Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 13, Issue 12, pp 3809–3840 | Cite as

Vulnerability assessment and feasibility analysis of seismic strengthening of school buildings

  • C. Z. Chrysostomou
  • N. Kyriakides
  • V. K. Papanikolaou
  • A. J. Kappos
  • E. G. Dimitrakopoulos
  • A. I. Giouvanidis
Original Research Paper


The majority of structures in seismic-prone areas worldwide are structures that have been designed either without seismic design considerations, or using codes of practice that are seriously inadequate in the light of current seismic design principles. In Cyprus, after a series of earthquakes that occurred between 1995 and 1999, it was decided to carry out an unprecedented internationally seismic retrofitting of all school buildings, taking into account the sensitivity of the society towards these structures. In this paper representative school buildings are analysed in both their pristine condition and after applying retrofitting schemes typical of those implemented in the aforementioned large-scale strengthening programme. Non-linear analysis is conducted on calibrated analytical models of the selected buildings and fragility curves are derived for typical reinforced concrete and unreinforced masonry structures. These curves are then used to carry out a feasibility study, including both benefit-cost and life-cycle analysis, and evaluate the effectiveness of the strengthening programme.


School buildings Seismic vulnerability assessment Non-linear dynamic analysis Cost-benefit analysis Life-cycle cost analysis 



This project ΑΕΙFΟRΙΑ/ΑSΤΙ/0609(ΒΙΕ)/06 is funded under DESMI 2009–10 of the Research Promotion Foundation of Cyprus and by the Cyprus Government and the European Regional Development Fund. The authors would like to acknowledge also the contribution of Mrs E. Georgiou and O. Vassiliou from the Technical Services of the Ministry of Education and Culture of Cyprus and Ms. Elpida Georgiou in the collection of data for the school retrofitting programme, and of Dr L. Kouris (then Ph.D. candidate at the AUTh) in the early part of the analysis of the masonry building.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Z. Chrysostomou
    • 1
  • N. Kyriakides
    • 1
  • V. K. Papanikolaou
    • 2
  • A. J. Kappos
    • 2
    • 3
  • E. G. Dimitrakopoulos
    • 4
  • A. I. Giouvanidis
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering and GeomaticsCyprus University of TechnologyLimassolCyprus
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringCity University LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringHong Kong University of Science & TechnologyHong KongChina

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