Advertisement

Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 17, Issue 9, pp 4855–4884 | Cite as

Official data on the economic consequences of the 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake: a first analysis of database SFINGE

  • Leonardo RossiEmail author
  • Britta Holtschoppen
  • Christoph Butenweg
Original Research

Abstract

In May 2012, a series of medium–high intensity earthquakes struck a highly industrialized area of central-northern Italy and in particular the Emilia-Romagna region. As a consequence, there were 28 casualties, numerous injuries, and vast damage to thousands of civil structures, infrastructures and industrial facilities. After that, the regional political authority, Regione Emilia-Romagna, spent billions of euro of state funding on reconstruction; as of 2018, almost EUR 1.9 billion was granted to business sector. In order to be able to fairly distribute financial aid to damaged productive facilities, a vast information system was created and data were stored in a database called SFINGE. Collected information regards losses, induced costs, reimbursements paid by the insurance companies, and money finally granted by the state. In this paper, we present the results of a study we conducted on the database; the requests for public funding were accessed and examined within a special scientific agreement between Regione Emilia-Romagna and RWTH Aachen University. Study results will be useful in predicting costs, economic losses and insurance refunds for business activities damaged by seismic events. Public authorities can learn too, as the paper presents a way of accounting consequences and granting public money that proved to work effectively. Finally, reported data can be included within the existing theoretical framework of Performance Based Earthquake Engineering, significantly contributing to the definition of seismic performance assessment tools.

Keywords

Earthquake consequences Seismic loss Assessment tools Industrial facilities Emilia-Romagna earthquake PBEE 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the European Commission with a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship action (Project Data ESPerT – ID 743458, 2017/2019). We also thank the Italian public institution Regione Emilia-Romagna, and its Struttura tecnica del Commissario delegato, Direzione generale economia della conoscenza, del lavoro e dell’impresa and Agenzia regionale per la ricostruzione, who greatly assisted us during both the research process and the preparation of this manuscript.

References

  1. ARR – Agenzia regionale per la ricostruzione - Sisma 2012 (2018) Analisi tecnico-economica della ricostruzione post sisma degli edifici produttivi, Centro Stampa Regione Emilia-Romagna, Bologna, Italy – ISBN 9788890737091 (in Italian)Google Scholar
  2. ATC – Applied Technology Council (2012) ATC-58 – Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings. Volumes 1-3, available at www.atcouncil.org. Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  3. Bliss CI (1934) The method of probits. Science 79(2037):38–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buratti N, Minghini F, Ongaretto E, Savoia M, Tullini N (2017) Empirical seismic fragility for the precast RC industrial Buildings damaged by the 2012 Emilia (Italy) earthquakes. Earth Eng Struct D 46:2317–2335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cattaneo M, Augliera P, De Luca G, Gorini A, Govoni A, Marcucci S, Michelini A, Monachesi G, Spallarossa D, Trojani L, XGUMS (2000) The 1997 Umbria-Marche (Italy) earthquake sequence: analysis of the data recorder by the local and temporary networks. J Seismol 4:401–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chiarabba C, De Gori P, Chiaraluce L, Bordoni P, Cattaneo M, De Martin M, Frepoli A, Michelini A, Monachesi A, Moretti M, Augliera GP, D’Alema E, Frapiccini M, Gassi A, Marzorati S, Di Bartolomeo P, Gentile S, Govoni A, Lovisa L, Romanelli M, Ferretti G, Pasta M, Spallarossa D, Zunino E (2005) Mainshocks and aftershocks of the 2002 Molise seismic sequence, southern Italy. J Seismol 9:487–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cimellaro GP, Chiriatti M, Reinhorn AM, Tirca L (2013) Emilia earthquake of May 20, 2012 in Northern Italy: rebuilding a community resilient to multiple hazard. Technical report MCEER-13-0006, Earthquake Engineering to Extreme Events, ISSN 1520-295XGoogle Scholar
  8. Cultrera G, Faenza L, Meletti C, D’Amico V, Michelini A, Amato A (2014) Shakemaps uncertainties and their effects in the post-seismic actions for the 2012 Emilia (Italy) Earthquakes. Bull Earthq Eng.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-013-9577-6 Google Scholar
  9. D’Ayala D, Dolce M (2011) Guest editorial: L’Aquila earthquake: seismic sequence of the 6th April 2009, Abruzzo, Italy. Bull Earthq Eng 9:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-010-9240-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. EUROSTAT, information available at https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat. Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  11. Freedman D, Diaconis P (1981) On the histogram as a density estimator: L2 theory. Probab Theory Related Fields 57(4):453–476.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01025868 Google Scholar
  12. Galli P, Castenetto S, Peronace E (2012) The MCS macroseismic survey of the 2012 Emilia earthquakes. Ann Geophys 55:663–672.  https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-6163 Google Scholar
  13. Gauss CF (1809) Theoria Motus Corporum Coelestium in Sectionibus Conicis Solem Ambientium. Lowfield Heath: Crawley, UKGoogle Scholar
  14. GLASCI – Gruppo di Lavoro Agibilità Sismica dei Capannoni Industriali (2012) Linee di indirizzo per interventi locali e globali su edifici industriali monopiano non progettati con criteri antisismici. Available at www.reluis.it (in Italian). Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  15. Homan J, Warren JE (2001) The 17 August 1999 Kocaeli (I˙zmit) Earthquake: historical records and seismic culture. Earthq Spectra 17(4):617–634.  https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1423654 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. INGV – Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (2009) Italian seismic hazard maps. Available at http://zonesismiche.mi.ingv.it. Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  17. INGV – Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (2015) Shakemaps. Available at http://shakemap.rm.ingv.it/shake/index.html
  18. INGV CNT – Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Centro Nazionale Terremoti (2018) Earthquake data. Available at http://cnt.rm.ingv.it/en. Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  19. ISTAT – Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (2018). Available at https://www.istat.it/. Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  20. ITL NIST – Information Technology Laboratory – National Institute of Technology (2012) Engineering statistics handbook. Available at https://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/. Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  21. Johnson G (1999) Refinery damage and emergency response in the 1999 Izmit, Turkey Earthquake. Available at www.slc.ca.gov. Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  22. Lauciani V, Faenza L, Michelini A (2012) ShakeMaps during the Emilia sequence. Ann Geophys 55:4.  https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-6160 Google Scholar
  23. Liberatore L, Sorrentino L, Liberatore D, Decanini L (2013) Failure of industrial structures induced by the Emilia (Italy) 2012 earthquakes. Eng Fail Anal 34:629–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Magliulo G, Ercolino M, Petrone C, Coppola O, Manfredi G (2014) The Emilia earthquake: seismic performance of precast reinforced concrete buildings. Earthq Spectra 30:891–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Massa L, Gubskaya AV, Knoll E (2011) Can one take the logarithm or the sine of a dimensioned quantity or a unit? Dimensional analysis involving transcendental functions. J Chem Educ 88(1):66–70.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ed1000476 Google Scholar
  26. Massey FJ (1951) The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test for goodness of fit. J Am Stat Assoc 46(253):68–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. MathWorks (2017) MatLab R2017a—Computer program and software documentation. Available at http:\\www.mathworks.com
  28. Meroni F, Squarcina T, Pessina V, Locati M, Modica M, Zoboli R (2017) A damage scenario for the 2012 Northern Italy Earthquakes and estimation of the economic losses to residential buildings. Int J Disaster Risk Sci 8:326–341.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13753-017-0142-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Michelini A, Faenza L, Lauciani V, Malagnini L (2008) ShakeMap Implementation in Italy. SRL 79(5):688–697.  https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.79.5.688 Google Scholar
  30. Minghini F, Ongaretto E, Ligabue V, Savoia M, Tullini N (2016) Observational failure analysis of precast buildings after the, Emilia earthquakes. Earthq Struct 11(2):327–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Miranda E, Aslani H (2003) Probabilistic response assessment for building-specific loss estimation. PEER, available at https://peer.berkeley.edu. Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  32. MIT – Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti (2008) Decreto Ministeriale del 14 gennaio 2008 - Nuove Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni. Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 29, 4 February 2008 (in Italian)Google Scholar
  33. Mollaioli F, AlShawa O, Liberatore L, Liberatore D, Sorrentino L (2018) Seismic demand of the 2016–2017 Central Italy earthquakes. Bull Earth Eng.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-018-0449-y Google Scholar
  34. Mucciarelli M, Liberatore D (2014) Guest editorial: the Emilia-Romagna 2012 earthquakes, Italy. Bull Earthq Eng 12:2111–2116.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-014-9629-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Papoulis A (1984) Probability, random variables, and stochastic processes, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 94Google Scholar
  36. Parisi F, De Luca F, Petruzzelli F, De Risi R, Chioccarelli E, Iervolino I (2012) Field inspection after the May 20th and 29th 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquakes. Available at http://wpage.unina.it/iuniervo/papers/Report_reluis_damages.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  37. Pres R E-R – Presidente della Regione Emilia-Romagna in Qualità di Commissario Delegato (2015) Ordinanza del 26 agosto 2015. Bollettino Ufficiale della Regione Emilia-Romagna n. 227 del 26 agosto 2015 (in Italian; attachment available in English)Google Scholar
  38. Pres RE-R – Presidente della Regione Emilia-Romagna in Qualità di Commissario Delegato (2012a) Linee Guida per la presentazione delle domande e le richieste di erogazione dei contributi previsti nell’Ordinanza N.57 e s.m.i. del 12 ottobre 2012 del Presidente in qualit`a di Commissario Delegato ai sensi dell’articolo 1, comma 2, del D.L. 74/2012 convertito con modificazioni. Available at www.regione.emilia-romagna.it (in Italian)
  39. Pres RE-R – Presidente della Regione Emilia-Romagna in Qualità di Commissario Delegato (2012b) Ordinanza n. 57 del 12 ottobre 2012. Available at www.regione.emilia-romagna.it (in Italian)
  40. Protezione Civile (2012) Data about on-site inspections. Available at http://www.protezionecivile.gov.it. Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  41. Ramirez CM, Miranda E (2009) Building-Specific Loss Estimation Methods & Tools for Simplified Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering, Report No. 171. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  42. R E-R – Regione Emilia-Romagna (2012a) Elenco Regionale dei Prezzi delle Opere Pubblice della Regione Emilia-Romagna - Art. 8 Legge Regionale N.11/2010 - Art. 133 Decreto Legislativo 163/2006. Available at www.regione.emilia-romagna.it (in Italian)
  43. R E-R – Regione Emilia-Romagna (2012b) FENICE. Available at https://www.regione.emilia-romagna.it/terremoto/fenice (in Italian). Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  44. R E-R – Regione Emilia-Romagna (2012c) MUDE. Available at https://www.regione.emilia-romagna.it/terremoto/mude-modello-unico-digitale-per-ledilizia (in Italian). Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  45. R E-R – Regione Emilia-Romagna (2012d) SFINGE. Available at https://www.regione.emilia-romagna.it/terremoto/sfinge (in Italian). Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  46. R E-R – Regione Emilia-Romagna (2013) Prezzario Regionale per Opere e Interventi in Agricoltura Adeguamento 2007. Available at www.regione.emilia-romagna.it (in Italian)
  47. R E-R – Regione Emilia-Romagna (2017) 2012–2017 L’Emilia dopo il sisma - Report su cinque anni di ricostruzione. Report, Agenzia regionale per la ricostruzione, Bologna (in Italian). Available at https://www.regione.emilia-romagna.it/terremoto/archivio/cinque-anni-di-ricostruzione/report-a-5-anni-dal-sisma (in Italian). Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  48. R E-R – Regione Emilia-Romagna (2018a) Open Ricostruzione. Available at https://openricostruzione.regione.emilia-romagna.it (in Italian). Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  49. R E-R – Regione Emilia-Romagna (2018b) 2012–2018 L’Emilia dopo il sisma – Report su sei anni di ricostruzione. Report, Agenzia regionale per la ricostruzione, Bologna (in Italian). Available at https://www.regione.emilia-romagna.it (in Italian). Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  50. Rossetto T, Alexander D, Verrucci E, Ioannou I, Borg R, Melo J, Cahill B, Kongar I (2012) The 20th May 2012 Emilia Romagna Earthquake - EPICentre Field Observation Report. UCL EPICentre, available at http://www.ucl.ac.uk. Accessed 8 Jan 2018
  51. Rossi L, Holtschoppen B, Butenweg C (2016) DatA ESPerT - database analysis for evaluation of seismic performance assessment tools. Available at http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/209755_en.html
  52. Savoia M, Mazzotti C, Buratti N, Ferracuti B, Bovo M, Ligabue V et al (2012) Damages and collapses in industrial precast buildings after the Emilia earthquake. Ingegneria Sismica 29:120–131Google Scholar
  53. Savoia M, Buratti N, Vincenzi L (2017) Damage and collapses in industrial precast buildings after the 2012 Emilia earthquake. Eng Struct 137:162–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Scognamiglio L, Margheriti L, Mele F, Tinti E, Bono A, De Gori P, Lauciani V, Lucente FP, Mandiello AG, Marcocci C, Mazza S, Pintore S, Quintiliani M (2012) The 2012 Pianura Padana Emiliana seimic sequence: location and magnitudes. Ann Geophys 55(4):549–559Google Scholar
  55. Sezen H, Elwood KJ, Whittaker AS, Mosalam KM, Wallace JW, Stanton JF (2000) Structural engineering reconnaissance of the August 17, 1999, Kocaeli (Izmit), Turkey, Earthquake. PEER Report 09Google Scholar
  56. VV AA (2013) SYNER-G: systemic seismic vulnerability and risk analysis for buildings, lifeline networks and infrastructures safety gain. European research project, available at http://www.vce.at. Accessed 8 Jan 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Baustatik und Baudynamik (LBB)RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  2. 2.SDA-engineering Ingenieurgesellschaft mbHHerzogenrathGermany
  3. 3.Center for Wind and Earthquake Engineering (CWE)RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations