Advertisement

Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 1407–1493 | Cite as

Shear strength criteria for design of RC beam–column joints in building codes

  • Kanak Parate
  • Ratnesh KumarEmail author
Original Research
  • 80 Downloads

Abstract

The paper presents a comprehensive review on shear strength provisions of RC beam–column joint in various national codes viz. ACI 318-2014, NZS 3101-1:2006, EN 1998-1:2004, CSA A23.3:2004, AIJ:2010, and IS 13920:2016. The shear strength equation given in these codes are generic and simple in application, which is based on the contribution of only a few governing parameters. However, the effects of governing parameters in different codes are considered in different ways. As a result, the code prediction varies significantly among themselves as well as with experimental studies. Considering these differences, the influence of various governing parameters on the joint shear strength are evaluated. A database is compiled from 492 experimental results of beam–column joints from literature. To find the cause of variation between code prediction and experimental observations, different type of failure modes of beam–column joints is studied. Consequently, two parameters namely, aspect ratio of joint and area ratio of column to beam cross-section is observed to be affecting the code predictions considerably. The influence of these two parameters on the joint shear strength is validated with the compiled experimental results. Therefore, to ameliorate the code prediction, two approaches i.e. aspect ratio approach and area ratio approach are proposed. The first approach is based on the effect of variation of strut angle on joint shear strength, whereas, the second approach proposes various empirical modification factors based on area ratio of column to beam cross-section. By using these two approaches, it is observed that the difference between the code predictions and experimental results can be minimized considerably. These approaches make the code prediction suitable for design purpose.

Keywords

Reinforced concrete Beam–column joint Design codes Joint shear strength Joint aspect ratio 

List of symbols

ab

Area of beam

ac

Area of column

Aej

Effective area of joint

ba1, ba2

Smaller of one quarter of column depth outside the beam face and one half of the offset of column from beam face on either side of column

bb

Width of beam

bc

Width of column

bej

Effective width of joint

fc

Compressive strength of concrete

fcd

Design strength of concrete

Fj

Factor as function of concrete grade (0.8f c 0.7 )

hb

Depth of beam

hc

Depth of column

hej

Effective depth of joint

k

Shape factor for different types of joint

Nc

Column axial load

Vc

Shear strength from diagonal compressive strut

Vch

Horizontal component of joint shear strength

Vcv

Vertical component of joint shear strength

Vj

Shear strength of joint

Vjcode

Joint shear strength prediction by the code

Vjexpt

Joint shear strength from experiment

α

Aspect ratio of joint

β

Width ratio of joint

x

Offset distance between beam and column face on either side

ϕ

Modification factor for concrete types

λ

Effect of confinement of beams into the joint

η

Reduction factor for concrete compressive strength due to tensile strain in transverse direction [η = k (1− (fc/250)]

νd

Column axial load ratio (Nc/Acfc)

θ

Strut angle

φ

Factored concrete tensile strength

ψ

Area ratio modification factor

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful of Prof. C.V.R. Murty, Director, Indian Institute of Technology, Jodhpur (IITJ), India for his valuable guidance for improving the manuscript, and to the two anonymous Reviewers for their constructive suggestions for improving the manuscript.

References

  1. ACI Committee 318 (2014) Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI 318-14) and commentary (ACI 318R-14). American Concrete Institute, Farmington HillsGoogle Scholar
  2. Alameddine F, Ehsani MR (1991) High-strength RC connections subjected to inelastic cyclic loading. J Struct Eng 117(3):829–850Google Scholar
  3. Alire DA (2002) Seismic evaluation of existing unconfined RC beam–column joints. Thesis for the Degree of Master of Engineering, Univ. of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  4. Alva GMS (2004) Theoretical and experimental study of reinforced concrete frame joints behavior under cyclic load. PhD thesis, Department of structural engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Brazil (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  5. Alva GMS, Debs Alhdc, Debs MKE (2007) An experimental study on cyclic behavior of reinforced Concrete connections. Can J Civil Eng 34(4):565Google Scholar
  6. Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ) (2010) AIJ standard for structural calculation of reinforced concrete structures (Japanese). Maruzen, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  7. Attaalla SA (2004) General analytical model for nominal shear stress of type 2 normal-and high-strength Concrete beam–column joints. ACI Struct J 101(1):65–75Google Scholar
  8. Au FT, Huang K, Pam HJ (2005) Diagonally reinforced beam–column joints reinforced under cyclic loading. Proc Inst Civ Eng Struct Build 158:21–40Google Scholar
  9. Bakir PG (2003) Seismic resistance and mechanical behavior of exterior beam–column joints with crossed inclined bars. Struct Eng Mech 16(4):493–517Google Scholar
  10. Bakir PG, Boduroğlu HM (2002) A new design equation for predicting the joint shear monotonically loaded exterior beam-to-column joints. Eng Struct 24(5):1105–1117Google Scholar
  11. Beckingsale CW (1980) Post-elastic behavior of reinforced concrete beam–column joints (Report No. 80-20), Dept Civil Eng, The University of Canterbury ChristchurchGoogle Scholar
  12. Benavent-Climent A (2007) Seismic behavior of RC wide beam–column connections under dynamic loading. J Earthq Eng 11(4):493–511Google Scholar
  13. Bindhu KR, Jaya KP, Manicka Selvam VK (2008) Seismic resistance of exterior beam–column joints with non-conventional confinement reinforcement detailing. Struct Eng Mech 30(6):733–761Google Scholar
  14. Bindu KR, Jaya KP (2008) Performance of exterior beam column joints with cross-inclined bars under Seismic type loading. J Eng Appl Sci 7:591–597Google Scholar
  15. Birss GR, Park R, Paulay T (1978) The elastic behavior of earthquake resistant reinforced concrete interior beam–column joints (Report No. 78-13), Dept of Civil Eng, The University of Canterbury, ChristchurchGoogle Scholar
  16. Calvi GM, Magenes G, Pampanin S (2002) Relevance of beam–column damage and collapse in RC frame assessment. J Earthq Eng 6:75–100Google Scholar
  17. Chalioris CE, Bantilas KE (2017) Shear strength of reinforced concrete beam–column joints with crossed inclined bars. Eng Struct 140:241–255Google Scholar
  18. Chalioris CE, Favvata MJ, Karayannis CG (2008) Reinforced concrete beam–column joints with crossed inclined bars under cyclic deformations. J Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 37(6):881–897Google Scholar
  19. Chen CC, Chen GK (1999) Cyclic behavior of reinforced concrete eccentric beam–column corner joints connecting spread-ended beams. Struct J 96(3):443–449Google Scholar
  20. Chun SC, Kim DY (2004) Evaluation of mechanical anchorage of reinforcement by exterior beam-column joint experiments. In: 13th world conference on earthquake engineering, Paper no. 0326, Vancouver, B.C., CanadaGoogle Scholar
  21. Chun SC, Shin YS (2014) Cyclic testing of exterior beam–column joints with varying joint aspect ratio. ACI Struct J 111:693Google Scholar
  22. Clyde C, Pantelides CP, Reaveley LD (2000) Performance-based evaluation of exterior reinforced concrete building joints for seismic excitation. Pacific Earthquake Eng Research Center, PEER Report 2000/05, University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  23. CSA A23.3-04 (2004) Design of concrete structures. Canadian Standards Association, RexdaleGoogle Scholar
  24. De Risi MT, Ricci P, Verderame GM, Manfredi G (2016) Experimental assessment of unreinforced exterior beam–column joints with deformed bars. Eng Struct 112:215–232Google Scholar
  25. Durrani AJ, Wight JK (1982) Experimental and analytical study of internal beam to column connections subjected to reversed cyclic loading, UMEE82R3 Department of Civil Engineering The University of Michigan, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  26. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (1999) The Tehuacan, Mexico, earthquake of June 15, 1999a. EERI Special Earthquake ReportGoogle Scholar
  27. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (1999) The Chi–Chi, Taiwan Earthquake of September 21, 1999. EERI special earthquake reportGoogle Scholar
  28. Ehsani MR, Moussa AE, Vallenilla CR (1987) Comparison of inelastic behaviour of reinforced ordinary-and high strength concrete frames. ACI Struct J 84:161–169Google Scholar
  29. Elwood KJ, Eberhard MO (2006) Effective stiffness of reinforced concrete columns. ACI Struct J 106(4):476–484Google Scholar
  30. EN 1998-1:2004 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance—part 1: general, seismic actions, rules for buildings. Comite Europeen de Normalisation, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  31. Endoh Y, Kamura T, Otani S, Aoyama H (1991) Behavior of R/C beam–column connections using lightweight concrete. Trans Jpn Concr Inst 13:319–326Google Scholar
  32. Favvata MJ, Karayannis CG (2014) Influence of pinching effect of exterior joints on the seismic behavior of RC frames. Earthq Struct 6(1):89–110Google Scholar
  33. Favvata MJ, Izzuddin BJ, Karayannis CG (2008) Modelling exterior beam–column joints for seismic analysis of RC frame structures. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 37:1527–1548Google Scholar
  34. Fujii S, Morita S (1991) Comparison between interior and exterior R/C beam–column joint behavior. ACI Spec Publ 23:145–166Google Scholar
  35. Gencoglu M, Eren I (2002) An experimental study on the effect of steel fiber reinforced concrete on the behavior of the exterior beam–column joints subjected to reversal cyclic loading. Turk J Eng Environ Sci 26:493–502Google Scholar
  36. Genesan N, Indira PV, Abraham R (2007) Steel fibre reinforced high performance concrete beam column joints subjected to cyclic loadings. ISET J Earth Technol 44(3–4):445–456Google Scholar
  37. Hakuto S, Park R, Tanaka H (2000) Seismic load tests on interior and exterior beam column joints with substandard reinforcing details. ACI Struct J 97:11–25Google Scholar
  38. Hamil SJ (2000) Reinforced concrete beam–column connection behavior. PhD dissertation, University of Durham, DurhamGoogle Scholar
  39. Hanson NW (1971) Seismic resistance of concrete frames with grade 60 reinforcement. J Struct Div 97(6):1685–1700Google Scholar
  40. Hanson NW, Conner HW (1967) Seismic resistance of reinforced concrete beam–column joints. J Struct Div ASCE 93:533–560Google Scholar
  41. Hegger J, Sherif A, Roeser W (2003) Nonseismic design of beam–column joints. ACI Struct J 100(5):654–664Google Scholar
  42. Higashi Y, Ohwada Y (1969) Failing behaviours of reinforced concrete beam column connections subjected to lateral load, vol 19. Memoirs of Faculty of Technology Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. Tokyo, Tokyo, pp 91–101Google Scholar
  43. Hwang SJ, Lee HJ (1999) Analytical model for predicting shear strengths of exterior reinforced concrete beam–column joints for seismic resistance. ACI Struct J 96:846–857Google Scholar
  44. Hwang SJ, Lee HJ (2000) Analytical model for predicting shear strengths of interior reinforced concrete beam–column joints for seismic resistance. ACI Struct J 97(1):35–44Google Scholar
  45. Hwang SJ, Lee HJ (2002) Strength prediction for discontinuity regions by softened strut-and-tie model. J Struct Eng 128(12):1519–1526Google Scholar
  46. Hwang SJ, Lee HJ, Wang KC (2004) Seismic design and detailing of exterior reinforced concrete beam–column joints. In: Proceedings of the 13th world conference on earthquake engineering, paper no. 0397, Vancouver, 1–6 Aug 2004Google Scholar
  47. Hwang SJ, Lee HJ, Liao TF, Wang KC, Tsai HH (2005) Role of hoops on shear strength of reinforced concrete beam–column joints. ACI Struct J 102(3):445–453Google Scholar
  48. Hwang HJ, Park HG, Choi WS, Chung L, Kim JK (2014) Cyclic loading test for beam–column connections with 600 MPa (87 ksi) beam flexural reinforcing bars. ACI Struct J 111(4):913Google Scholar
  49. Idayani BS (2007) The influence of concrete strength on the behavior of external beam–column joints. Degree Master of Engineering, University of Malaysia, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  50. IS 13920 (2016) Ductile design and detailing of reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic forces-Code of practice, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  51. Joh O, Goto Y, Shibata T (1991) Behaviour of reinforced concrete beam–column joints with eccentricity. ACI Spec Publ 123:317–358Google Scholar
  52. Kaku T, Asakusa H (1991) Ductility estimation of exterior beam–column subassemblages in reinforced concrete frames. ACI Strut J Spec Publ 123:167–186Google Scholar
  53. Karayannis CG, Sirkelis GM (2005) Response of columns and joints with spiral shear reinforcement. WIT Trans Model Simul 41:455–463Google Scholar
  54. Karayannis CG, Sirkelis GM (2008) Strengthening and rehabilitation of RC beam–column joints using carbon FRP jacketing and epoxy resin injection. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 37(5):769–790Google Scholar
  55. Karayannis CG, Chalioris CE, Sideris KK (1998) Effectiveness of RC beam–column connection repairing using epoxy resin injections. J Earthq Eng 2(2):217–240Google Scholar
  56. Karayannis CG, Chalioris CE, Sirkelis GM (2008) Local retrofit of exterior RC beam–column joints using thin RC jackets—an experimental study. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 37:727–746.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.783 Google Scholar
  57. Kassem W (2015) Strut-and-tie modelling for the analysis and design of RC beam–column joints. Mater Struct 49:3459–3476Google Scholar
  58. Kaung JS, Wong HF (2011) Effectiveness of horizontal stirrups in joint core for exterior beam–column joints with non seismic design. In: The twelfth east Asia–Pacific conference on structural engineering and construction, Procedia Eng, vol 14, pp 3301–3307Google Scholar
  59. Kim J, LaFave JM, Song J (2009) Joint shear behavior of reinforced concrete beam–column connections. Mag Concr Res 61(2):119–132Google Scholar
  60. Kitayama K, Otani S, Aoyama H (1987) Earthquake resistant design criteria for reinforced concrete interior beam-column joints. In: Proceedings of the Pacific conference on earthquake engineering, pp 315–326Google Scholar
  61. Kitayama K, Otani S, Aoyama H (1991) Development of design criteria for RC interior beam–column joints. Design of beam–column joints for seismic resistance. ACI Struct J Spec Publ 123:97–123Google Scholar
  62. Kordina K (1984) Bewehrungsfuhrung in Ecken und Rahmenendknoten. Deutscher Ausschuss fur Stahlbeton Heft 354:93Google Scholar
  63. Kotsovou G, Mouzakis H (2012) Seismic design of RC external beam–column joints. Bull Earthq Eng 10(2):645–677Google Scholar
  64. Kuang JS, Wong HF (2006) Effects of beam bar anchorage on beam–column joint behavior. Proc Inst Civil Eng Struct Build 159(2):115–124Google Scholar
  65. Kurose Y (1987) Recent studies on reinforced concrete beam–column joints in Japan. Phil M. Ferguson Struct Eng Lab University of Texas at Austin, AustinGoogle Scholar
  66. Kusuhara F, Shiohara H (2008) Tests of reinforced concrete beam–column joints with variant boundary conditions and irregular details on anchorage of beam bars. In: Proceedings of the 14th world conference earthquake engineering, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  67. Kusuhara F, Azukawa K, Shiohara H, Otani S (2004) Tests of reinforced concrete interior beam–column Joint subassemblage with eccentric beams. In: Proceedings of the 13th world conference on earthquake engineeringGoogle Scholar
  68. Lee JY, Kim JY, Oh GJ (2009) Strength deterioration of reinforced concrete beam–column joints subjected to cyclic loading. Eng Struct 31:2070–2085Google Scholar
  69. Leon RT (1990) Shear strength and hysteretic behavior of interior beam–column joints. ACI Struct J 87:3–11Google Scholar
  70. Li B, Leong CL (2014) Experimental and numerical investigations of the seismic behavior of high-strength concrete beam–column joints with column axial load. J Struct Eng 141(9):04014220Google Scholar
  71. Li B, Wu Y, Pan TC (2002) Seismic behaviour of non-seismically detailed interior beam-wide column joints; part I: experimental results and observed behavior. ACI Struct J 99(6):791–802Google Scholar
  72. Liu C, Pampanin S, Dhakal R (2006) Seismic behavior of beam–column joint subassemblies reinforced with steel fibers. Thesis for the Degree of Master of Engineering, University of Canterbury, ChristchurchGoogle Scholar
  73. Lu X, Urukap TH, Li S, Lin F (2012) Seismic behavior of interior RC beam–column joints with additional bars under cyclic loading. J Earthq Struct 3(1):35–57Google Scholar
  74. Masi A, Santarsiero G, Verderame GM, Russo G, Martinelli E, Pauletta M, Cortesia A (2008) Behavior and strengthening of RC beam–column joints: experimental program and first results of the research activity in the framework of Dpc-Reluis project (Research Line 2). In: Proceedings of the 14th World conference on earthquake engineering, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  75. Meas K, Li B, Imran I (2012) Seismic performance of lightly reinforced concrete exterior beam-column joints. Adv Struct Engg 15(10):1765–1780Google Scholar
  76. Meas K, Li B, Pham TP (2014) Experimental and numerical studies on the seismic performance of RC interior beam–column joints. Adv Struct Eng 17(2):233–248Google Scholar
  77. Megget LM (1974) Cyclic behavior of exterior reinforced concrete beam–column joints. Bull N Z Natl Soc Earthq Eng 7(1):27–47Google Scholar
  78. Megget LM, Park R (1971) Reinforced concrete exterior beam–column joints under seismic loading. N Z Eng 26(11):341Google Scholar
  79. Meinheit DF, Jirsa JO (1977) The shear strength of reinforced concrete beam–column joints. CESRL Report No. 77-1 University of Texas Austin TX vol 21(20), p 291Google Scholar
  80. Melo J, Varum H, Rossetto T (2015) Cyclic behaviour of interior beam–column joints reinforced with plain bars. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 44(9):1351–1371Google Scholar
  81. Hayashi K, Teraoka M, Mollick, AA, Kanoh Y (1994) Bond properties of main reinforcing bars and restoring force characteristics in RC interior beam–column sub-assemblage using high strength materials. In: Proceedings of the 2nd US–Japan–New Zealand–Canada multilateral meeting on structural performance of high strength concrete in seismic regions. ACI, Farmington HillsGoogle Scholar
  82. Murty CVR, Rai D, Bajpai KK, Jain SK (2003) Effectiveness of reinforcement details in exterior reinforced concrete beam–column joints for earthquake resistance. ACI Struct J 100(2):149–156Google Scholar
  83. Noguchi H, Kashiwazaki T (1992) Experimental studies on shear performances of RC interior column–beam joints with high-strength materials. In: Proceedings of the 10th world conference on earthquake engineeringGoogle Scholar
  84. Ogura K (1977) Experimental studies on reinforced concrete beam column joints (Exterior). Trans of AIJ. Extra No 2639 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  85. Ohwada Y (1976) A study on effect of lateral beams on RC beam–column joints (1). In: Summaries of technical papers of annual meeting architectural institute of Japan, pp 1455–1456 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  86. Ohwada Y (1977) A study on effect of lateral beams on RC beam–column joints (2). Proc Archit Inst Jpn 61:241–244 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  87. Oka K, Shiohara H (1992) Tests of high-strength concrete interior beam–column joint sub-assemblages. In: Proceedings of the 10th world conference on earthquake engineering, MadridGoogle Scholar
  88. Ortiz (Reyes de) I (1993) Strut and tie modeling of reinforced concrete short beams and beam–column joints. PhD Thesis, University of WestminsterGoogle Scholar
  89. Otani S, Kobayashi Y, Aoyama H (1984) Reinforced concrete interior beam–column joints under simulated earthquake loading. Department of Architecture, University of Tokyo, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  90. Pampanin S, Moratti M, Calvi GM (2002) Seismic behaviour of R.C. beam–column joints designed for gravity loads. In: Proceedings of the 12th European conference on Earthq Engineering, London, paper no. 726Google Scholar
  91. Pampanin S, Bolognini D, Pavese A (2007) Performance-based seismic retrofit strategy for existing Reinforced concrete frame systems using fiber-reinforced polymer composites. J Compos Const 11(2):211–226Google Scholar
  92. Pantazopoulou SJ, Bonacci JF (1994) On earthquake-resistant reinforced concrete frame connections. Can J Civ Eng 21:307–328Google Scholar
  93. Pantelides CP, Hansen J, Nadauld J, Reaveley LD (2002) Assessment of reinforced concrete building exterior joints with substandard details. Report No. PEER 2002/18 Pacific Earthquake Eng Research CentreGoogle Scholar
  94. Parate K, Kumar R (2016) Investigation of shear strength models for exterior RC beam–column joint. Struct Eng Mech 58:475–514Google Scholar
  95. Park R, Milburn JR (1983) Comparison of recent New Zealand and United States seismic design provisions for reinforced concrete beam–column joints and test results from four units designed according to the New Zealand code. NZSEE Bull 16(1):3–24Google Scholar
  96. Park S, Mosalam KM (2012) Parameters for shear strength prediction of exterior beam–column joints without transverse reinforcement. Eng Struct 36:198–209Google Scholar
  97. Park R, Ruitong D (1988) A comparison of the behavior of reinforced concrete beam–column joints designed for ductility and limited ductility. NZSEE Bull 21:255–278Google Scholar
  98. Parker DE, Bullman PJM (1997) Shear strength within reinforced concrete beam–column joints. Struct Eng 75(4):53–57Google Scholar
  99. Paulay T, Priestley MJN (1992) Seismic design of reinforced concrete and masonry buildings. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  100. Pauletta M, Luca DD, Russo G (2015) Exterior beam column joints-shear strength model and design formula. Eng Struct 94:70–81Google Scholar
  101. Raffaelle GS, Wight JK (1995) Reinforced concrete eccentric beam–column connection subjected to earthquake-type loading. Struct J 92(1):45–55Google Scholar
  102. Ricci P, De Luca F, Verderame GM (2011) 6th April 2009 L’Aquila earthquake, Italy: reinforced concrete building performance. Bull Earthq Eng 9(1):285–305Google Scholar
  103. Sarsam KF, Phillips ME (1985) The shear design of in situ reinforced beam–column joints subjected to monotonic loading. Mag Concr Res 37(130):16–28Google Scholar
  104. Schäfer K (1996) Strut-and-tie models for design of structural concrete. Notes of workshop, Department of Civil Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, TainanGoogle Scholar
  105. Scott RH (1996) Intrinsic mechanism in reinforced concrete beam–column connection behaviour. ACI Struct J 93:336–346Google Scholar
  106. Scott RH, Feltham I, Whittle RT (1994) Reinforced concrete beam–column connections and BS 8110. Struct Eng 72(4):55–60Google Scholar
  107. Shannag MJ, Alhassan MA (2005) Seismic upgrade of interior beam–column sub assemblages with high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete jackets. ACI Struct J 102(1):131Google Scholar
  108. Sharma A, Eligehausen R, Reddy GR (2012) A new model to simulate joint shear behavior of poorly detailed beam–column connections in RC structures under seismic loads part I: exterior joints. Eng Struct 33(3):1034–1051Google Scholar
  109. Shin M, LaFave JM (2004) Modeling of cyclic joint shear deformation contributions in RC beam–column connections to overall frame behavior. Struct Eng Mech 18(5):645–670Google Scholar
  110. Shiohara H, Kusuhara F (2009) Comprehensive series of tests on seismic performance of reinforced concrete beam-column joints. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on advances in experimental structural engineering, San-Francisco, CA, pp 15–16Google Scholar
  111. Shiohara H, Watanabe F (2000) The Japan PRESSS precast concrete connection design. In Proceeding of 12th world conference on earthquake engineering, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  112. Soleimani D, Popov EP, Bertero VV (1979) Hysteretic behaviour of R.C. beam column sub assemblages. ACI Struct J 76(11):1179–1195Google Scholar
  113. Standards Association of New Zealand (2006) The design of concrete structures. NZS 3101:1995, New Zealand Standards Authority, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  114. Supaviriyakit T, Pimanmas A (2008) Comparative performance of sub-standard interior reinforced concrete beam–column connection with various joint reinforcing details. Mater Struct 41(3):543–557Google Scholar
  115. Takaine Y, Nagai S, Maruta M (2008) Structural performance of RC beams and beam–column sub assemblages using reinforcement with sleeve joints at the end of beams. In: The 14th WCEEGoogle Scholar
  116. Taylor HPJ (1974) The behavior of in situ concrete beam–column joints. Cement and Concrete Association London, Technical Report (No. 42.492 Tech. Rpt.)Google Scholar
  117. Teng S, Zhou H (2003) Eccentric reinforced concrete beam–column joints subjected to cyclic loading. ACI Struct J 100(2):139–148Google Scholar
  118. Teraoka M, Kanoh Y, Tanaka K, Hayashi K (1994) Strength and deformation behavior of RC interior beam–column using high-strength concrete. In: Proceedings of 2nd US–Japan–New Zealand–Canada multilateral meeting on structural performance of high strength concrete in seismic regions, ACI, Farmington HillsGoogle Scholar
  119. Teraoka M, Kanoh Y, Hayashi K, Sasaki S (1997) Behavior of interior beam-and-column sub-assemblages In an RC frame. In: Proceedings of 1st international conference on high strength concrete ASCE, RestonGoogle Scholar
  120. Tran TM, Hadi MNS, Pham TM (2014) A new empirical model for shear strength of reinforced concrete beam–column connections. Mag Concr Res 66(10):514–530Google Scholar
  121. Tsonos AG (1999) Lateral load response of strengthened RC beam-to-column joint. ACI Struct J 96:46–56Google Scholar
  122. Tsonos AG (2002) Seismic repair of reinforced concrete beam column sub assemblages of modern structures by epoxy injection technique. Struct Eng Mech 14(5):543–563Google Scholar
  123. Tsonos A-DG (2004) Improvement of the earthquake resistance of R/C beam–column joints under the influence of P-D effect and axial force variations using inclined bars. Struct Eng Mech 18(4):389–410Google Scholar
  124. Tsonos AG (2007) Cyclic load behavior of reinforced concrete beam–column sub assemblages of modern Structures. ACI Struct J 104(4):468–478Google Scholar
  125. Tsonos AG, Tegos IA, Penelis GGR (1992) Seismic resistance of type 2 exterior beam–column joints reinforced with inclined bars. ACI Struct J 89:3–11Google Scholar
  126. Uma SR, Jain SK (2006) Seismic design of beam–column joints in RC moment resisting frames—review of codes. Struct Eng Mech 23:579–597Google Scholar
  127. Unal M, Burak B (2013) Development and analytical verification of an inelastic reinforced concrete joint model. Eng Struct 52:284–294Google Scholar
  128. Uzumeri SM (1977) Strength and ductility of cast-in-place beam–column joints. In: Reinforced concrete structures in seismic zones publication SP 53–12. American Concrete Institute Detroit Michigan, pp 293–350Google Scholar
  129. Vollum RL, Newman JB (1999) The design of external reinforced concrete beam–column joints. Struct Eng 77(23–24):21–27Google Scholar
  130. Walker SG (2001) Seismic performance of existing RC beam–column joints. MSCE Thesis, Univ of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  131. Wallace JW, McConnell SW, Gupta P, Cote PA (1998) Use of headed reinforcement in beam–column joints subjected to earthquake loads. ACI Struct J 95(5):590–606Google Scholar
  132. Wang YC, Hsu K (2009) Shear strength of RC jacketed interior beam–column joints without horizontal shear reinforcement. ACI Struct J 106(2):222–232Google Scholar
  133. Wang GL, Dai GL, Teng GJ (2011) Shear strength model for RC beam–column joints under seismic loading. Eng Struct 40:350–360Google Scholar
  134. Wong HF, Kuang JS (2008) Effects of beam–column depth ratio on joint seismic behaviour. Proc Inst Civil Eng Struct Build 161:91–101Google Scholar
  135. Zaid SSS (2001) Behavior of reinforced concrete beam–column connections under earthquake loading. PhD Thesis, Dept of Architecture, Univ of Tokyo, TokyoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied MechanicsVisvesvaraya National Institute of TechnologyNagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations