Lifestyle Modifies the Relationship Between Body Composition and Adrenergic Receptor Genetic Polymorphisms, ADRB2, ADRB3 and ADRA2B: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Physical Activity Among Postmenopausal Women
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Genetic variations in the adrenergic receptor (ADR) have been associated with body composition in cross-sectional studies. Recent findings suggest that ADR variants may also modify body composition response to lifestyle. We assessed the role of ADR variants in body composition response to 12 months of resistance training versus control in previously sedentary postmenopausal women. Randomized trial completers were genotyped for A2B Glu9/12 by fragment length analysis, and B2 Gln27Glu and B3 Trp64Arg by TaqMan (n = 148, 54% hormone therapy users). Associations between genotypes and body composition, by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, were analyzed using univariate models. There was no main effect of individual genes on change in body composition, however, gene × exercise interactions were observed for A2B Glu9/12 and B2 Gln27Glu on change in lean soft tissue (LST, p = 0.02); exercisers on the A2B Glu9− background gained LST compared to a loss among controls over 12 months (p < 0.05), with no significant intervention effect on the A2B Glu9+ background. Similarly, there was a significant LST gain with exercise on the B2 Glu27+ background compared to loss among controls and no intervention effect on the B2 Glu27− background. A non-significant association between total body fat (TBF) and B3 Trp64Arg persisted among sedentary controls only when intervention groups were separated (%TBF gain with B3 Arg64+ carriage, p = 0.03); exercisers lost TBF regardless of genotype. In summary, effect modification by lifestyle was demonstrated on ADRA2B, B2, and B3 genetic backgrounds. Individuals with certain ADR genotypes may be more vulnerable to adverse changes in body composition with sedentary behavior, thus these candidate genes warrant further study.
KeywordsBody composition Lean soft tissue Resistance training Adrenergic receptor Post-menopausal women Genetics
This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health Grant AR39559 and the 2005 Gatorade Sports Science Institute Student Grant Award. Calcium supplements and Scope mouthwash were donated by Mission Pharmacal and Proctor and Gamble, respectively. We thank Betsy Wertheim and Elizabeth Jacobs for their critical review of the manuscript and participants and staff of the Bone Estrogen and Strength Training Study. We also thank Dr. Michael Hogan and staff for the use of their equipment and genotyping expertise. The supporters of this research will not benefit from the results of the present study.
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