Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 391–413 | Cite as

A hybrid method for the vulnerability assessment of R/C and URM buildings

  • Andreas J. Kappos
  • Georgios Panagopoulos
  • Christos Panagiotopoulos
  • Gregorios Penelis
Original Research Paper


The methodology followed by the Aristotle University (AUTh) team for the vulnerability assessment of reinforced concrete (R/C) and unreinforced masonry (URM) structures is presented. The paper focuses on the derivation of vulnerability (fragility) curves in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA), as well as spectral displacement (s d), and also includes the estimation of capacity curves, for several R/C and URM building types. The vulnerability assessment methodology is based on the hybrid approach developed at AUTh, which combines statistical data with appropriately processed (utilising repair cost models) results from nonlinear dynamic or static analyses, that permit extrapolation of statistical data to PGA’s and/or spectral displacements for which no data are available. The statistical data used herein are from earthquake-damaged greek buildings. An extensive numerical study is carried out, wherein a large number of building types (representing most of the common typologies in S. Europe) are modelled and analysed. Vulnerability curves for several damage states are then derived using the aforementioned hybrid approach. These curves are subsequently used in combination with the mean spectrum of the Microzonation study of Thessaloniki as the basis for the derivation of new vulnerability curves involving spectral quantities. Pushover curves are derived for all building types, then reduced to standard capacity curves, and can easily be used together with the S d fragility curves as an alternative for developing seismic risk scenarios.


Capacity curves Fragility curves Hybrid methodology Loss assessment R/C buildings URM buildings Vulnerability 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas J. Kappos
    • 1
  • Georgios Panagopoulos
    • 1
  • Christos Panagiotopoulos
    • 1
  • Gregorios Penelis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

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