Advertisement

Shaking table tests of granite cladding with dowel pin connection

  • Baofeng Huang
  • Wensheng LuEmail author
  • Selim Günay
Original Research
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

Shaking table tests are conducted to investigate the seismic performance of new steel dowel-pinned granite claddings with two support systems. Standard and modified body anchors are used for installing the granite cladding system on opposite sides of a strong reinforced concrete tube fixed to the shaking table. One recorded ground motion (El Centro) and two artificial motions are applied as the input motions. The whole cladding system remained intact and almost no visible damage was observed for El Centro. However, the seismic responses of the cladding system under the effect of the artificial motions were larger. The dynamic response of the standard body anchors was larger than that of the modified ones. The maximum component amplification factors are larger than those specified in current code provisions. It is noted that the load bearing capacity of the body anchors determines the seismic performance of the global granite cladding system. Therefore, additional measures should be taken to guarantee the required seismic capacity of the stone cladding system by using the proposed steel dowel pin connections.

Keywords

Dowel pin Granite cladding Shaking table Performance level Component acceleration amplification 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grants # 51608381, 51578411, and 51578405), Ministration of Science and Technology (Grants # 2016YFE0105600, and 2018YFC0705701), and International Joint Research Laboratory of Earthquake Engineering (ILEE) (Grant # ILEE-IJRP-P2-P3-2017). The authors thank Dr. Roik, Mr. Isaac Li, and other team members of Halfen Co., for valuable test specimens.

References

  1. American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA). AAMA 501.6-18 (2018) Recommended dynamic test method for determining the seismic drift causing glass fallout from window wall, curtain wall and storefront systems. AAMA, SchaumburgGoogle Scholar
  2. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) (2017) Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures. ASCE/SEI 7-16, RestonGoogle Scholar
  3. Ancheta TD, Darragh RB, Stewart JP, Seyhan E, Silva WJ, Chiou BSJ, Wooddell KE, Graves RW, Kottke AR, Boore DM, Kishida T, Donahue JL (2013) PEER NGA-West2 Database. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Centre, Report No. PEER 2013/03, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold C (2016) Seismic safety of the building envelope. http://www.wbdg.org/resources/seismic-safety-building-envelope. Accessed 8 Jan 2017
  5. Baird A, Palermo A, Pampanin S (2011) Façade damage assessment if multi-storey buildings in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Bull N Z Soc Earthq Eng 44(4):368–376Google Scholar
  6. Beijing Municipal Commission of Housing and Urban-rural Development (BMCHUD) (2007) Technical specification for application of stone in decoration. China Architecture & Building Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  7. Belleri A, Brunesi E, Nascimbene R, Pagani M, Riva P (2015) Seismic performance of precast industrial facilities following major earthquakes in the Italian territory. J Perform Constr Facil.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)cf.1943-5509.0000617 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belleri A, Torquati M, Marino A, Riva P (2016) Horizontal cladding panels: in-plane seismic performance in precast concrete buildings. Bull Earthq Eng 14(4):1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. British Standard Institution (BSI) (1994) Code of practice for design and installation of natural stone cladding and lining. BS 8298:1994, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruneau M, Reinhorn A (2006) Overview of the resilience concept, Paper No. 2040. In: Proceedings, 8th US national conference on earthquake engineering, 18–22 April, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  11. Camposinhos RS (2014) Stone cladding engineering. Springer, New York, p 103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Camposinhos RS, Camposinhos RPA (2009) Dimension-stone cladding design with dowel anchorage. Proc ICE Constr Mater 162(3):95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. China Academy of Building Research (CABR) (2001) Technical code for metal and stone curtain walls engineering. China Architecture & Building Press, Beijing, p 27 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  14. Chopra AK (2016) Dynamics of structures, 5th edn. Pearson, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  15. Cimellaro GP, Renschler C, Reinhorn AM, Arendt L (2016) PEOPLES: a framework for evaluating resilience. J Struct Eng 142(10):04016063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cladding Research Institute (CRI) (1995) Literature review on seismic performance of building cladding systems. National Institute of Standards, Report No. NIST HCR 95–681, 30 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. European Committee for Standardization (ECS) (2005) Eurocode 3—design of steel structures—part 1–4: general rules—supplementary rules for stainless steels (EN 1993-1-4:2005). European Committee for Standardization, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  18. Farmer MC, Lyons SP (2000) Stone cladding failure: the cause and consequences. Second Forensic Engineering Congress, pp 472–481, San JuanGoogle Scholar
  19. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (2012) Seismic performance assessment of buildings volume 1—methodology (FEMA P-58-1). Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  20. Freedman S (ed) (2007) Architectural precast concrete. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI), ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  21. Goodno BJ, Craig JI (1998) Ductile cladding connection systems for seismic design. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Report No. NIST GCR 98-758, GaithersburgGoogle Scholar
  22. Goodno B, Craig J, Wolff AZ (1989) The Mexico earthquake of September 19, 1985-behavior of heavy cladding components. Earthq Spectra 5(1):195–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Günay S, Mosalam KM (2013) PEER performance based earthquake engineering methodology, revisited. J Earthq Eng 17(6):829–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huang B, Lu W (2019) Load bearing capacity testing of dowel pin anchorage in granite cladding. In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers—Structures and Buildings.  https://doi.org/10.1680/jstbu.18.00059
  25. Huang B, Chen S, Lu W, Mosalam KM (2017a) Seismic demand and experimental evaluation of the nonstructural building curtain wall: a review. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 100:16–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Huang B, Tan J, Ilovar N, Wang X (2017b) Shaking table testing of stone façade support. Report No. 20170221, State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil engineering (SLDRCE), Shanghai, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  27. Huang B, Lu W, Mosalam K (2018) Shaking table testing of granite cladding with undercut bolt anchorage. Eng Struct 171(2018):488–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. International Code Council Evaluation Service (ICC-ES) (2010) Acceptance criteria for seismic qualification by shake-table testing of nonstructural components and systems. AC156, Whittier, CAGoogle Scholar
  29. Ivorra S, Garcia-Barba J, Mateo M, Perez-Carraminana C, Macia A (2013) Partial collapse of a ventilated stone facade: diagnosis and analysis of the anchorage system. Eng Fail Anal 31:290–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lavelle FM, Bergman LA, Spanos PD (1988) Seismic floor response spectra for a combined system by Green’s function, NCEER 88-0011, National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, State University of New York at BuffaloGoogle Scholar
  31. Liberatore L, Sorrentino L, Liberatore D, Decanini LD (2013) Failure of industrial structures induced by the Emilia (Italy) 2012 earthquakes. Eng Fail Anal 34(8):629–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Loughran P (2007) Failed stone. Birkhäuser, Boston, p 30Google Scholar
  33. Lu W, Huang B, Mosalam KM, Chen S (2016) Experimental evaluation of a glass curtain wall of a tall building. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 45(1):1185–1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lu W, Huang B, Chen S, Mosalam KM (2017) Acceleration demand of the outer-skin curtain wall system of the Shanghai Tower. Struct Des Tall Spec Build.  https://doi.org/10.1002/tal.1341 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McMullin K, Ortiz M, Patel L, Yarra S, Kishimoto T, Stewart C, Steed B (2012) Response of exterior precast concrete cladding panels in NEES-TIPS/NEESGC/E-Defense tests on a full scale 5-story building. In: Proceedings of structures congress 2012, Chicago, IL., USA, 1305–1314Google Scholar
  36. Memari AM (2013) Curtain wall system: a primer. American Society of Civil Engineers, RestonGoogle Scholar
  37. Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural of the People’s Republic of China (MOHURD) (2016) Code for seismic design of buildings (GB 50011-2010). China Architecture & Building Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  38. Miranda E (1999) Approximate seismic lateral deformation demands in multistory buildings. J Struct Eng 125(4):417–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pantoli E (2016) Seismic behavior of architectural precast concrete cladding panels and connections. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  40. Pantoli E, Hutchinson TC (2019) Seismic accelerations in architectural precast concrete cladding. Eng Struct 180:742–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pantoli E, Hutchinson TC, McMullin KM, Underwood GA, Hildebrand MJ (2016) Seismic-drift-compatible design of architectural precast concrete cladding: tieback connections and corner joints. PCI J 61(4):38–52Google Scholar
  42. Pires V, Amaral PM, Rosa LG, Camposinhos RS (2011) Slate flexural and anchorage strength considerations in cladding design. Constr Build Mater 25(10):3966–3971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Porter KA, Ramer K (2012) Performance-based earthquake engineering method to estimate downtime in critical facilities, Paper No. 4504. In: Proceedings, 15th world conference on earthquake engineering, 24–28 September, 2012, LisbonGoogle Scholar
  44. Retamales R, Mosqueda G, Filiatrault A, Reinhorn A (2011) Testing protocol for experimental seismic qualification of distributed nonstructural systems. Earthq Spectra 27(3):835–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Roik M, Piesker C (2017) A concept for fixing ‘heavy’ facades in seismic zones. Paper No. 266. In: Proceedings, 16th world conference on earthquake engineering, 9–13 January, 2017, Santiago ChileGoogle Scholar
  46. Shanghai Association of Stone Materials (SASM) (2013) Technical code for application of stone in building decoration engineering (DG/TJ08-2134-2013). Tongji University, Shanghai (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  47. Shanghai Building Materials Industry Association (SBMIA) (2012) Technical code for building curtain wall (DGJ08-56-2012). Tongji University, Shanghai (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  48. Taly N (1988) The Whittier Narrows, California earthquake of October 1, 1987—performance of building at California State University, Los Angeles. Earthq Spectra 4(2):277–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Uzarski J, Arnold C (2001) Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake of September 21, 1999 Reconnaissance Report. Earthquake Spectra, vol. 17 (sup.), Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 82 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Civil EngineeringNanjing Tech UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Disaster Mitigation for StructuresTongji UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations