lerew DR, Jackson RJ (1997) The role of anxiety sensitivity in the pathogenesis of panic: prospective evaluation of spontaneous panic attacks during acute stress. J Abnorm Psychol 106:355–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schmidt NB, Lerew DR, Joiner TE Jr (2000) Prospective evaluation of the etiology of anxiety sensitivity: test of a scar model. Behav Res Ther 38:1083–1095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schmidt NB, Keough ME, Mitchell MA, Reynolds EK, Macpherson L, Zvolensky MJ, Lejuez CW (2010) Anxiety sensitivity: prospective prediction of anxiety among early adolescents. J Anxiety Disord 24:503–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Silverman WK, Fleisig W, Rabian B, Peterson RA (1991) Childhood anxiety sensitivity index. J Clin Child Psychol 20:162–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Spence SH (1998) A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behav Res Ther 36:545–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Taylor S (1995) Anxiety sensitivity: theoretical perspectives and recent findings. Behav Res Ther 33:243–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zavos HM, Rijsdijk FV, Gregory AM, Eley TC (2010) Genetic influences on the cognitive biases associated with anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescents. J Affect Disord 124:45–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zinbarg RE, Brown TA, Barlow DH, Rapee RM (2001) Anxiety sensitivity, panic, and depressed mood: a reanalysis teasing apart the contributions of the two levels in the hierarchial structure of the anxiety sensitivity index. J Abnorm Psychol 110:372–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helena M. S. Zavos
    • 1
  • Frühling V. Rijsdijk
    • 1
  • Thalia C. Eley
    • 1
  1. 1.King’s College London, MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of PsychiatryLondonUK

Personalised recommendations