Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 1153–1175 | Cite as

Seismic fragility of base-isolated water storage tanks under non-stationary earthquakes

  • Sandip Kumar Saha
  • Vasant A. Matsagar
  • Arvind K. Jain
Original Research Paper


Seismic fragility curves for fixed-base and base-isolated liquid storage tanks are developed under non-stationary earthquakes, and their seismic performance are compared. The correlation between different earthquake intensity measure (IM) parameters and peak response quantities of the base-isolated liquid storage tanks are investigated. The failure criteria are chosen based on (1) the elastic buckling strength of the tank wall, which is defined in terms of critical base shear and critical overturning moment, and (2) in terms of the critical isolation displacement. The uncertainty involved is considered in the earthquake characteristics. Non-stationary earthquake ground motions are generated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Influence of the isolator characteristic parameters and modeling approaches on the seismic fragility of the base-isolated liquid storage tanks is also investigated. Peak ground acceleration is found to be the well correlated IM parameter with the peak response quantities of the base-isolated liquid storage tanks. Substantial decrease in the seismic fragility of the base-isolated liquid storage tanks is observed as compared to the fixed-base tanks. Significant influence of the isolator characteristic parameters on the seismic fragility of the base-isolated liquid storage tanks are reported in the present study.


Base-isolated Earthquake Fragility Isolation Lead-rubber bearing Monte Carlo simulation Tank Uncertainty 


  1. AIJ (2010) Design recommendation for storage tanks and their supports with emphasis on seismic design. Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ), JapanGoogle Scholar
  2. API 650 (2007) Welded storage tanks for oil storage. American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. ASCE 7 (2010) Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  4. AWWA D-100-96 (1996) Welded steel tanks for water storage. American Water Works Association (AWWA), ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  5. Buckle IG, Mayes RL (1990) Seismic isolation: history, application, and performance: a world view. Earthq Spectra 6(2):161–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choi E, DesRoches R, Nielson B (2004) Seismic fragility of typical bridges in moderate seismic zones. Eng Struct 26(2):187–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Constantinou MC, Mokha AM, Reinhorn AM (1990) Teflon bearings in base isolation. Part 2: modeling. J Struct Eng (ASCE) 116(2):455–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Curadelli O (2013) Equivalent linear stochastic seismic analysis of cylindrical base-isolated liquid storage tanks. J Constr Steel Res 83:166–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Deb SK (2004) Seismic base isolation: an overview. Curr Sci 87(10):1426–1430Google Scholar
  10. EN 1998-1 (2004) Eurocode 8: design of structures for earthquake resistance - part 1: general rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings. European Committee for Standardization, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  11. EN 1998-4 (2006) Eurocode 8: design of structures for earthquake resistance - part 4: silos, tanks and pipelines. Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  12. Gupta S, Manohar CS (2006) Reliability analysis of randomly vibrating structures with parameter uncertainties. J Sound Vib 297(3–5):1000–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haroun MA (1983a) Behavior of unanchored oil storage tanks: imperial Valley earthquake. J Tech Topics Civ Eng (ASCE) 109(1):23–40Google Scholar
  14. Haroun MA (1983b) Vibration studies and tests of liquid storage tanks. Earthq Eng Struct Dynam 11(2):179–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haroun MA, Housner GW (1981) Earthquake response of deformable liquid storage tanks. J Appl Mech (ASME) 48(2):411–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. HAZUS (1999) Earthquake loss estimation methodology. National Institute of Building Science, Risk Management Solution, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  17. IBC (2012) International building code. International Code Council Inc, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  18. Ibrahim RA (2008) Recent advances in nonlinear passive vibration isolators. J Sound Vib 314(3–5):371–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Iervolino I, Fabbrocino G, Manfredi G (2004) Fragility of standard industrial structures by a response surface based method. J Earthq Eng 8(6):927–945Google Scholar
  20. IS: 803 (1976) Code of practice for design, fabrication and erection of vertical mild steel cylindrical welded oil storage tanks (first revision). Bureau of Indian Standards, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  21. Jacob C (2010) Stochastic response of isolated structures under earthquake excitations. Master of Technology Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  22. Jacob CM, Sepahvand K, Matsagar VA, Marburg S (2013) Stochastic seismic response of an isolated building. Int J Appl Mech 5(1): Article Number 1350006Google Scholar
  23. Jaiswal OR, Rai DC, Jain SK (2007) Review of seismic codes on liquid-containing tanks. Earthq Spectra 23(1):239–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jangid RS, Datta TK (1995) Seismic behaviour of base-isolated buildings: a state-of-the-art review. Proc ICE Struct Build 110(2):186–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kelly JM (1986) Aseismic base isolation: review and bibliography. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 5(4):202–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kelly TE, Skinner RI, Robinson WH (2010) Seismic isolation for designers and structural engineers. National Information Centre of Earthquake Engineering (NICEE), Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, KanpurGoogle Scholar
  27. Khan RA, Datta TK, Ahmad S (2006) Seismic risk analysis of modified fan type cable stayed bridges. Eng Struct 28(9):1275–1285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kim D-H, Leon RT (2013) Fragility analyses of mid-rise T-stub PR frames in the mid-America earthquake region. Int J Steel Struct 13(1):81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Malhotra PK (1997) New method for seismic isolation of liquid-storage tanks. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 26(8):839–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Malhotra PK, Wenk T, Wieland M (2000) Simple procedure for seismic analysis of liquid-storage tanks. J Int Assoc Bridge Struct Eng (IABSE) 10(3):197–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Matsagar VA, Jangid RS (2003) Seismic response of base-isolated structures during impact with adjacent structures. Eng Struct 25(10):1311–1323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Matsagar VA, Jangid RS (2004) Influence of isolator characteristics on the response of base-isolated structures. Eng Struct 26(12):1735–1749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Matsagar VA, Jangid RS (2008) Base isolation for seismic retrofitting of structures. Pract Period Struct Des Constr (ASCE) 13(4):1–11Google Scholar
  34. Mishra SK, Chakraborty S (2013) Performance of a base-isolated building with system parameter uncertainty subjected to a stochastic earthquake. Int J Acoust Vibr 18(1):7–19Google Scholar
  35. Naeim F, Kelly JM (1999) Design of seismic isolated structures: from theory to practice. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. O’Rourke MJ, So P (2000) Seismic fragility curves for ongrade steel tanks. Earthq Spectra 16(4):801–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Okada J, Iwata K, Tsukimori K, Nagata T (1995) An evaluation method for elastic–plastic buckling of cylindrical shells under shear forces. Nucl Eng Des 157(1–2):65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Padgett JE, Nielson BG, DesRoches R (2008) Selection of optimal intensity measures in probabilistic seismic demand models of highway bridge portfolios. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 37(5):711–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rammerstorfer FG, Fisher FD, Scharf K (1990) Storage tanks under earthquake loading. Appl Mech Rev 43(11):261–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Razzaghi MS, Eshgi S (2008) Development of analytical fragility curves for cylindrical steel oil tanks. In: 14th world conference on earthquake engineering, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  41. Rezaeian S, Kiureghian AD (2008) A stochastic ground motion model with separable temporal and spectral nonstationarities. Earthq Eng Struct Dynam 37(13):1565–1584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Saha SK, Matsagar VA, Jain AK (2013a) Comparison of base-isolated liquid storage tank models under bi-directional earthquakes. Nat Sci 5(8A1):27–37Google Scholar
  43. Saha SK, Sepahvand K, Matsagar VA, Jain AK, Marburg S (2013b) Stochastic analysis of base-isolated liquid storage tanks with uncertain isolator parameters under random excitation. Eng Struct 57:465–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Saha SK, Matsagar VA, Jain AK (2013c) Seismic fragility of base-isolated industrial tanks. In: 11th international conference on structural safety and reliability, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  45. Saha SK, Matsagar VA, Jain AK (2014) Earthquake response of base-isolated liquid storage tanks for different isolator models. J Earthq Tsunami 8(5): Article Number 1450013Google Scholar
  46. Salzano E, Iervolino I, Fabbrocino G (2003) Seismic risk of atmospheric storage tanks in the framework of quantitative risk analysis. J Loss Prev Process Ind 16(5):403–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shrimali MK, Jangid RS (2002) Non-linear seismic response of base-isolated liquid storage tanks to bi-directional excitation. Nucl Eng Des 217(1–2):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shrimali MK, Jangid RS (2004) Seismic analysis of base-isolated liquid storage tanks. J Sound Vib 275(1–2):59–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Skinner RI, Robinson WH, McVerry GH (1993) An introduction to seismic isolation. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Sudret B, Mai V-C (2013) Computing seismic fragility curves using polynomial chaos expansions. In: 11th international conference on structural safety and reliability, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  51. Tsopelas PC, Nagarajaiah S, Constantinou MC, Reinhorn AM (1994a) Nonlinear dynamic analysis of multiple building base isolated structures. J Comput Struct 50(1):47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tsopelas PC, Constantinou MC, Reinhorn AM (1994b) 3-D-Basis-ME: computer program for the nonlinear analysis of seismically isolated single and multiple building structures and liquid storage tanks. Report No. NCEER-94-0010, National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, Buffalo, USAGoogle Scholar
  53. Unnikrishnan VU, Prasad AM, Rao BN (2013) Development of fragility curves using high-dimensional model representation. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 42(3):419–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wen YK (1976) Method for random vibration of hysteretic systems. J Eng Mech Div (ASCE) 102(2):249–263Google Scholar
  55. Zama S, Nishi H, Hatayama K, Yamada M, Yoshihara H, Ogawa Y (2012) On damage of oil storage tanks due to the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (M w 9.0), Japan. In: 15th world conference on earthquake engineering, Lisboa, PortugalGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (IIT) DelhiHauz Khas, New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations