Advertisement

Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 17, Issue 11, pp 5809–5824 | Cite as

On the apparent viscosity of granular soils during liquefaction tests

  • Stefania Lirer
  • Lucia MeleEmail author
Original Research
  • 87 Downloads

Abstract

Liquefaction is a phenomenon marked by a rapid loss of soil strength and stiffness, which generally occurs in loose saturated sandy deposit during earthquake because of the generation of excess pore water pressure. Several experimental researches concluded that liquefied soil behaves as a fluid during ground movement, but after the earthquake motion ceases, due to the dissipation of excess pore water pressure and soil dilatancy, the liquefied soil recovers its initial stiffness and returns to behave as a solid. Such a change of state can be analysed by considering the soil as an equivalent visco-plastic material, characterized by an apparent viscosity (η) that changes during the cyclic loading. Following this approach, the authors analysed the results of some cyclic undrained triaxial tests carried out on reconstituted and undisturbed (frozen) specimens of sandy and gravelly soils in terms of apparent viscosity decay law (η-Ncyc), highlighting the relevance of η as physically based parameter for the correct identification of the liquefaction triggering. The experimental results confirm that the apparent viscosity decreases with the increase of the shear strain rate and highlight that the flow characteristics of liquefied soils (consistency coefficient and liquidity index) are affected by both grain size distributions and soil state conditions (relative density and confining stress).

Keywords

Soil liquefaction Apparent viscosity Undrained cyclic triaxial tests 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors greatly acknowledge prof. Alessandro Flora for his valuable suggestions and fruitful for the discussion on tests results and interpretation. This work was carried out as part of the European project Horizon 2020—Assessment and Mitigation of liquefaction potential across Europe: A holistic approach to protect structures infrastructures for improved resilience to earthquake—induced liquefaction disasters—“LIQUEFACT” (Grant Agreement No. 700748).

References

  1. Aydan O (1995) Mechanical and numerical modelling of lateral spreading of liquefied soil. In: Proceedings of 1st international conference on earth-geo engineering, vol 881886, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  2. Callisto L, Rampello S, Viaggiani GM (2013) Soil structure interaction for the seismic design of the Messina Strait Bridge. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 52(2013):103–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen Y, Liu H (2011) Simplified method of flow deformation induced by liquefied sands. In: Design, construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance of bridges, pp 160–167Google Scholar
  4. Chen YM, Liu HL, Zhou YD (2006) Analysis on flow characteristics of liquefied and post-liquefied sand. Chin J Geotech Eng 28(9):1139–1143Google Scholar
  5. Chen G, Zhou E, Wang Z, Wang B, Li X (2016) Experimental study on fluid characteristics of medium dense saturated fine sand in pre- and post-liquefaction. Bull Earthq Eng 14(8):2185–2212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Committee on Soil Dynamics of the Geotechnical Engineering Division (1978) Definition of terms related to liquefaction. J Geotech Eng 104(GT9):1120–1197Google Scholar
  7. Da Fonseca AV, Soares M, Fourie AB (2015) Cyclic DSS tests for the evaluation of stress densification effects in liquefaction assessment. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 75:98–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Finn WD, Pickering DJ, Bransby PL (1971) Sand liquefaction in triaxial and simple shear tests. J Soil Mech Found Div ASCE 97(SM4):639–659Google Scholar
  9. Flora A, Lirer S (2013) Small strain shear modulus of undisturbed gravelly soils during undrained cyclic triaxial tests. Geotech Geol Eng 31(4):1107–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Flora A, Lirer S, Silvestri F (2012) Undrained cyclic resistance of undisturbed gravelly soils. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 43:366–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hadush S, Yashima A, Uzuoka R (2000) Importance of viscous fluid characteristics in liquefaction induced lateral spreading analysis. Comput Geotech 27(3):199–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hamada M (2000) Performances of foundations against liquefaction-induced permanent ground displacements. In: Proceedings of 12th world conference on earthquake engineering, pp 1754–1761Google Scholar
  13. Hamada M, Wakamatsu K (1998) A study on ground displacement caused by soil liquefaction. Proc Jpn Soc Civ Eng 1998(596):189–208Google Scholar
  14. Huang YT, Huang AB, Kuo YC, Tsai MD (2004) A laboratory study on the undrained strength of a silty sand from Central Western Taiwan. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 24(9–10):733–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hwang JI, Kim CY, Chung CK, Kim MM (2006) Viscous fluid characteristics of liquefied soils and behavior of piles subjected to flow of liquefied soils. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 26(2–4):313–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ishihara K (1993) Liquefaction and flow failure during earthquakes. Geotechnique 43(3):351–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ishihara K, Yamazaki F (1980) Cyclic simple shear tests on saturated sand in multi-directional loading. Soils Found 20(1):45–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jefferies MG, Been K (2006) Soil liquefaction: a critical state approach. Taylor and Francis, RoutledgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kammerer A, Wu J, Riemer M, Pestana J, Seed R (2004) Shear strain development in liquefiable soil under bi-directional loading conditions. In: Proceedings of 13th world conference on earthquake engineering, Vancouver (Canada)Google Scholar
  20. Li Y, Yang Y, Yu HS, Roberts G (2016) Undraind soil behaviour under bidirectional shear. In: Proceedings of 4th GeoChina international conference, Shandong, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  21. Mele L, Tan TJ, Lirer S, Flora A, Koseki J (2018) Liquefaction resistance of unsaturated sands: experimental evidence and theoretical interpretation. Géotechnique.  https://doi.org/10.1680/jgeot.18.p.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mele L, Lirer S, Flora A (2019) The effect of confinement in liquefaction tests carried out in a cyclic simple shear apparatus. In: 7th International symposium on deformation characteristics of geomaterials, Glasgow (Scotland)Google Scholar
  23. Silver ML, Tatsuoka F, Phukunhaphan A, Avramidis AS (1980) Cyclic undrained strength of sand by triaxial test and simple shear test. In: Proceedings of 7th world conference on earthquake engineering, vol 3, pp 281–288Google Scholar
  24. Tanaka Y, Kokusho T, Yoshida Y, Kudo K (1991) A method for evaluating membrane compliance and system compliance in undrained cyclic shear tests. Soils Found 31(3):30–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Uzuoka R, Yashima A, Kawakami T, Konrad JM (1998) Fluid dynamics based prediction of liquefaction induced lateral spreading. Comput Geotech 22(3–4):243–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Verdugo R, Ishihara K (1996) The steady state of sandy soils. Soils Found 36(2):81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wu J, Kammerer AM, Riemer MF, Seed RB, Pestana JM (2004) Laboratory study of liquefaction triggering criteria. In: 13th World conference on earthquake engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Paper (No. 2580)Google Scholar
  28. Yamada Y, Ishihara K (1983) Undrained deformation characteristics of sand in multi-directional shear. Soils Found 23(1):61–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhou EQ, Lv C, Wang ZH, Chen GX (2014) Fluid characteristic of saturated sands under cyclic loading. In: Advances in soil dynamics and foundation engineering, pp 178–186Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Guglielmo MarconiRomeItaly
  2. 2.University of Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations