Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 1777–1803 | Cite as

Simple and complex modelling of timber-framed masonry walls in Pombalino buildings

  • L. A. S. Kouris
  • H. Meireles
  • R. Bento
  • A. J. Kappos
Original Research Paper


Timber-framed (TF) masonry has been developed as an effective lateral-load resisting system in regions of high seismicity such as Southern Europe. A salient feature of the ‘last generation’ of TF buildings is the presence of diagonal members that may consist of two diagonal braces. The present study focusses on alternative modelling procedures, ranging from simple to rather complex, for this interesting type of traditional structure. All models are applied to study the behaviour of full-scale specimens of diagonally-braced TF panels. The complex model is based on plasticity with contact surfaces for the connection between timber diagonals and masonry infills. A parametric analysis using this model shows that masonry infills affect only slightly the lateral force carried by this TF panel configuration. Furthermore, two simple modelling techniques are put forward for application in the analysis of large, realistic structures incorporating TF walls. The first one is directly connected to the complex modelling and is based on substructuring. A nine-step procedure is developed and is found to properly reproduce the response of the test specimens. The second simple model is a phenomenological one, developed on the basis of observed behaviour during tests and is a complete hysteretic model; however, for comparison purposes, all models are evaluated here with respect to the prediction of the envelope (pushover) curve for the walls tested under lateral loads.


Timber-framed masonry Non-linear static analysis Pushover curve Microscopic modelling Macroscopic modelling 



The author H. Meireles would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (Ministry of Science and Technology of Portugal) through the research Project PTDC/ECM/100872/2008 and through the PhD scholarship SFRH/BD/41710/2007. The author L. Kouris acknowledges the financial support provided by the ‘Bodossaki Foundation’ (Athens, Greece) for carrying out his PhD work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. A. S. Kouris
    • 1
  • H. Meireles
    • 2
  • R. Bento
    • 2
  • A. J. Kappos
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessaloníkiGreece
  2. 2.ICIST, Instituto Superior TécnicoTechnical University of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringCity University LondonLondonUK

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