Behavior Genetics

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 234–246

Do Schools Moderate the Genetic Determinants of Smoking?

  • Jason D. Boardman
  • Jarron M. Saint Onge
  • Brett C. Haberstick
  • David S. Timberlake
  • John K. Hewitt
Original Research

Abstract

This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the extent to which school-level social and institutional factors moderate genetic tendencies to smoke cigarettes. Our analysis relies on a sub-sample of 1,198 sibling and twin pairs nested within 84 schools. We develop a multilevel modeling extension of regression-based quantitative genetic techniques to calculate school-specific heritability estimates. We show that smoking onset (h2 = .51) and daily smoking (h2 = .58) are both genetically influenced. Whereas the genetic influence on smoking onset is consistent across schools, we show that schools moderate the heritability of daily smoking. The heritability of daily smoking is the highest within schools in which the most popular students are also smokers and reduced within schools in which the majority of the students are non-Hispanic and white. These findings make important contributions to the literature on gene-environment interactions.

Keywords

Smoking Twins Schools Gene-environment interaction 

References

  1. Alexander C, Piazza M, Mekos D, Valente T (2001) Peers, schools, and adolescent cigarette smoking. J Adolescent Health 29:22–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becker MH (1970) Sociometric location and innovativeness: reformulation and extension of the diffusion model. Am Sociol Rev 35:267–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Breslau N, Johnson EO, Hiripi E, Kessler R (2001) Nicotine dependence in the United States—prevalence, trends, and smoking persistence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:810–816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carmelli D, Swan GE, Robinette D, Fabsitz R (1992) Genetic influence on smoking: a study of male twins. N Engl J Med 327:829–833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caspi A, Sugden K, Moffitt TE, Taylor A, Craig IW, Harrington HL, McClay J, Mill J, Martin J, Braithwaite A, Poulton R (2003) Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science 301:386–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chantala K, Tabor J (2004) Strategies to perform a design-based analysis using the add health. http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/files/weight1.pdf. Accessed 31 July 2007
  7. Chantala K, Blanchette D, Suchindran C (2006) Software to compute sampling weights for multilevel analysis. http://www.cpc.unc.edu/restools/data_analysis/ml_sampling_weights. Accessed 31 July 2007
  8. Cleveland HH, Wiebe RP, Rowe DC (2005) Source of exposure to smoking and drinking friends among adolescents: a behavioral-genetic evaluation. J Genet Psychol 166(2):153–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Deater-Deckard K, Mayr U (2005) Cognitive change in aging: identifying gene-environment correlation and nonshared environment mechanisms. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 60:24–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. DeFries JC, Fulker DW (1985) Multiple-regression analysis of twin data. Behav Genet 15:467–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duster T (2006) Comparative perspectives and competing explanations: taking on the newly configured reductionist challenge to sociology. Am Sociol Rev 71:1–15Google Scholar
  12. Eitle DJ, Eitle TM (2004) School and county characteristics as predictors of school rates of drug, alcohol, and tobacco offenses. J Health Soc Behav 45:408–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ellickson PL, Bird CE, Orlando M, Klein DJ, McCaffrey DF (2003) Social context and adolescent health behavior: does school-level smoking prevalence affect students’ subsequent smoking behavior? J Health Soc Behav 44:525–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Engels RCME, Vitarob F, Bloklandc EDE, de Kempa R, Scholte RHJ (2004) Influence and selection processes in friendships and adolescent smoking behaviour: the role of parental smoking. J Adolesc 27(5):531–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ennett ST, Bauman KE (1993) Peer group structure and adolescent cigarette smoking: a social network analysis. J Health Soc Behav 34:226–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ennett ST, Flewelling RL, Lindrooth RC, Norton EC (1997) School and neighborhood characteristics associated with school rates of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. J Health Soc Behav 38:55–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Falconer DS, Mackay TFC (1996) Introduction to quantitative genetics. Pearson-Prentice Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Finch CE, Vaupel JW, Kinsella K (eds) (2001) Cells and surveys: should biological measures be included in social science research? National Academies Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  19. Fisher RA (1958a) Lung cancer and cigarettes? Nature 182:108Google Scholar
  20. Fisher RA (1958b) Cancer and smoking. Nature 182:596Google Scholar
  21. Frank R (2001) The misuse of biology in demographic research on racial/ethnic differences: a reply to van den Oord and Rowe. Demography 38:563–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hall WPM, Lynskey M (2002) The genetics of tobacco use: methods, findings, and policy implications. Tob Control 11(2):119–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harris KM, Florey F, Tabor J, Bearman PS, Jones J, Udry JR (2003) The national longitudinal study of adolescent health: research design. http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/design. Accessed June 25, 2007
  24. Harris KM, Halpern CT, Smolen A, Haberstick BC (2006) The national longitudinal study of adolescent health (add health) twin data. Twin Res Hum Genet 9(6):988–997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hernandez LM, Blazer DG (eds) (2006) Genes, behavior, and the social environment: moving beyond the nature/nurture debate. National Academies Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  26. Hewitt JK, Turner JR (1995) Behavior genetic approaches in behavioral medicine: an introduction. In: Turner JR, Cardon LR, Hewitt JK (eds), Behavior genetic approaches in behavioral medicine. Plenum Press, New York, pp 3–13Google Scholar
  27. Hill D (1971) Peer group conformity in adolescent smoking and its relationship to affiliation and autonomy needs. Aust J Psychol 23(2):189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hill KG, Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Abbott RD, Guo J (2005) Family influences on the risk of daily smoking initiation. J Adolescent Health 37(3):202–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hrubec Z, Robinette CD (1984) The study of human twins in medical research. N Engl J Med 310:435–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hu M-C, Davies M, Kandel DB (2006) Epidemiology and correlates of daily smoking and nicotine dependence among young adults in the United States. Am J Public Health 96:299–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jaffee SR, Price TS (2007) Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Mol Psychiatry 12:432–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Jessor R, Jessor SL (1997) Problem behavior and psychosocial development: a longitudinal study of youth. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Johnson RA, Hoffmann JP (2000) Adolescent cigarette smoking in U.S. racial/ethnic subgroups: findings from the national education longitudinal study. J Health Soc Behav 41:392–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Johnston TD, Edwards L (2002) Genes, interactions, and the development of behavior. Psychol Rev 109:26–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kandel DB, Kiros G-E, Schaffran C, Hu M-C (2004) Racial/ethnic differences in cigarette smoking initiation and progression to daily smoking: a multi-level analysis. Am J Public Health 94(1):128–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kendler KS, Gardner Jr CO (1998) Twin studies of adult psychiatric and substance dependence disorders: are they biased by differences in the environmental experiences of monozygotic and dizygotic twins in childhood and adolescence? Psychol Med 28:625–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kendler KS, Thornton LM, Pedersen NL (2000) Tobacco consumption in swedish twins reared apart and reared together. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:886–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kendler KS, Gardner CO, Jacobson CC, Neale MC, Prescott CA (2005) Genetic and environmental influences on illicit drug use and tobacco use across birth cohorts. Psychol Med 35:1349–1356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Koopmans JR, Slutske WS, van Baal GCM, Boomsma DI (1999) The influence of religion on alcohol use initiation: evidence for genotype X environment interaction. Behav Genet 29:573–3297Google Scholar
  40. Kozol J (1991) Savage inequalities: children in America’s schools. Crown Publishers, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Leatherdale ST, Brown S, Cameron R, McDonald PW (2005) Social modeling in the school environment, student characteristics, and smoking susceptibility: A multi-level analysis. J Adolescent Health 37(4):330–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Li MD, Cheng R, Ma JZ, Swan GE (2003) A meta-analysis of estimated genetic and environmental effects on smoking behavior in male and female adult twins. Addiction 98:23–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Link BG, Phelan J (1995) Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. J Health Soc Behav 35:80–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Maes HH, Woodard CE, Murrelle L, Meyer JM, Silberg JL, Hewitt JK, Rutter M, Simonoff E, Pickles A, Carbonneau R, Neale MC, Eaves LJ (1999) Tobacco, alcohol and drug use in eight- to sixteen-year-old twins: the virginia twin study of adolescent behavioral development. J Stud Alcohol 60:293–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Massey DS, Denton N (1993) American apartheid: segregation and the making of the underclass. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  46. Neale MC, Boker SM, Gary X, Maes HH (2003) Mx: statistical modeling, 6th edn. Department of Psychiatry, VCU Box 900126, Richmond, VA 23298Google Scholar
  47. Pampel FC (2002) Inequality, diffusion, and the status gradient in smoking. Soc Probl 49:35–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pampel FC, Rogers RG (2004) Socioeconomic status, smoking, and health: a test of competing theories of cumulative advantage. J Health Soc Behav 45:306–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Perrin AJ, Lee H (2007) The undertheorized environment: sociological theory and the ontology of behavioral genetics. Sociol Perspect 50(2):303–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pokomy SB, Jason LA, Schoeny ME (2004) Current smoking among young adolescents: assessing school-based contextual norms. Tob Control 13:301–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Posthuma D, Leo Beem A, de Geus EJC, van Baal GCM, von Hjelmborg JB, Iachine I, Boomsma DI (2003) Theory and practice in quantitative genetics. Twin Res 6(5):361–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Purcell S (2002) Variance components models for gene-environment interaction in twin analysis. Twin Res 5:554–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Purcell S, Sham PC (2003) A model-fitting implementation of the DeFries-Fulker model for selected twin data. Behav Genet 33:271–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rabe-Hesketh S, Skrondal A (2005) Multilevel and longitudinal modeling using STATA. Stata Press, College StationGoogle Scholar
  55. Rende R, Slomkowski C, Lloyd-Richardson E, Niaura R (2005) Sibling effects on substance use in adolescence: social contagion and genetic relatedness. J Fam Psychol 19(4):611–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Shanahan MJ, Hofer SM (2005) Social context in gene-environment interactions: retrospect and prospect. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 60:65–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Slomkowski C, Rende R, Novak S, Lloyd-Richardson E, Niaura R (2005) Sibling effects on smoking in adolescence: evidence for social influence from a genetically informative design. Addiction 100(4):430–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sullivan PF, Kendler KS (1999) The genetic epidemiology of smoking. Nicotine Tob Res 1:S51-S57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Swan GE, Hudmon KS, Jack LM, Hemberger K, Carmelli D, Khroyan TV, Ring HZ, Hops H, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, McBride D, Benowitz N, Webster C, Wilhelmsen KC, Feiler HS, Koenig B, Caron L, Illes J, Cheng LS-C (2003) Environmental and genetic determinants of tobacco use: methodology for a multidisciplinary, longitudinal family-based investigation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:994–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Timberlake DS, Rhee SH, Haberstick BC, Hopfer C, Ehringer M, Lessem JM, Smolen A, Hewitt JK (2006) The moderating effects of religiosity on the genetic and environmental determinants of smoking initiation. Nicotine Tob Res 8:123–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Turkheimer E, Haley A, Waldron M, D’Onofrio B, Gottesman II (2003) Socioeconomic status modifies heritability of IQ in young children. Psychol Sci 14:623–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Udry JR (2003) The national longitudinal study of adolescent health (add health), waves I & II, 1994–1996; wave III, 2001–2002 [machine-readable data file and documentation]. Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel HillGoogle Scholar
  63. Valente TW, Unger JB, Johnson CA (2005) Do popular students smoke? The association between popularity and smoking among middle school students. J Adolescent Health 37:323–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zuberi T (2001a) One step back in understanding racial differences in birth weight. Demography 38:569–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zuberi T (2001b) Thicker than blood: an essay on how racial statistics lie. University of Minnesota Press, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason D. Boardman
    • 1
  • Jarron M. Saint Onge
    • 2
  • Brett C. Haberstick
    • 3
  • David S. Timberlake
    • 4
  • John K. Hewitt
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Population Program, Institute of Behavioral ScienceUniversity of Colorado at BoulderBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Behavioral GeneticsUniversity of Colorado at BoulderBoulderUSA
  4. 4.Health Sciences and Public HealthUniversity of California at IrvineIrvineUSA
  5. 5.Department of Psychology and Institute for Behavioral GeneticsUniversity of Colorado at BoulderBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations