Behavior Genetics

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 76–81 | Cite as

Are Vertical Behaviour Patterns Related to the Pantophysin Locus in the Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.)?

  • Christophe PampoulieEmail author
  • Klara B. Jakobsdóttir
  • Guðrún Marteinsdóttir
  • Vilhjálmur Thorsteinsson
Original Paper


Throughout their geographic distribution, marine fish species often form subpopulations with limited connectivity, among which individuals display a variety of migratory behaviours. Fish behaviour experiments using Data Storage Tags (DSTs) have been useful to define the natural movement of individuals. In Icelandic waters, such experiments have indicated the presence of two distinct behaviour types of the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, related to vertical migrations and habitat choice in feeding migrations. Some individuals have been shown to stay most of the time in shallow waters characterised by the seasonal trend in temperature for the shelf waters, while other migrate to deeper and colder waters where most of them forage in temperature fronts characterized by highly variable temperatures. The analysis of the pantophysin locus (Pan I) of the same individuals revealed that individuals carrying the Pan IAA genotype are likely to display a shallow water feeding migrations while individuals carrying the Pan IBB genotype preferred deeper waters and forage near thermal fronts. The heterozygote exhibited both type of behaviours. This study therefore suggests that further research need to be done on the pantophysin locus and its potential effects on cod phenotypes to assess the potential relationship between this locus and the behavioural types described.


Cod Gadus morhua Tagging experiments DST Pan I locus Behaviour Vertical migration 



This research has been carried out under the METACOD (Q5RS-2001-00953) and CODYSSEY (Q5RS-2002-00813) EU-projects. We thank all crews of the vessels for sampling as well as researchers for their assistance with sampling. Special thanks are addressed to two anonymous referees for their useful comments.

Supplementary material

10519_2007_9175_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.4 mb)
(DOC 1454 kb)


  1. Arnold G, Dewar H (2000) Electronic tags in marine fisheries research: a 30-year perspective. Symposium on Tagging and tracking marine fish with electronic devices: HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  2. Brooks CC, Scherer PE, Cleveland K, Whittmore JL, Lodish HF, Cheatham B (2000) Pantophysin is a phosphoprotein component of adipocyte transport vesicles and associates with GLUT4-containing vesicles. J Biol Chem 275:2029–2036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Case RAJ, Hutchinson WF, Hauser L, Van oosterhout C, Carvalho GR (2005) Macro- and micro-geographic variation in pantophysin (Pan I) allele frequencies in NE Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 301:267–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Case RAJ, Hutchinson WF, Hauser L, Buehler V, Clemmesen C, Dahle G, Kjesbu OS, Moksness E, Ottera H, Paulsen H, Svasand T, Thorsen A, Carvalho GR (2006) Association between growth and the Pan I genotype within the Atlantic cod full-sibling families. Trans Am Fish Soc 135:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Bono M, Bargmann CI (1998) Natural variation in a neuropeptide Y receptor homolog modifies social behavior and food response in C. elegans. Cell 94:679–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fitzpatrick MJ, Ben-Shahar Y, Smid HM, Vat LEM, Robinson GE, Sokolowski MB (2005) Candidate genes for behavioural ecology. Trends Ecol Evol 20:96–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jakobsen T (1987) Coastal cod in Northern Norway. Fish Res 5:223–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jónsdóttir IG, Campana SE, Marteinsdóttir G (2006a) Otolith shape and temporal stability of spawning groups of Icelandic cod (Gadus morhua L.). ICES J Mar Sci 63:1501–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jónsdóttir IG, Campana SE, Marteinsdóttir G (2006b) Stock structure of Icelandic cod Gadus morhua L. based on otolith chemistry. J Fish Biol 69:136–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jónsdóttir ÓDB, Daníelsdóttir AK, Naedval G (2001) Genetic differentiation among Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) in Icelandic waters: temporal stability. ICES J Mar Sci 58:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jónsdóttir ÓDB, Imsland AK, Daníelsdóttir AK, Marteinsdóttir G (2002) Genetic heterogeneity and growth properties of different genotypes of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) at two spawning sites off south Iceland. Fish Res 55:37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jónsdóttir ÓDB, Imsland AK, Daníelsdóttir AK, Thorsteinsson V, Marteinsdóttir G (1999) Genetic differentiation among Atlantic cod in south and south-east Icelandic waters: synaptophysin (Syp I) and haemoglobin (HBI) variation. J Fish Biol 54:1259–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Karlsson S, Mork J (2003) Selection-induced variation at the pantophysin locus (Pan I) in a Norwegian fjord population of cod (Gadus morhua L.). Mol Ecol 12:3265–3274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Marcil J, Swain DP, Hutchings JA (2006) Genetic and environmental components of phenotypic variation in body shape among populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Biol J Linn Soc 88:351–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Neat FC, Wright PJ, Zuur AF, Gibb IM, Gibb FM, Tulett D, Righton DA, Turner RJ (2006) Residency and depth movements of a coastal group of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Mar Biol 148:643–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nordeide JT (1998) Coastal cod and northeast Arctic cod: do they mingle at the spawning ground of Lofoten? Sarsia 83:373–379Google Scholar
  17. Owens IPF (2006) Where is behavioural ecology going? Trends Ecol Evol 21:356–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pálsson ÓK, Thorsteinsson V (2003) Migration patterns, ambient temperature, and growth of Icelandic cod (Gadus morhua): evidence from storage tag data. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 60:1409–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pampoulie C, Ruzzante DE, Chosson V, Jörundsdóttir TD, Taylor L, Thorsteinsson V, Daníelsdóttir AK, Marteinsdóttir G (2006) The genetic structure of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) around Iceland: insight from microsatellites, the Pan I locus, and tagging experiments. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63:2660–2674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pogson GH, Fevolden SE (2003) Natural selection and the genetic differentiation of coastal and Arctic populations of the Atlantic cod in northern Norway: a test involving nucleotide sequence variation at the pantophysin (Pan I) locus. Mol Ecol 12:63–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pogson GH, Mesa KA (2004) Positive Darwinian selection at the pantophysin (Pan I) locus in marine gadid Fishes. Mol Biol Evol 21:65–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Raymond R, Rousset F (1995) GENEPOP. Version 3.1. Population genetic software for exact tests and ecumenism. J Hered 86:248–249Google Scholar
  23. Robichaud D, Rose GA (2004) Migratory behaviour and range in Atlantic cod: inference from a century of tagging. Fish Fish 5:185–214Google Scholar
  24. Sarvas TH, Fevolden SE (2005) Pantophysin (Pan I) locus divergence between inshore v. offshore and northern v. southern populations of Atlantic cod in the North-east Atlantic. J Fish Biol 67:444–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Semsar K, Kandel FLM, Godwin J (2001) Manipulations of the AVT system shift social status and related courtship and aggressive behavior in the bluehead wrasse. Horm Behav 40:21–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Siegel S (1956) Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Skarstein JI, Westgaard JI, Fevolden SE (2007) Comparing microsatellite variation in north-east Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) to genetic structuring as revealed by the Pantophysin (Pan I) locus. J Fish Biol 70:271–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. StatSoft Inc (2001) STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 6. Statsoft Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma.
  29. Svedang H, Svenson A (2006) Cod Gadus morhua L. populations as behavioural units: inference from time series on juvenile abundance in the eastern Skagerrak. J Fish Biol 69:151–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Terai Y, Seehausen O, Sasaki T, Takahashi K, Mizoiri S, Sugawara T, Sato T, Watanabe M, Konijnendijk N, Mrosso HD, Tachida H, Imai H, Shichida Y, Okada N (2006) Divergent selection on opsins drives incipient speciation in Lake Viktoria cichlids. PloS Biol 4:e433–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thorsteinsson V (2002) Tagging methods for stock assessment and research in fisheries. Report of concerted action FAIR CT.96.1394 (CATAG). Reykjavik. Marine Research Institute Technical Report (79), p 179Google Scholar
  32. Thorsteinsson V, Sæmundsson K (2006) Vertical distribution and variable mortality rates of adult cod (Gadus morhua) in Icelandic waters. ICES CM 2006/Q:10Google Scholar
  33. Walsh PS, Metzger DA, Higuchi R (1991) Chelex 100 as a medium for simple extraction of DNA for PCR-based typing from forensic material. Biotechniques 10:506–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Windoffer R, Borchert-Stuhltrager M, Haass NK, Thomas S, Hergt M, Bulitta CJ, Leube RE (1999) Tissue expression of the vesicle protein pantophysin. Cell Tissue Res 296:499–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wright D, Nakamichi R, Krause J, Butlin RK (2006) QTL analysis of behavioral and morphological differentiation between wild and laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio) Behav Genet 36:271–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christophe Pampoulie
    • 1
    Email author
  • Klara B. Jakobsdóttir
    • 1
  • Guðrún Marteinsdóttir
    • 2
  • Vilhjálmur Thorsteinsson
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine Research InstituteReykjavikIceland
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of IcelandReykjavikIceland

Personalised recommendations