Experimental and applied element modeling of masonry walls retrofitted with near surface mounted (NSM) reinforcing steel bars

  • Rajendra Soti
  • Andre R. BarbosaEmail author
Original Research


In this paper, unreinforced masonry (URM) and retrofitted masonry walls are modeled experimentally and computationally. The walls were subjected to in-plane loading to assess on the effectiveness of a retrofit solution that makes use of near surface mounted (NSM) reinforcing steel bars. A laboratory testing campaign was performed that included pull-out tests, diagonal compression tests, and in-plane cyclic tests of URM and NSM retrofitted physical models. The experimental results indicate that the NSM reinforcing steel bars are effective in improving the deformation capacity of the URM walls. A computational modeling approach that makes use of the applied element method is proposed and the computational results are validated using the experimental tests presented. Results from computational models indicate that a good correlation with the test results is achieved in terms of load-displacement response as well as failure mechanisms observed.


Applied element method (AEM) Cyclic testing Discrete crack Near surface mounted (NSM) reinforcing steel Retrofit Unreinforced masonry 



The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Cascadia Lifelines Program (CLiP) based at Oregon State University and additional funding provided by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for the laboratory testing and discussions with Dr. Leon Kempner. Additional support was provided by the Kearney Faculty Scholar Endowment fund. The authors are grateful to Applied Science International (ASI) for implementing the material models used here in the version 5.0 of ELS and the valuable discussions on AEM modeling with Dr. Hatem Tagel-Din and Dr. Ahmed Amir Khalil. The opinions and conclusions presented in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring organizations.


  1. Alam MS, Barbosa AR (2018) Probabilistic seismic demand assessment accounting for finite element model class uncertainty: application to a code-designed URM infilled reinforced concrete frame building. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 47(15):2901–2920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ASI (2017) Extreme loading for structures theoretical manual, v5 ed. Applied Science International (ASI), Durham, NCGoogle Scholar
  3. ASTM-C109 (2016) Standard test method for compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortars (using 2-in. or [50-mm] cube specimens). In: C109. ASTM, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  4. ASTM-C1314 (2016) Standard test method for compressive strength of masonry prisms. In: C1314-16. ASTM, Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  5. ASTM-C1437 (2015) Standard test method for flow of hydraulic cement mortar. In: C1437-15. ASTM, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  6. ASTM-C270 (2014) Standard specification for mortar for unit masonry. In: C270-14a. ASTM, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  7. ASTM-C67 (2016) Standard test methods for sampling and testing brick and structural clay tile. In: C67-16. ASTM, Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  8. ASTM-E8/E8M (2016) Standard test methods for tension testing of metallic materials. In: E8/E8M-16a. ASTM, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  9. Bajpai K, Duthinh D (2003) Flexural strengthening of masonry walls with external composite bars. Mason Soc J 21:69–80Google Scholar
  10. Barbosa AR, Fahnestock LA, Fick DR, Gautam D, Soti R, Wood R, Moaveni B, Stavridis A, Olsen MJ, Rodrigues H (2017) Performance of medium-to-high rise reinforced concrete frame buildings with masonry infill in the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake. Earthq Spectra 33(S1):S197–S218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benavent-Climent A, Ramirez-Márquez A, Pujol S (2018) Seismic strengthening of low-rise reinforced concrete frame structures with masonry infill walls: shaking-table test. Eng Struct 165(2):142–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berto L, Saetta A, Scotta R, Vitaliani R (2004) Shear behaviour of masonry panel: parametric FE analyses. Int J Solids Struct 41(16–17):4383–4405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brando G, Rapone D, Spacone E, O'Banion MS, Olsen MJ, Barbosa AR, Faggella M, Gigliotti R, Liberatore R, Russo S, Sorrentino L, Bose S, Stravidis A (2017) Damage reconnaissance of unreinforced masonry bearing wall buildings after the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, Earthquake. Earthq Spectra 33(S1):S243–S273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Casacci S, Gentilini C, Tommaso AD, Oliveira DV (2019) Shear strengthening of masonry wallettes resorting to structural repointing and FRCM composites. Constr Build Mater 206:19–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chalise B, Suwal R (2015) Seismic performance of masonry buildings during recent Gorkha earthquake in Nepal. In: International conference on innovation in structural engineering IC ISE 2015, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen SY, Moon FL, Yi T (2008) A macroelement for the nonlinear analysis of in-plane unreinforced masonry piers. Eng Struct 30(8):2242–2252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Corte GD, Fiorino L, Mazzolani, FM (2008) Lateral-loading tests on a real RC building including masonry infill panels with and without FRP strengthening. J Mater Civ Eng 20(6):419–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dizhur D, Griffith M, Ingham J (2013) In-plane shear improvement of unreinforced masonry wall panels using NSM CFRP strips. J Compos Constr 17(6):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gambarotta L, Lagomarsino S (1997) Damage models for the seismic response of brick masonry shear wall. Part I: the mortar joint model and its applications. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 26(4):423–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garrity SW (2001) Near-surface reinforcement of masonry arch highway bridges. In: Proceedings of the 9th Canadian masonry symposium, University of New Brunswick, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  21. Guragain R (2005) Numerical simulation of masonry structures under cyclic loading using applied element method. Master’s thesis, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  22. Konthesingha KMC, Masia MJ, Petersen RB, Page AW (2015) Experimental evaluation of static cyclic in-plane shear behavior of unreinforced masonry walls strengthened with NSM FRP strips. J Compos Constr 19(3):1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Koutromanos I, Shing PB (2014) Numerical study of masonry-infilled RC frames retrofitted with ECC overlays. J Struct Eng 140(7):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lemos JV (2007) Discrete element modeling of masonry structures. Int J Archit Heritage 1(2):190–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li T, Galati N, Tumialan JG, Nanni A (2005) Analysis of unreinforced masonry concrete walls strengthened with glass fiber reinforced polymer bars. ACI Struct J 102(4):569–577Google Scholar
  26. Lourenço PB (1996) Computational strategies for masonry structures. PhD thesis, University of Porto, Porto, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  27. Lunn DS, Rizkalla SH (2011) Strengthening of infill masonry walls with FRP materials. J Compos Constr 15(2):206–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maekawa K, Okamura H (1983) The deformational behavior and constitutive equation of concrete using the elasto-plastic and fracture model. J Fract Eng 37(2):253–328Google Scholar
  29. Maekawa K, Okamura H (2003) Non-linear mechanics of reinforced concrete. Spon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Mahmood H, Ingham JM (2011) Diagonal compression testing of FRP-retrofitted unreinforced clay brick masonry wallettes. J Compos Constr 15(5):810–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mayorca P (2003) Strengthening of unreinforced masonry structures in earthquake-prone regions. PhD thesis, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  32. Meguro K (2001) Applied element method: a new efficient tool for design of structure considering its failure behaviour. Institute of Industrial Science (IIS), University of Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  33. Meguro K, Tagel-Din HS (2002) Applied element method used for large displacement structural analysis. J Nat Disaster Sci 24(1):25–34Google Scholar
  34. Milani G (2008) 3D upper bound limit analysis of multi-leaf masonry walls. Int J Mech Sci 50(4):817–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Moon FL (2004) Seismic strengthening of low-rise unreinforced masonry structures with flexible diaphragms. PhD thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  36. Okamura H, Maekawa K (1991) Nonlinear analysis and constitutive models of reinforced concrete. Gihodo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  37. Parvin A, Shah TS (2016) Fiber reinforced polymer strengthening of structures by near-surface mounting method. Polymers 8:298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Paulay T, Priestley M (1992) Seismic design of reinforced concrete and masonry buildings. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pela L, Cervera M, Roca P (2013) An orthotropic damage model for the analysis of masonry structures. Constr Build Mater 41:957–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Petersen RB (2009) In-plane shear behaviour of unreinforced masonry panels strengthened with fibre reinforced polymer strips. PhD thesis, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  41. Rots J (1997) Structural masonry: an experimental/numerical basis for practical design rules. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ISBN 90 5410 680 8Google Scholar
  42. Sandoval C, Arnau O (2017) Experimental characterization and detailed micro-modeling of multi-perforated clay brick masonry structural response. Mater Struct 50(34):1–17Google Scholar
  43. Sattar S, Liel AB (2016) Seismic performance of nonductile reinforced concrete frames with masonry infill walls - I: development of a strut model enhanced by finite element models. Earthq Spectra 32(2):795–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shing PB, Lotfi HR, Barzegarmehrabi A, Brunner J (1992) Finite element analysis of shear resistance of masonry wall panels with and without confining frames. In: Earthquake engineering, 10th world conference, pp 2581–2586Google Scholar
  45. Silva PF, Myers JJ, Belarbi A, El-Domiaty K, Tumialan JG, Nanni A (2001) Performance of infill URM wall systems retrofitted with FRP rods and laminates to resist in-plane and out-of-plane loads. In: Proceedings of the structural faults and repairs conference, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  46. Soti R (2011) Seismic retrofitting of non-engineered masonry houses using bamboo-band mesh. Master’s thesis, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  47. Soti R, Barbosa AR, Stavridis A (2014) Numerical modeling of URM infill walls retrofitted with embedded reinforcing steel. In: 10th U.S. national conference on earthquake engineering frontiers of earthquake engineering July 21–25, AlaskaGoogle Scholar
  48. Stavridis A, Shing PB (2010) Finite-element modeling of nonlinear behavior of masonry-infilled RC frames. J Struct Eng 136(3):285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sutcliffe DJ, Yu HS, Page AW (2001) Lower bound limit analysis of unreinforced masonry shear walls. Comput. Struct. 79:1295–1312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tagel-Din H (1998) A new efficient method for nonlinear, large deformation and collapse analysis of structures. PhD thesis, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  51. Triantafillou TC, Karlos K, Kapsalis P, Georgiou L (2018) Strengthening of infill masonry walls with FRP materialsinnovative structural and energy retrofitting system for masonry walls using textile reinforced mortars combined with thermal insulation: in-plane mechanical behavior. J Compos Constr 22(5):04018029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Turco V, Secondin S, Morbin A, Valluzzi MR, Modena C (2006) Flexural and shear strengthening of un-reinforced masonry with FRP Bars. Compos Sci Technol 66(2):289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Türkmen OS, Vermeltfoort A, Martens D (2016) Seismic retrofit system for single leaf masonry buildings in Groningen. In: Masonry in a world of challenges: 16th international brick and block masonry conference, Padova, Italy, pp 2479–2487Google Scholar
  54. Umair SM, Numada M, Meguro K (2014) Applied element method simulation of fiber reinforced polymer and polypropylene composite retrofitted masonry walls. Adv Struct Eng 17(11):1567–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Valluzzi MR, Tinazzi D, Modena C (2002) Shear behavior of masonry panels strengthened by FRP laminates. Constr Build Mater 16(7):409–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Valluzzi MR, Binda L, Modena C (2005) Mechanical behaviour of historic masonry structures strengthened by bed joints structural repointing. Constr Build Mater 19(1):63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Willis CR, Yang Q, Seracino R, Griffith MC (2009) Bond behaviour of FRP-to-clay brick masonry joints. Eng Struct 31(11):2580–2587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yuksel E, Ozkaynak H, Buyukozturk O, Yalcin C, Dindar AA, Surmeli M, Tastan D (2010) Performance of alternative CFRP retrofitting schemes used in infilled RC frames. J Mater Civ Eng 24(4):596–609Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil and Construction EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations