Behavior Genetics

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 498–506 | Cite as

Relationship between Adolescent Marijuana Use and Young Adult Illicit Drug Use

  • Jeffrey M. LessemEmail author
  • Christian J. Hopfer
  • Brett C. Haberstick
  • David Timberlake
  • Marissa A. Ehringer
  • Andrew Smolen
  • John K. Hewitt


We examined three components of the “gateway theory” in relation to marijuana use: (1) whether adolescent marijuana use predicts young adult drug use, (2) whether this association persists when controlling for similar family background, (3) whether common genetic or environmental factors contribute to the association. The three components were tested in adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health assessed twice during adolescence and then re-interviewed 5 years later. Component 1 was tested in 18,286 subjects, component 2 in sibling pairs (n=360) discordant for marijuana use, and component 3 in a genetically informative sub-sample (n=4846). Marijuana use was defined as any use during adolescence, and drug use was defined as self-reported past year use of other illicit drugs besides marijuana. Marijuana users were twice as likely to use illicit drugs as young adults than non-users. Shared environmental factors mediated much of the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and young adult drug use. The association remained, however, even when controlling for familial environmental and other measured factors.


Gateway theory genetics illicit drugs Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health marijuana 



The work was supported by P01-HD31921, DA000357, HD07289, AA07464, DA11015, EY 012562, DA015522, and AA015366.

This research uses data from Add Health, a program project designed by J. Richard Udry, Peter S. Bearman, and Kathleen Mullan Harris, and funded by a Grant P01-HD31921 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, with cooperative funding from 17 other agencies. Special acknowledgment is due Ronald R. Rindfuss and Barbara Entwisle for assistance in the original design. Persons interested in obtaining data from Add Health should contact Add Health, Carolina Population Center, 123 W. Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-2524 (


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey M. Lessem
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Christian J. Hopfer
    • 2
  • Brett C. Haberstick
    • 1
  • David Timberlake
    • 1
  • Marissa A. Ehringer
    • 1
  • Andrew Smolen
    • 1
  • John K. Hewitt
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Behavioral GeneticsUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Colorado Health Sciences CenterDenverUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Behavioral GeneticsUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

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