Advertisement

Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 16, Issue 8, pp 3229–3275 | Cite as

Active fault database of Turkey

  • Ömer Emre
  • Tamer Y. Duman
  • Selim Özalp
  • Fuat Şaroğlu
  • Şeyda Olgun
  • Hasan Elmacı
  • Tolga Çan
Original Research Paper

Abstract

We have updated the active fault map of Turkey and built its database within GIS environment. In the study, four distinct active fault types, classified according to geochronological criteria and character, were delineated on the 1:25,000 base map of Turkey. 176 fault segments not included in the former active fault map of Turkey, have been identified and documented. We infer that there are 485 single fault segments which are substantially potential seismic sources. In total 1964 active-fault base-maps were transferred into the GIS environment. Each fault was attributed with key parameters such as class, activity, type, length, trend, and attitude of fault plane. The fault parameters are also supported by slip-rate and seismogenic depth inferred from available GPS, seismological and paleoseismological data. Additionally, expected maximum magnitude for each fault segment was estimated by empirical equations. We present the database in a parametric catalogue of fault segments to be of interest in earthquake engineering and seismotectonics. The study provides essential geological and seismological inputs for regional seismic hazard analysis of all over Turkey and its vicinity.

Keywords

Turkey Active fault Fault parameters Seismic hazard 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was carried out as the ‘Updating of Active Fault Map of Turkey and its Database’ project supported by the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) between 2004 and 2011. We gratefully acknowledge the MTA for the support provided. Also we would like to thank the reviewers for their comments that improved the paper. The active fault base maps are accessible on the Earth Science Map Portal of the MTA (http://yerbilimleri.mta.gov.tr).

References

  1. Aksoy ME, Meghraoui M, Vallee M, Çakır Z (2010) Rupture characteristics of the AD 1912 Murefte (Ganos) earthquake segment of the North Anatolian fault (western Turkey). Geology 38:991–994Google Scholar
  2. Aktar M, Ergin M, Ozalabey S, Tapirdamaz C (2000) A lower-crustal event in the Northeastern Mediterranean: the 1998 Adana Earthquake (Mw = 6.2) and its Aftershocks. Geophys Res Lett 27(16):2361–2364Google Scholar
  3. Aktuğ B, Nocquet JM, Cingöz A, Parsons A, Erkan Y, England P, Lenk O, Gürdal MA, Kilicoglu A, Akdeniz H, Tekgül A (2009) Deformation of western Turkey from a combination of permanent and campaign GPS data: limits to block-like behaviour. J Geophys Res. doi: 10.1029/2008jb006000
  4. Aktuğ B, Parmaksız E, Kurt M, Lenk O, Kılıçoğlu A, Gürdal MA, Özdemir S (2013) Deformation of Central Anatolia: GPS implications. J Geodyn 67:78–96. doi: 10.1016/j.jog.2012.05.008 Google Scholar
  5. Akyol N, Zhu L, Mitchell BJ, Sözbilir H, Kekovali K (2006) Crustal structure and local seismicity in western Anatolia. Geophys. J Int 166:1259–1269Google Scholar
  6. Altunel E (1999) Geological and geomorphological observations in relation to the 20 September 1899 Menderes earthquake, Western Turkey. J Geol Soc 156:241–246Google Scholar
  7. Ambraseys NN (1970) Some characteristic features of the North Anatolian fault zone. Tectonophysics 9:143–165Google Scholar
  8. Ambraseys NN (1988) Engineering seismology. J Earthq Eng Str Dyn 17:1–105Google Scholar
  9. Ambraseys NN (2002) The seismic activity of the Marmara Sea region over the last 2000 years. Bull Seismol Soc Am 92:1–18Google Scholar
  10. Ambraseys NN, Finkel CF (1987) Seismicity of Turkey and neighbouring regions, 1899-1915. Ann Geophys 5B(6):701–726Google Scholar
  11. Ambraseys NN, Finkel CF (1995) The seismicity of Turkey and adjacent areas: a historical review. Eren Yayıncılık, İstanbul, pp 1500–1800Google Scholar
  12. Ambraseys NN, Jackson JA (1998) Faulting associated with historical and recent earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Geophys J Int 133:390–406Google Scholar
  13. Ambraseys NN, Jackson JA (2000) Seismicity of the Sea of Marmara (Turkey) since 1500. Geophys J Int 141:F1–F6Google Scholar
  14. Angelier J, Lybéris N, Le Pichon X, Barrier E, Huchon P (1982) The tectonic development of the Hellenic arc and the sea of Crete a synthesis. Tectonophysics 86:159–196Google Scholar
  15. Armijo R, Meyer B, Hubert-Ferrari A, Barka A (1999) Westward propagation of the North Anatolian fault into the northern Aegean: timing and kinematics. Geology 27:267–270Google Scholar
  16. Armijo R, Meyer B, Navarro S, King G, Barka A (2002) Asymmetric slip partitioning in the Sea of Marmara pull-apart: a clue to propagation processes of the North Anatolian fault? Terra Nova 14(2):80–86Google Scholar
  17. Armijo R, Pondard N, Meyer B, Uçarkus G, Mercier de Lepinay B, Malavieille J, Dominguez S, Gustcher MA, Schmidt S, Beck C, Çagatay N, Çakır Z, Imren C, Eris K, Natalin B, Özalaybey S, Tolun L, Lefevre I, Seeber N, Gasperini L, Rangin C, Emre O, Sarikavak K (2005) Submarine fault scarps in the Sea of Marmara pull-apart (North Anatolian fault): implications for seismic hazard in Istanbul. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 6(6):1–29. doi: 10.1029/2004GC000896
  18. Arpat AE (1971) 22 Mayıs, 1971 Bingöl Depremi-Ön Rapor. Institute of Mineral Research and Exploration Report No: 4697Google Scholar
  19. Arpat E (1977) 1975 Lice depremi. Yeryuvarı ve İnsan 2–1:15–27Google Scholar
  20. Arpat E, Bingöl E (1969) Ege bölgesinin gelişimi üzerine düşünceler. Min Res Bull 73:1–9Google Scholar
  21. Arpat E, Şaroğlu F (1972) Doğu Anadolu Fayi ile ilgili bazi gözlemler ve düşünceler. MTA Dergisi 78:33–39Google Scholar
  22. Arpat E, Şaroğlu F (1975) Türkiye’deki bazı önemli genç tektonik olaylar. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurumu Bülteni 18:91–101Google Scholar
  23. Ayhan ME, Demir C, Kahveci M, Kaplan M (1995) 1990–1993 Yılları GPS ölçümleri ile Gerede-Adapazarı bölgesindeki alanın belirlenmesi. In: Türk Haritacılığının 100. yılı Bilimsel Kongresi, pp 55–66, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  24. Barka AA (1992) The North Anatolian fault. Ann Tecton 6:174–195Google Scholar
  25. Barka AA (1996) Slip distribution along the North Anatolian fault associated with the large earthquakes of the period 1939 to 1967. Bull Seismol Soc Am 86(5):1238–1254Google Scholar
  26. Barka A (1997) Neotectonics of the Marmara region in active tectonics of northwest Anatolia. In: Schindler C, Pfister M (eds) The Marmara poly-project. Hochshulverlag AG and der ETH, Zurich, pp 55–87Google Scholar
  27. Barka AA, Kadinsky-Cade K (1988) Strike-slip fault geometry in Turkey and its influence on earthquake activity. Tectonics 7:663–684Google Scholar
  28. Barka A, Reilinger R (1997) Active tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region: deduced from GPS, neotectonic and seismicity data. Analli di Geofisica 40(3):587–610Google Scholar
  29. Barka A, Reilinger R, Şaroğlu F, Şengör AMC (1995) The Isparta Angle: its importance in the neotectonics of Eastern Mediterranean region. In: IESCA-1995 Proceedings, pp 13–18Google Scholar
  30. Barka AA, Akyüz HS, Cohen HA, Watchorn F (2000) Tectonic evolution of the Niksar and Tasova-Erbaa pullapart basins, North Anatolian Fault Zone: their significance for the motion of the Anatolian block. Tectonophysics 322:243–264Google Scholar
  31. Barka AA, Akyüz S, Altunel E, Sunal G, Çakır Z, Dikbaş A, Yerli B, Armijo R, Meyer B, Chabalier JB, Rockwell T, Dolan JR, Hartleb R, Dawson T, Christofferson S, Tucker A, Fumal T, Langridge R, Stenner H, Lettis W, Bachhuber J, Page W (2002) The surface rupture and slip distribution of the 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake (M 7.4), North Anatolian fault. Bull Seismol Soc Am 92(1):43–60Google Scholar
  32. Blumenthal MM (1963) Le systeme structural du Taurus sud Anatolies. Bull Soc Geol Fr In: Livre a Memoire de Professor P. Fallot. Mem Soc Geol Fr 1(2):611–662Google Scholar
  33. Bonilla MG, Mark RK, Lienkaemper JJ (1984) Statistical relations among earthquake magnitude, surface rupture length, and surface fault displacement. Bull Seism Soc Am 74:2379–2411Google Scholar
  34. Boray A, Şaroğlu A, Emre O (1985) Isparta bükklümünün kuzey kesiminde doğu-batı daralma için veriler. Jeo Müh Dergisi 23:9–20Google Scholar
  35. Bozkurt E (2001) Neotectonics of Turkey—a synthesis. Geodin Acta 14:3–30. doi: 10.1016/S0985-3111(01)01066-X Google Scholar
  36. Bozkurt E, Koçyiğit A (1995) The Kazova basin: an active negative flower structure on the Almus Fault Zone, a splay fault system of the North Anatolian fault zone, Turkey. Tectonophysics 265:239–254Google Scholar
  37. Bozkurt E, Mittwede SK (2001) Introduction to the geology of Turkey—a synthesis. Int Geol Rev 43(7):578–594Google Scholar
  38. Bulut F, Bohnhoff M, Eken T, Janssen C, Kilic T, Dresen G (2012) The East Anatolian Fault Zone: seismotectonic setting and spatiotemporal characteristics of seismicity based on precise earthquake locations. J Geophys Res Solid Earth. doi: 10.1029/2011jb008966 Google Scholar
  39. Burchfiel BC, King RW, Todosov A, Kotzev V, Durmurdzanov N, Serafimovski T, Nurce B (2006) GPS results for Macedonia and its importance for the tectonics of the Southern Balkan extensional regime. Tectonophysics 413:239–248Google Scholar
  40. Burke K, Şengör AMC (1986) Tectonic escape in the evolution of the continental crust. In: Barazangi M (ed) Reflection seismology, continental crust, geodynamic series. American Geophysical Union Special Publication 14:41–53. doi: 10.1029/GD014p0041
  41. Çakir Z, de Chabalier JB, Armijo R, Meyer B, Barka AA, Peltzer G (2003) Coseismic and early post-seismic slip associated with the 1999 Izmit earthquake (Turkey), from SAR interferometry and tectonic field observations. Geophys J Int 155:93–110Google Scholar
  42. Caputo R, Chatzipetros A, Pavlides S, Sboras S (2012) The Greek database of seismogenic sources (GreDaSS): state-of-the-art for northern Greece. Ann Geophys 55(5):859–894. doi: 10.4401/ag-5168 Google Scholar
  43. Caputo R, Sboras S, Pavlides S, Chatzipetros A (2015) Comparison between single-event effects and cumulative effects for the purpose of seismic hazard assessment. A review from Greece. Earth Sci Rev 148:94–120Google Scholar
  44. Çetin H, Güneyli H, Mayer L (2003) Paleoseismology of the Palu-Lake Hazar segment of the East Anatolian fault Zone, Turkey. Tectonophysics 374:163–197Google Scholar
  45. Cormier MH, Seeber L, McHugh CMG, Polonia A, Çağatay N, Emre Ö, Gasperini L, Görür N, Bortoluzzi G, Bonatti E, Ryan WBF, Newman KR (2006) North Anatolian fault in the Gulf of İzmit (Turkey): Rapid vertical motion in response to minor bends of a nonvertical continental transform. J Geophys Res 111:B04102. doi: 10.1029/2005JB003633 Google Scholar
  46. Darragh RB, Bolt BA (1987) A comment on the statistical regression relation between earthquake magnitude and fault rupture length. Bull Seism Soc Am 77:1479–1484Google Scholar
  47. de Polo CM, Clark DG, Slemmons DB Aymand WH (1989) Historical Basin and Range Province surface faulting and fault segmentation. In: Schwartz DP, Sibson RH (eds) Fault segmentation and controls of rupture initiation and termination. US Geol Surv Open File Rep No: 89-315, pp 131–162Google Scholar
  48. de Polo CM, Clark DG, Slemmons DB, Ramelli AR (1991) Historical surface faulting in the Basin and Range Province, western North America-implications for fault segmentation. J Struct Geol 13:123–136Google Scholar
  49. Dewey JW (1976) Seismicity of Northern Anatolia. Bull Seismol Soc Am 66(3):843–868Google Scholar
  50. Dewey JF, Hempton MR, Kidd WSF, Şaroğlu F, Şengör AMC (1986) Shortening of continental lithosphere: the neotectonics of Eastern Anatolia—a young collision zone. Geol Soci 19:1–36. doi: 10.1144/gsl.sp.1986.019.01.01
  51. Djamour Y, Vernant P, Nankalı HR, Tavakolı F (2011) NW Iran-Eastern Turkey present-day kinematics: results from the iranian permanent Gps network. Earth Planet Sci Lett 307:27–34Google Scholar
  52. Dolmaz MN (2007) An aspect of the subsurface structure of the Burdur-Isparta area, SW Anatolia, based on gravity and aeromagnetic data, and some tectonic implications. Earth Planets Space 59:5–12Google Scholar
  53. Duman TY, Emre O (2013) The East Anatolian fault: geometry, segmentation and jog characteristics. Geol Soc 372:495–529. doi: 10.1144/sp372.14 Google Scholar
  54. Duman TY, Emre Ö, Doğan A, Özalp S (2005) Step-over and bend structures along the 1999 Duzce earthquake surface rupture, North Anatolian fault, Turkey. Bull Seismol Soc Am 95:1250–1262Google Scholar
  55. Duman TY, Elmacı H, Özalp S, Olgun Ş, Emre Ö (2013) Simav Fay Zonunda ilk paleosismolojik bulgular. 66. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayı, 1–5 Nisan 2013, ODTÜ Kültür ve Kongre Merkezi, Bildiri Özleri Kitabı, pp 28-29, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  56. Duman TY, Çan T, Emre Ö, Kadirioğlu FT, Başarır Baştürk N, Kılıç T, Arslan S, Özalp S, Kartal RF, Kalafat D, Karakaya F, Eroğlu Azak T, Özel NM, Ergintav S, Akkar S, Altınok Y, Tekin S, Cingöz and Kurt Aİ (2016) Seismotectonics database of Turkey. Bull Earthq Eng. doi: 10.1007/s10518-016-9965-9
  57. Elliott J, Copley A, Holley R, Scharer K, Parsons B (2013) The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey) earthquake. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 118:1619–1637. doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50117 Google Scholar
  58. Emre Ö (2010) Türkiye Diri Fay Haritası 1:250.000 Ölçekli Çanakkale (NK 35-10b) Paftası. MTA 1:250.000 Ölçekli Diri Fay Haritaları Serisi, No: 1, 40 s., Ankara, TürkiyeGoogle Scholar
  59. Emre Ö, Doğan A (2010) Türkiye Diri Fay Haritası 1:250.000 Ölçekli Ayvalık (NJ 35-2) Paftası. MTA 1:250.000 Ölçekli Diri Fay Haritaları Serisi, No: 2, 32 s., Ankara, TürkiyeGoogle Scholar
  60. Emre Ö, Duman TY, Doğan A, Özalp S (2002) 06 Haziran 2000 Orta (Çankırı) Depremi: kaynak fay ve hasar dağılımına etki eden jeolojik faktörler. 54. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayı, Bildiriler CD’si, Bildiri No: 54–57, Ankara, 7–10 Mayıs 2001Google Scholar
  61. Emre Ö, Duman TY, Özalp S, Doğan A, Tokay F, Kuşçu İ (2002) Surface faulting associated with the Sultandağı earthquake (Mw 6.5) of 3 February 2002, Southwestern Turkey. Seismol Res Lett 74(4):382–391Google Scholar
  62. Emre Ö, Awata Y, Duman TY (eds) (2003) Surface Ruptures Associated with the August 17, 1999 Izmit Earthquake. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Special Publications-1, 51-280, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  63. Emre Ö, Koehler RD, Hengesh J, Duman TY, Akyüz S, Altunel E, Barka A (2004) Late holocene activity of Erzurum fault zone in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, GSA 2004, November 7–10 Denver, Abstract No: 59-2Google Scholar
  64. Emre Ö, Doğan A, Yıldırım C, Şaroğlu F (2005a) Active fault pattern and bend kinematics in NW Anatolia. In: International Symposium on the Geodynamics of Eastern Mediterranean: active tectonics of the Aegean Region, 15–18 June 2005, Kadir Has University, Abstracts, p 98, İstanbul, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  65. Emre Ö, Doğan A, Özalp S, Yıldırım C (2005b) İzmir yakın çevresinin diri fayları ve 17 Ekim 2005 Sığacık depremleri. Cumhuriyet Bilim-Teknik, 29 Ekim 2005, 971, 8–9, İstanbulGoogle Scholar
  66. Emre Ö, Doğan A, Özalp S (2005c) İzmir depremlerinin kaynak fay özellikleri. Cumhuriyet Bilim-Teknik, 12 Kasım 2005, 973, 18–19, İstanbulGoogle Scholar
  67. Emre Ö, Duman TY, Özalp S, Elmacı H (2010) On the source fault of the 8 March 2010 Başyurt–Karakoçan (Elazığ) Earthquake (Mw:6.1). In: 63rd geological congress of Turkey, April 5–9, 2010, Proceedings Book, pp 36–37, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  68. Emre Ö, Doğan A, Özalp S, Yıldırım C (2011a) 1:250.000 Ölçekli Türkiye Diri Fay Haritası Bandırma (NK 35-11b) Paftası. MTA 1:250.000 Ölçekli Diri Fay Haritaları Serisi, Seri No: 3, 55 s., AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  69. Emre Ö, Doğan A, Özalp S (2011b) 1:250.000 Ölçekli Türkiye Diri Fay Haritası Balıkesir (NJ 35-3) Paftası. MTA 1:250.000 Ölçekli Diri Fay Haritaları Serisi, Seri No: 4, 35 s., AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  70. Emre Ö, Duman TY, Özalp S, Doğan A (2012) Simav Fayı ve 19 Mayıs 2011 Simav Depremi (Mw: 5.8). 65. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayı, 2-6 Nisan 2012, MTA Genel Müdürlüğü Kültür Sitesi, Bildiri Özleri Kitabı, pp 10–11, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  71. Emre Ö, Duman TY, Özalp S, Elmacı H, Olgun Ş, Şaroğlu F (2013) Active fault map of Turkey with an explanatory text 1:1,250,000 scale. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Special Publication Series 30Google Scholar
  72. Ergin M, Aktar M (2009) A high-resolution aftershock seismicity image of the 2002 Sultandaği-Çay Earthquake (Mw = 62), Turkey. J Seismol 13:633–646. doi: 10.1007/s10950-009-9155-1 Google Scholar
  73. Ergin M, Aktar M, Eyidogan H (2004) Present-day seismicity and seismotectonics of the Cilician Basin: Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Bull Seismol Soc Am 94:930–939Google Scholar
  74. Ergintav S, Reilinger RE, Çakmak R, Floyd M, Çakır Z, Doğan U, King RW, McClusky S, Özener H (2014) Istanbul’s earthquake hot spots: geodetic constraints on strain accumulation along faults in the Marmara seismic gap. Geophys Res Lett 41:5783–5788. doi: 10.1002/2014GL060985
  75. Erinç S (1953) Doğu Anadolu’nun coğrafyası, İstanbul Univ. Publ. No572, p 124Google Scholar
  76. Erol O (1983) Türkiye’nin genç tektonik ve jeomorfolojik gelişimi. Jeomorfoloji Derg 11:1–22Google Scholar
  77. Eyidoğan H, Jackson J (1985) A seismological study of normal faulting in the Demirci, Alaşehir and Gediz earthquakes of 1969–70 in western Turkey: implications for the nature and geometry of deformation in the continental crust. Geophys J R Astr Soc 81:569–607Google Scholar
  78. Flerit F, Armijo R, King G, Meyer B (2004) The mechanical interaction between the propagating North Anatolian fault and the back-arc extension in the Aegean. Earth Planet Sci Lett 224:347–362. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2004.05.028 Google Scholar
  79. Garfunkel Z (2014) Lateral motion and deformation along the dead sea transform. In: Garfunkel Z, Ben-Avraham Z, Kağan E (eds) Dead sea transform fault system—reviews. Springer, Berlin, pp 109–150Google Scholar
  80. Glover C, Robertson AHF (1998) Neotectonic intersection of the Aegean and Cyprus tectonic arcs: extensional and strike-slip faulting in the Isparta Angle, SW Turkey. Tectonophysics 298:103–132Google Scholar
  81. Görür N, Şengör AMC, Sakınc M, Tüysüz O, Akkök R, Yiğitbaş E, Oktay FY, Barka A, Sarıca N, Ecevitoğlu B, Demirbağ E, Ersoy S, Algan O, Güneysu C, Aykol A (1995) Rift formation in the Gökova region, southwest Anatolia: implications for the opening of the Aegean Sea. Geol Mag 132:637–650Google Scholar
  82. Gudjabidze GE (2003) Geological Map of Georgia 1:500 000. In: Gamkrelidze IP (ed) Georgian State Department of Geology and National Oil Company ‘Saknatobi’ TbilisiGoogle Scholar
  83. Gürbüz C, Aktar M, Eyidoğan H, Cisternas A, Haessler H, Barka A, Ergin M, Türkelli N, Polat O, Üçer SB, Kuleli S, Barıs S, Kaypak B, Bekler T, Zor E, Biçmen F, Yörük A (2000) The seismotectonics of the Marmara region. Tectonophysics 316:1–17Google Scholar
  84. Gürer ÖF, Bozcu M, Yılmaz K, Yılmaz Y (2001) Neogene basin development around Söke-Kuşadası (Western Anatolia) and its bearing on tectonic development of the Aegean region. Geodin Acta 14:57–69Google Scholar
  85. Gürer ÖF, Sanğu E, Özburan M, Gürbüz A, Sarica-Filoreau N (2013) Complex basin evolution in the Gökova Gulf region: implications on the Late Cenozoic tectonics of Southwest Turkey. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 102:2199–2221. doi: 10.1007/s00531-013-0909-1 Google Scholar
  86. Gürer ÖF, Sanğu E, Özburan M, Gürbüz A, Gürer A, Sinir H (2016) Plio-Quaternary kinematic development and paleostress pattern of the Edremit basin, Western Turkey. Tectonophysics 679:199–210Google Scholar
  87. Hempton MR (1985) Structure and deformation history of Bitlis suture near Lake Hazar, southeastern Turkey. Bull Geol Soc Am 96:233–243Google Scholar
  88. Herece E (2008) Doğu Anadolu Fayı (DAF) Atlası. MTA Özel Yayın Serisi, No: 13, 359 s., AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  89. Hessami K, Jamali F, Tabassi H (2003) Major active faults of Iran. Ministry of Science, Research and technology, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and SeismologyGoogle Scholar
  90. Hubert A, Armijo R, King G, Gasse F, Barka AA (1997) Slip rate of the North Anatolian fault, Turkey: Eos (Transactions, American Geophysical Union), v. 78Google Scholar
  91. Hubert-Ferrari A, Armijo R, King G, Meyer B, Barka A (2002) Morphology, displacement, and slip rates along the North Anatolian fault, Turkey. J Geophys Res. doi: 10.1029/2001JB000393 Google Scholar
  92. İmren C (2007) Marmara Denizi aktif tektonizmasının sismik yansıma ve derinlik verilerinin incelenmesi. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü, Monografi Serisi No: 3, 202 s., AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  93. İmren C, Le Pichon X, Rangin C, Demirbağ E, Ecevitoğlu B, Görür N (2001) The North Anatolian Fault within the Sea of Marmara: a new interpretation based on multi-channel seismic and multi-beam bathymetry data. Earth Planet Sci Lett 186:143–158Google Scholar
  94. Jackson J, McKenzie D (1984) Active tectonics of the Alpine–Himalayan Belt between western Turkey and Pakistan. Geophys J R Astr Soc 77:185–264Google Scholar
  95. Jennings CW (1994) An explanatory text to accompany the fault activity map of California and adjacent areas with locations and ages of recent volcanic eruptions 1:750000 scale. California Department of Conservation Division of Mines and Geology Publications and Information, Geological Data Map No: 6, 92 p., Sacremento, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  96. Kadirioğlu FT, Kartal RF, Kılıç¸ T, Kalafat D, Duman TY, Eroğlu Azak T, Özalp S, Emre Ö (2016) An improved earthquake catalogue (M > 4.0) for Turkey and its near vicinity. Bull Earthq Eng (accepted)Google Scholar
  97. Kadirov F, Mammadov S, Reilinger R, McClusky S (2008) Some new data on modern tectonic deformation and active faulting in Azerbaijan (according to Global Positioning System measurements). Proc Azerbaijan Natl Acad Sci Sci Earth 1:82–88Google Scholar
  98. Karabulut H, Bouin M, Bouchon M, Dietrich M, Cournou C, Aktar M (2002) The seismicity in the eastern Marmara sea after the August 17, 1999 Izmit earthquake. Bull Seism Soc Am 92:387–393Google Scholar
  99. Kartal FR, Kadirioğlu FT (2015) 2011–2012 Simav Earthquakes (Ml = 5.7, Ml = 5.0, Ml = 5.4) and relationship with the tectonic structure of the region. Yerbilimleri 35(3):185–198Google Scholar
  100. Kaypak B, Eyidoğan H (2005) One-dimensional crustal structure of the Erzincan basin, Eastern Turkey and relocations of the 1992 Erzincan earthquake (Ms = 6.8) aftershock sequence. Phys Earth Planet Int 151:1–20. doi: 10.1016/j.pepi.2004.11.009 Google Scholar
  101. Kazancı N, Dündar S, Alçicek MC, Gürbüz A (2009) Quaternary deposits of the Büyük Menderes graben in western Anataolia, Turkey: implication for river capture and longest Holocene estuary in Aeggean Sea. Mar Geol 264(2–3):165–176Google Scholar
  102. Ketin İ (1948) Über die tektonisch-mechanischen Folgerungen aus den grossen anatolischen Erdbeben des letzten Dezenniums. Geol Rundsch 36:77–83Google Scholar
  103. Ketin İ (1966) Tectonic units of Anatolia (Asia Minor). Miner Resour Explor Inst Bull 66:23–34Google Scholar
  104. Ketin İ (1968) Relations between general tectonic features and the main earthquake regions of Turkey: mineral research and exploration institute of Turkey. Bulletin 71:63–67Google Scholar
  105. Ketin İ (1969) On the North Anatolian fault. Bull Min Res Explor Inst 72:1–28Google Scholar
  106. Knuepfer PLK (1989) Implications of the characteristics of end-points of historical surface fault ruptures for the nature of fault segmentation. In: Schwartz DP, Sibson RH (eds) Fault segmentation and controls of rupture initiation and termination. US Geol Surv Open File Rep No: 89-315, pp 193–228Google Scholar
  107. Koçyiğit A (1983) Hoyran Gölü (Isparta Büklümü) Dolayının Tektoniği. TJK Bült 26:1–10Google Scholar
  108. Koçyiğit A (1984) Güneybatı Türkiye ve civarının neotektoniği. Türkiye Joloji Kurumu Bülten 27:1–16Google Scholar
  109. Koçyiğit, A (1988a) Tectonic setting of the Geyve basin: age and total displacement of the Geyve fault zone. In: 1987 Melih Tokay Symposium. METU J Pure Appl Sci 21:81–104Google Scholar
  110. Koçyiğit A (1988b) Basic geologic characteristics and total offset of the North Anatolian Fault Zone in Suşehri area, NE Turkey. METU J Pure Appl Sci 22:43–68Google Scholar
  111. Koçyiğit A (1989) Suşehri basin: an active fault wedge basin on the North Anatolian fault zone. Tectonophysics 167:13–29Google Scholar
  112. Koçyiğit A (1990) Tectonic setting of the Gölova basin: total offset of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, E. Pontide, Turkey. Ann Tecton 4:155–170Google Scholar
  113. Koçyiğit A (2005) The Denizli graben-horst system and the eastern limit of western Anatolian continental extension: basin fill, structure, deformational mode, throw amount and episodic evolutionary history, SW Turkey. Geodin Acta 18(3):167–208Google Scholar
  114. Koçyiğit A, Beyhan A (1998) A new intracontinenal transcurrent structure: the Central Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey. Tectonophysics 284:317–336Google Scholar
  115. Koçyiğit A, Özacar A (2003) Extensional neotectonic regime through the NE edge of outer Isparta Angle, SW Turkey: new field and seismic data. Turkish J Earth Sci 12:67–90Google Scholar
  116. Koçyiğit A, Yusufoğlu H, Bozkurt E (1999) Evidence from the Gediz Graben for episodic two-stage extension in western Turkey. J Geol Soc Lond 156:605–616Google Scholar
  117. Koçyiğit A, Ünay E, Saraç G (2000) Epipodic graben formation and extensional neotectonic regime in west Centarl Anatolia and Isparta Angle: a case study in the Akşehir-Afyon graben, Turkey. In Bozkurt E, Winchester JA, Piper DA (eds) Tectonics and magmatism in Turkey and the surrounding Area. J Geol Soc London, Special Publication 173:405–421Google Scholar
  118. Konak N (1982) Simav dolayının jeolojisi ve metamorfik kayaçlarının evrimi. İstanbul Yerbilimleri 3:313–337Google Scholar
  119. Kondo H, Özaksoy V, Yildirim C, Awata Y, Emre Ö, Okumura K (2004) 3D trenching survey at Demir Tepe site on the 1944 Bolu-Gerede earthquake ruptures, North Anatolian fault system, Turkey. Seismol Res Lett 75(2):292Google Scholar
  120. Koukouvelas IK, Aydın A (2002) Fault structure and related basins of the North Aegean Sea and its surroundings. Tectonics 21(5):1046. doi: 10.1029/2001TC901037 Google Scholar
  121. Kozacı Ö, Dolan J, Finkel R, Hartleb RD (2007) Late Holocene slip rate for the North Anatolian fault, Turkey, from cosmogenic 36Cl geochronology: implications for the constancy of fault loading and strain release rates. Geology 35(10):867–870Google Scholar
  122. Kozacı Ö, Dolan JF, Finkel RC (2009) A late Holocene slip rate for the central North Anatolian fault, at Tahtaköprü, Turkey, from cosmogenic 10Be geochronology: implications for fault loading and strain release rates. J Geophys Res v:114Google Scholar
  123. Kozacı Ö, Dolan JF, Yönlü Ö, Hartleb RD (2011) Paleoseismologic evidence for the relatively regular recurrence of infrequent, large-magnitude earthquakes on the eastern North Anatolian fault at Yaylabeli, Turkey. Lithosphere 3(1):37–54. doi: 10.1130/L118.1 Google Scholar
  124. Kürçer A, Gökten YE (2014) Neotectonic-period characteristics, seismicity, geometry and segmentation of the Tuz Gölü fault zone. Bull Min Res Exp 149:19–68Google Scholar
  125. Kurt H, Demirbağ E, Kuşcu İ (1999) Investigation of the submarine active tectonism in the Gulf of Gökova, southwest Anatolia–southeast Aegean Sea, by multi-channel seismic reflection data. Tectonophysics 305:477–496Google Scholar
  126. Kuşçu İ, Okamura M, Matsuoka H, Awata Y (2002) Active faults in the Gulf of İzmit on the North Anatolian Fault, NW Turkey: a high-resolution shallow seismic study. Mar Geol 190(1–2):421–443Google Scholar
  127. Le Pichon X, Chamot-Rooke C, Lallemant S, Noomen R, Veis G (1995) Geodetic determination of the kinematics of Central Greece with respect to Europe: implications for Eastern Mediterranean tectonics. J Geophys Res 100:12675–12690Google Scholar
  128. Le Pichon X, Şengör AMC, Demirbağ E, Rangin C, İmren C, Armijo R, Görür N, Çağatay N, Mercier de Lepinay B, Meyer B, Saatçılar R, Tok B (2001) The active main Marmara fault. Earth Planet Sci Lett 192:595–616Google Scholar
  129. Le Pichon X, Chamot-Rooke N, Rangin C, Şengör AMC (2003) The North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara. J Geophys Res 108(B4):2179. doi: 10.1029/2002JB001862 Google Scholar
  130. Litchfield NJ, Van Dissen R, Sutherland R, Barnes PM, Cox SC, Norris R, Beavan RJ, Langridge R, Villamor P, Berryman K, Stirling M, Nicol A, Nodder S, Lamarche G, Barrell DJA, Pettinga JR, Little T, Pondard N, Mountjoy JJ, Clark K (2014) A model of active faulting in New Zealand. NZ J Geol Geophys 57(1):32–56. doi: 10.1080/00288306.2013.854256 Google Scholar
  131. McCalpin JP (1996) Paleoseismology. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  132. McClusky S et al (2000) Global positioning system constraints on plate kinematics and dynamics in the eastern mediterranean and caucasus. J Geophys Res 105:5695–5719Google Scholar
  133. McClusky S, Reilinger R, Mahmoud S, Ben Sari D, Tealeb A (2003) GPS constraints on Africa (Nubia) and Arabia plate motions. Geophys J Int 155:126–138. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-246X.2003.02023.x Google Scholar
  134. McKenzie DP (1970) Plate Tectonics of the Mediterranean Region. Nature 226:239–243Google Scholar
  135. McKenzie D (1972) Active tectonics of the mediterranean region. Geophys J R Astr Soc 30:109–186Google Scholar
  136. McKenzie D (1978) Active tectonics of the Alpine–Himalayan belt—the Aegean Sea and surrounding region. Geophys J R Astr Soc 55:217–254Google Scholar
  137. Meade BJ, Hager BH, McClusky SC, Reilinger RE, Ergintav S, Lenk O, Barka A, Özener H (2002) Estimates of seismic potential in the Marmara region from block models of secular deformation constrained by GPS measurements. Bull Seismol Soc Am 92(1):208–215Google Scholar
  138. Nyst M, Thatcher W (2004) New constraints on the active tectonic deformation of the Aegean. J Geophs Res 109:B11406. doi: 10.1029/2003JB002830 Google Scholar
  139. Okay Aİ, Tüysüz O (1999) Tethyan sutures of northern Turkey. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 156:475–515. doi: 10.1144/gsl.sp.1999.156.01.22 Google Scholar
  140. Okay Aİ, Tüysüz O, Kaya Ş (2004) From transpression to transtension: changes in morphology and structure around a bend on the North Anatolian Fault in the Marmara region. Tectophysics 391:259–282Google Scholar
  141. Okumura K, Rockwell TK, Duman T, Tokay F, Kondo H, Yildirim C, Ozaksoy V (2003) Refined slip history of the North Anatolian fault at Gerede on the 1944 rupture: Eos (Transactions, American Geophysical Union), v. 84, no. 46, F715Google Scholar
  142. Oral MB, Reilinger RE, Toksöz MN, Kong RW, Barka AA, Kınık İ, Lenk O (1995) Global positioning system offers evidence of plate motions in eastern Mediterranean. EOS Transac. 76(9)Google Scholar
  143. Över S, Pinar A, Özden S, Yılmaz H, Can U, Kamacı Z (2010) Late Cenozoic stress field in the Cameli Basin, SW Turkey. Tectonophysics 492(1–4):60–72Google Scholar
  144. Özalaybey S, Ergin M, Aktar M, Tapırdamaz C, Biçmen F, Yörük A (2002) The 1999 İzmit Earthquake sequence in Turkey: seismological and tectonic aspects. Bull Seismol Soc Am 92:376–386Google Scholar
  145. Özalp S, Emre Ö, Duman TY, Şaroğlu F, Özaksoy V, Elmacı H, Koç G (2009) Çivril Graben system: morphotectonic structure and active fault characteristics, SW Turkey. 62nd Geological Congress of Turkey, 13–17 April 2009, Abstracts Book-II, pp 794–795, Ankara, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  146. Özalp S, Emre Ö, Duman TY, Törk K (2011) Karapınar (Konya) yöresindeki çizgisel uzanımlı yer çatlaklarının kökeni üzerine paleosismolojik bulgular. Aktif Tektonik Araştırma Grubu Onbeşinci Çalıştayı (ATAG-15), 19–22 Ekim 2011, Çukurova Üniversitesi, Bildiri Özleri Kitabı, 20-21, Karataş-AdanaGoogle Scholar
  147. Özalp S, Emre Ö, Doğan A (2013) The segment structure of southern branch of the North Anatolian Fault and paleoseismological behaviour of the Gemlik fault. NW Anatolia Bull MTA 147:1–17Google Scholar
  148. Pamir HN, Ketin İ (1941) Das Anatolische Erdbeden Ende 1939. Geol Rundsch 32:278–287Google Scholar
  149. Papazachos BC, Papaioannou CA (1999) Lithospheric boundaries and plate motions in the Cyprus area. Tectonophysics 308:193–204Google Scholar
  150. Parsons T, Toda S, Stein R, Barka AA, Dieterich J (2000) Heightened odds of large earthquakes near İstanbul: an interaction-based probability calculation. Science 28:661–665Google Scholar
  151. Paton S (1992) Active normal faulting, drainage patterns and sedimentation in Southwestern Turkey. J Geol Soc Lond 149:1031–1044Google Scholar
  152. Petersen MD, Frankel AD, Harmsen SC, Mueller CS, Haller KM, Wheeler RL, Wesson RL, Zeng Y, Boyd OS, Perkins DM, Luco N, Field EH, Wills CJ, Rukstales KS (2008) Documentation for the 2008 update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1128Google Scholar
  153. Petersen MD, Moschetti MP, Powers P, Mueller CS, Haller KM, Frankel AD, Zeng Y, Rezaeian S, Harmsen SC, Boyd OS, Field N, Chen R, Rukstales KS, Luco N, Wheeler RL (2014a) Updates to the 2014 US National seismic hazard maps: a summary of changes to seismic source and ground motion models. InL: Tenth US National conference on earthquake engineering, Anchorage, Alaska, July 21–25Google Scholar
  154. Petersen MD, Moschetti MP, Powers P, Mueller CS, Haller KM, Frankel AD, Zeng Y, Rezaeian S, Harmsen SC, Boyd OS, Field N, Chen R, Rukstales KS, Luco N, Wheeler RL, Williams RA, Olsen AH (2014b) Documentation for the 2014 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014-1091. http://dx.doi.org/10.333/ofr20141091/
  155. Pucci S, De Martini PM, Pantosti D (2007) Preliminary slip rate estimates for the Düzce segment of the North Anatolian fault zone from offset geomorphic markers. Geomorphology 97(3–4):538–554Google Scholar
  156. Rangin C, Demirbağ E, İmren C, Crusson A, Normand A, Le Drezen E, Le Bot A (2001) Marine Atlas of the Sea of Marmara (Turkey). IFREMER, Paris. ISBN 2-84433-068-1Google Scholar
  157. Reilinger RE, McClusky SC, Oral MB, King W, Toksöz MN (1997) Global positioning, system measurements of present-day crustal movements in the Arabian–Africa–Eurasia plate collision zone. J Geophys Res 102:9983–9999Google Scholar
  158. Reilinger R, McClusky S, Vernant P, Lawrence S, Ergintav S, Cakmak R, Ozener H, Kadirov F, Guliev I, Stepanyan R, Nadariya M, Hahubia G, Mahmoud S, Sakr K, ArRajehi A, Paradissis D, Al-Aydrus A, Prilepin M, Guseva T, Evren E, Dmitrotsa A, Filikov SV, Gomez F, Al-Ghazzi R, Karam G (2006) GPS constraints on continental deformation in the Africa-Arabia–Eurasia continental collision zone and implications for the dynamics of plate interactions. J Geophys Res 111:B05411Google Scholar
  159. Rezaeian S, Petersen MD, Moschetti MP, Powers P, Harmsen SC, Frankel AD (2014) Implementation of NGA-West2 Ground Motion Models in the 2014 US National Seismic Hazard Maps. Earthq Spectra 30:1319–1333Google Scholar
  160. Robertson AHF (1998) Mesozoic–Tertiary tectonic evolution of the easternmost Mediterranean area: integration of marine and land evidence. In: Robertson AHF, Emeis K-C, Richter C (eds) Proceedings of ODP, Sci. Results 160. College Station, TX, pp 723–782Google Scholar
  161. Rockwell T, Ragona D, Seitz G, Langridge R, Aksoy ME, Uçarkuş G, Ferry M, Meltzner AJ, Klinger Y. Meghraoui M, Şatır D, Barka A, Akbalık B (2009) Paleoseismology of the North Anatolian Fault near the Marmara Sea: implications for fault segmentation and seismic hazard. In: Reicherter K, Michetti AM, Silva PG (eds) Paleoseismology: historical and prehistorical records of earthquake ground effects for seismic hazard assessment. The Geological Society, London, Special Publications, vol 316, pp 31–54Google Scholar
  162. Şaroğlu F (1985) Doğu Anadolu’nun neotektonik dönemde jeolojik ve yapısal evrimi. Doktora Tezi, İstanbul Üniv. Fen Bilimleri Enst. Jeol Müh Böl 240 s (Yayımlanmamış)Google Scholar
  163. Şaroğlu F, Güner Y (1981) Doğu Anadolu’nun jeomorfolojik gelişimine etki eden öğeler: jeomorfoloji, tektonik, volkanizma ilişkileri. TJK Bült 24:39–50Google Scholar
  164. Şaroğlu F, Yılmaz Y (1986) Doğu Anadolu’da neotektonik dönemdeki jeolojik evrim ve havza modelleri. Min Res Expl Ist Turkey Bull 115:43–52Google Scholar
  165. Şaroğlu F, Emre Ö, Boray A (1987) Türkiye’nin Diri Fayları ve Depremsellikleri. MTA Genel Müdürlüğü, Rapor no: 8174, 394 s., AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  166. Şaroğlu F, Emre Ö, Kuşçu İ (1992a) Türkiye Diri Fay Haritası. MTA Genel Müdürlüğü, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  167. Şaroğlu F, Emre Ö, Kuşçu İ (1992b) The East Anatolian Fault zone of Turkey. Ann Tecton 6:99–125Google Scholar
  168. Sato T, Kasahara J, Taymaz T, Ito M, Kamimura A, Hayakawa T, Tan O (2004) A study of microearthquake seismicity and focal mechanisms within the Sea of Marmara (NW Turkey) using ocean bottom seismometers. Tectonophysics 391:303–314Google Scholar
  169. Scholz CH (1982) Scaling laws for large earthquakes: consequences for physical models. Bull Seism Soc Am 72:1–14Google Scholar
  170. Seeber L, Emre O, Cormier M-H, Sorlien CC, McHugh CMG, Polonia A, Scientific Team of Marmara 2001 (2004) Uplift and subsidence from oblique slip: the Ganos-Marmara Bend of the North Anatolian Transform Western Turkey. Tectonophysics 391:239–258Google Scholar
  171. Şengör AMC (1979a) The North Anatolian transform fault: its age, offset and tectonic significance. J Geol Soc Lond 136:269–282Google Scholar
  172. Şengör AMC (1979b) Mid-Mesozoic closure of Permo-Triassic Tethys and its implications. Nature 279:590–593Google Scholar
  173. Şengör AMC (1980) Türkiye’nin neotektoniğinin esasları. Türkiye Jeololoji Kurumu YayınlarıGoogle Scholar
  174. Şengör AMC (1982) Ege’nin neotektonik evrimini yöneten etkenler. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayı, Batı Anadolu’nun Genç Tektoniği ve Volkanizması Paneli, Ankara, pp 59–71Google Scholar
  175. Şengör AMC (1987) Cross faults and differential stretching of hanging wall in regions of low-angle normal faulting: examples from western Turkey. In: Coward MP, Dewey JF, Hancock P (eds) Continental extensional tectonics, Geol Soc London, Special Publication 28:575–589Google Scholar
  176. Şengör AMC, Barka AA (1992) Evolution of escape-related strike-slip systems: implications for distribution of collisional orogens. In: 29th International geological congress, Kyoto, Japan, Abstracts 1, p 232Google Scholar
  177. Şengör AMC, Kid WSF (1979) Post-collisional tectonics of the Turkish-Iranian plateau and a comparison with Tibet. Tecronophysics 55:361–376Google Scholar
  178. Şengör AMC, Yılmaz Y (1981) Tethyan evolution of Turkey: a plate tectonic approach. Tectonophysics 75:181–241Google Scholar
  179. Şengör AMC, Görür N, Şaroğlu F (1985) Strike-slip faulting and related basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study. In: Biddle KT, Christie-Blick N (eds) Strike-slip deformation, basin formation and sedimentation society of economic paleontologists and mineralogists special publication 37:227–264Google Scholar
  180. Şengör AMC, Tuysuz O, İmren C, Sakinc M, Eyidogan H, Gorur G, Le Pichon X, Rangin C (2005) The North Anatolian fault: a new look. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 33:37–112Google Scholar
  181. Seyitoğlu G, Scott BC, Rundle CC (1992) Timing of Cenozoic extensional tectonics in west Turkey. J Geol SoC Lond 149:533–538Google Scholar
  182. Seymen İ, Aydın A (1972) Bingöl deprem fayı ve bunun Kuzey Anadolu Fayı ile olan ilişkisi. Bull Gen Dir Miner Res Explor 79:1–18Google Scholar
  183. Slemmons DB, Bodin P, Zang X (1989) Determination of earthquake size from surface faulting events. In: Proceedings of the international seminar on seismic zonation, Guangzhou, China, State Seismological Bureau, Beijing, 13Google Scholar
  184. Sözbilir H, Sümer Ö, Özkaymak Ç, Uzel B, Güler T, Eski S (2016) Kinematic analysis and palaeoseismology of the Edremit Fault Zone: evidence for past earthquakes in the southern branch of the North Anatolian fault zone, Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Geodin Acta. doi: 10.1080/09853111.2016.1175294 Google Scholar
  185. Stein RS, Barka AA, Dieterich JH (1997a) Progressive failure on the North Anatolian fault since 1939 by earthquake stress triggering. Geophys J Int 128:594–604Google Scholar
  186. Stein RS, Barka AA, Dieterich JH (1997b) Progressive failure on the North Anatolian fault since 1939 by earthquake stress triggering. Geophys J Int 128:594–604Google Scholar
  187. Stirling MW, McVerry GH, Berryman KR (2002) A new seismic hazard model of New Zealand. Bull. Seis. Soc. Am. 92:1878–1903Google Scholar
  188. Stirling M, McVerry G, Gerstenberger M, Litchfield N, Van Dissen R, Berryman K, Barnes P, Wallace L, Villamor P, Langridge R, Lamarche G, Nodder S, Reyners M, Bradley B, Rhoades D, Smith W, Nicol A, Pettinga J, Clark K, Jacobs K (2012) National seismic hazard model for New Zealand: 2010 update. Bull Seismol Soc Am 102:1514–1542. doi: 10.1785/0120110170 Google Scholar
  189. Sümer Ö, Inci U, Sözbilir H (2013) Tectonic evolution of the Söke Basin: extension-dominated transtensional basin formation in western part of the Büyük Menderes Graben, Western Anatolia, Turkey. J Geodyn 65:148–175Google Scholar
  190. Tan O (2012) The dense micro-earthquake activity at the boundary between the Anatolian and South Aegean microplates. J Geodyn 1160:19pGoogle Scholar
  191. Tatar O, Poyraz F, Gursoy H, Cakir Z, Ergintav S, Akpinar Z, Koçbulut F, Sezen F, Türk T, Hastaoğlu KÖ, Polat A, Mesci B, Gürsoy Ö, Ayazli İE, Çakmak R, Belgen A, Yavaşoğlu H (2012) Crustal deformation and kinematics of the eastern part of The North Anatolian fault zone (Turkey) from GPS measurements. Tectonophysics 518–521:55–62Google Scholar
  192. Taymaz T, Price SP (1992) The 12.5 1971 Burdur earthquake sequence: a synthesis of seismological data and geological observations. Geophys J Int 108:589–603Google Scholar
  193. Taymaz T, Eyidoğan H, Jackson J (1991a) Source parameters of large earthquakes in the East Anatolian fault zone. Geophys J Int 106:537–550Google Scholar
  194. Taymaz T, Jackson J, McKenzie A (1991b) Active tectonics of the north and central Aegean Sea. Geophys J Int 106(2):433–490Google Scholar
  195. Taymaz T, Wright TJ, Soysal S, Tan O, Fielding E, Seyitoğlu G (2001) Source characteristics of the June 6 200 Orta-Çankırı (central Turkey) earthquake: a synthesis of seismological, geological and geodetic (InSAR) observations, and internal deformation of the Anatolian plate. Geol Soc Spec Publ 291:259–290. doi: 10.114/SP291.12 Google Scholar
  196. Tezel T, Shibutani T, Kaypak B (2010) Crustal structure variation in western Turkey inferred from the receiver function analysis. Tectonophysics 492:240–252. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2010.06.006 Google Scholar
  197. Tiryakioğlu I, Floyd M, Erdogan S, Gülal E, Ergintav S (2013) GPS constraints on active deformation in the Isparta Angle region of SW Turkey. Geophys J Int Adv Access (published September 17, 2013)Google Scholar
  198. Tokay M (1973) Kuzey Anadolu Fay Zonunun Gerede ile Ilgaz arasındaki kısmında jeolojik gözlemler. In: Kuzey Anadolu Fayı ve Deprem Kuşağı Simpozyumu (29–31 Mart 1972, Ankara), MTA. Enstitüsü, pp 12–29, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  199. Toksöz MN, Shakal AF, Michael AJ (1979) Space-time migration of earthquakes along the North Anatolian Fault zone and seismic gaps. Pegeoph 117:1258–1270Google Scholar
  200. Türkelli N et al (2003) Seismogenic zones in Eastern Turkey. Geophys Res Lett 30(24):8039. doi: 10.1029/2003gl018023 Google Scholar
  201. Ustaömer T, Gökaşan E, Tur H, Görüm T, Batuk FG, Kalafat D, Alp H, Ecevitoğlu B, Birkan H (2008) Faulting, mass-wasting and deposition in an active dextral shear zone, the Gulf of Saros and the NE Aegean Sea, NW Turkey. Geo Mar Lett 28:171–193. doi: 10.1007/s00367-007-0099-6 Google Scholar
  202. Utkucu M (2013) 23 October 2011 Van, Eastern Anatolia, earthquake (M (W) 7.1) and seismotectonics of Lake Van area. J Seismol 17:783–805. doi: 10.1007/s10950-012-9354-z Google Scholar
  203. Vernant, Ph, Nilforoushan F, Hatzfeld D, Abbassi MR, Vigny C, Masson F, Nankali H, Martinod J, Ashtiani A, Bayer R, Tavakoli F, Chery J (2004) Present-Day crustal deformation and plate kinematics in the middle east constrained by gps measurements in Iran and Northern Oman. Geophys J Int 157:381–398Google Scholar
  204. Wells DL, Coppersmith KJ (1994) New empirical relationships among magnitude, rupture length, rupture width, rupture area, and surface displacement. Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974–1002Google Scholar
  205. Wesnousky S (2008) Displacement and geometrical characteristics of earthquake surface ruptures: issues and implications for seismic-hazard analysis and the process of earthquake rupture. Bull Seismol Soc Am 98(4):1609–1632. doi: 10.1785/0120070111 Google Scholar
  206. Westaway R (2003) Kinematics of the Middle East and eastern Mediterranean updated. Turkish J Earth Sci 12:5–46Google Scholar
  207. Westaway R (2004) Kinematic consistency between the Dead Sea Fault Zone and the Neogene and Quaternary left-lateral faulting in SE Turkey. Tectonophysics 391:203–237. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2004.07.014 Google Scholar
  208. Westaway R, Arger J (1996) The Gölbası basin, southeastern Turkey: a complex discontinuity in a major strike-slip fault zone. J Geol Soc London 153:729–744Google Scholar
  209. Woessner J, Danciu L, Giardini D, Crowley H, Cotton F, Grünthal G, Valensise G, Arvidsson R, Basili R, Demircioglu MN, Hiemer S, Meletti C, Musson RW, Rovida AN, Sesetyan K, Stucchi M, the SHARE consortium (2015) The 2013 European Seismic Hazard Model: key components and results. Earthq Eng, Bull. doi: 10.1007/s10518-015-9795-1 Google Scholar
  210. Wright T, Fielding E, Parsons B, England P, Haynes M (2000) Source parameters of the 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake from SAR interferometry. In: Barka AA, Kozacı O, Akyüz SH, Altunel E (eds) 1999 İzmit and Düzce Earthquakes: Preliminary Results, İstanbul Technical University Publ, pp 289–293, İstanbulGoogle Scholar
  211. Yavasoğlu H, Tarı E, Tüysüz B, Çakır Z, Ergintav S (2011) Determining and modelling tectonic movements along the central part of the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey) using geodetic measurements. J Geodyn 51:339–343Google Scholar
  212. Yiğitbaş E, Yılmaz Y (1996) Post-Late Cretaceous strike-slip tectonics and its implications for the Southeast Anatolian Orogen, Turkey. Int Geol Rev 38(1996):818–831Google Scholar
  213. Yılmaz Y (1993) New evidence and model on the evolution of the Southeast Anatolian Orogen. Geol Soc Am Bull 105:251–271. doi: 10.1130/0016-7606(1993)105<0251:Neamot>2.3.Co;2 Google Scholar
  214. Yılmaz Y, Yiğitbaş E, Genç ŞC (1993) Ophiolitic assemblages and metamorphic of southeast Anatolia and their significance in the geological evaluation of the orogenic belt. Tectonics 12:1280–1297Google Scholar
  215. Yılmaz Y, Güner Y, Şaroğlu F (1998) Geology of the Quaternary volcanic centers of the east Anatolia. J Volcanol Geoterherm Res 85:173–210Google Scholar
  216. Yılmaz Y, Genç SC, Gürer F, Bozcu M, Karacık Z, Altunkaynak Ş, Elmas A (2000) When did the western Anatolian grabens begin to develop? In: E Bozkurt, JA Winchester, JDA Piper (eds) Tectonics and magmatism in Turkey and surroundings area, Geological Society of London, Special Publication No:173, pp 353–384Google Scholar
  217. Yolsal-Çevikbilen S, Biryol CB, Beck S, Zandt G, Taymaz T, Adıyaman HE, Özacar AA (2012) 3-D crustal structure along the North Anatolian fault zone in north-central Anatolia revealed by local earthquake tomography. Geophys J Int 188:819–849. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05313.x Google Scholar
  218. Yönlü Ö (2012) Late Quaternary Activity of the East Anatolian Fault Zone between Gölbaşı (Adıyaman) and Karataş (Adana). Doctoral Dissertation, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Department of Geological Engineering (unpublished)Google Scholar
  219. Yönlü Ö, Altunel E, Karabacak V, Akyüz HS, Yalçıner Ç ( 2010) Offset archaeological relics in the western part of the Büyük Menderes graben (western Turkey) and their tectonic implication. In: Sintubin M, Stewart IS, Niemi TM, Altunel E (eds) Ancient Earthquakes: Geological Society of America, Special Paper 471:269–279Google Scholar
  220. Zhu L, Akyol N, Mitchell J, Sozbilir H (2006) Seismotectonics of Western Turkey from high resolution earthquake relocations and moment tensor determinations. Geophys Res Lett 33:L07316. doi: 10.1029/2006GL025842 Google Scholar
  221. Zor E, Sandvol E, Gürbüz C, Türkelli N, Seber D, Barazangi M (2003) The crustal structure of the East Anatolian plateau (Turkey) from receiver functions. Geophys Res Lett 30(24):8044. doi: 10.1029/2003GL018192 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fugro Sial Geosciences Consulting and EngineeringÇankayaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Geological ResearchGeneral Directorate of Mineral Research and ExplorationÇankayaTurkey
  3. 3.Magtur A.Ş.ÇankayaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Geological EngineeringÇukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey

Personalised recommendations