A 3-dimensional perspective for inter-storey drift, ductility and damage distributions in plan-irregular RC buildings considering seismic orientation effect

  • Nader Amarloo
  • Ali R. EmamiEmail author
Original Research


Current seismic design of buildings is mostly based on applying earthquake excitation along principal (reference) axes of the building plan and response assessment on the same axes. However there is a challenge, whether or not the seismic excitation is applied on the principal axes, critical responses can take place on non-principal directions. The compound of this challenge with inherent response complexity in nonlinear behaviour of plan-irregular buildings leads to critical responses whose estimation is complicated. Current study proposes a new approach to address these challenges by presenting a 3-dimensional perspective for drift, ductility and damage indices. The concept of spatial response distributions is developed wherein vertical and planar response variations can be assessed. 4-, 8- and 12-storey reinforced concrete moment-frame structures with a typical L-shaped plan are employed in multi-direction pushover and nonlinear response history analyses, using 60 record component pairs of near-field and far-field earthquakes. Based on nonlinear regression analysis, several combination rules and amplification factors are derived for the critical responses polarized on non-principal directions at each storey level. A substantial increase (20%-to-60%) in the responses is observed; it depends on seismic orientation scheme, vertical distribution and planar direction of interest, and response definition.


Plan-irregularity Pushover Response history Damage index Ductility Seismic orientation 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 442 kb)
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Supplementary material 5 (PDF 312 kb)


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan (Khorasgan) BranchIslamic Azad UniversityIsfahanIran

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