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Experimental assessment of the out-of-plane strength of URM infill walls with different slenderness and boundary conditions

  • Mariano Di DomenicoEmail author
  • Paolo Ricci
  • Gerardo M. Verderame
Original Research
  • 65 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, the results of experimental tests performed on unreinforced masonry infill walls are presented. The out-of-plane response of infills different for the thickness and for the boundary conditions but equal for the construction procedure and the materials used is investigated. Infills with two different height-to-thickness slenderness ratios are tested. In addition, three different boundary conditions at edges are considered. The experimental results are used to assess, for different values of the slenderness ratio, the effectiveness of the out-of-plane strength formulations for unreinforced masonry enclosures in which the mono-directional or bi-directional arching mechanism can occur. A discussion on the different post-peak response of specimens with different boundary condition (brittle, for vertical spanning infills, non-brittle for infills mortared along three or four edges to the confining elements) is also presented. In the case of one-way arching, literature and code models underestimate the out-of-plane strength of thinner specimens and overestimate it for thicker specimens. In the case of two-way arching, all the existing strength formulations are significantly conservative and potentially adequate for a code-based safety check of unreinforced masonry infill walls under out-of-plane seismic demand.

Keywords

URM infill wall Out-of-plane Strength Experimental Boundary condition Arching action 

List of symbols

dcrush

Out-of-plane displacement at masonry crushing

dOOP

Out-of-plane displacement of the central point of the specimen

E

Young modulus

Fmax

Out-of-plane strength

FOOP

Out-of-plane force

fb

Strength of bricks in compression

fcm

Strength of concrete in compression

fj

Strength of mortar in compression

fm

Strength of masonry in compression

fym

Strength of steel bars at yielding

G

Shear modulus of masonry

h

Height of the infill wall

My

Maximum moment per unit length (McDowell et al. 1956)

R1

Resistance degradation factor due to the in-plane damage (Angel et al. 1994)

R2

Resistance reduction factor due to the deformation of structural elements (Angel et al. 1994)

t

Thickness of the infill wall

w

Width of the infill wall

xy

Displacement at the maximum arching thrust formation (McDowell et al. 1956)

z

Out-of-plane displacement

α

Horizontal factor for frame deformability (Dawe and Seah 1989)

β

Vertical factor for frame deformability (Dawe and Seah 1989)

εc

Limit strain (McDowell et al. 1956)

εcrush

Masonry crushing strain

λ

Slenderness factor (Angel et al. 1994)

Subscripts

b

Reinforced concrete frame beam

c

Reinforced concrete frame columns

h

In the horizontal direction

m

Masonry

v

In the vertical direction

Notes

Funding

METROPOLIS (Integrated and sustainable methodologies and technologies for the adaptation and safety of urban systems - PON Ricerca e Competitività 2007–2013). Italian Department of Civil Protection ReLUIS-DPC 2014–2018 Linea Cemento Armato – Work Package 6 (Grant No. E56D16000670005).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Structures for Engineering and ArchitectureUniversity of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly

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