Content of Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Blood and Expression of DNA Recognition Receptors ZBP-1 in Placental Tissue in Preeclampsia and Preterm Labor
We evaluated the content of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood and expression of ZBP-1 receptors in the placental tissue of women with uncomplicated pregnancy, preeclampsia, and preterm labor. The study included 16 women with preeclampsia (early and late-onset preeclampsia, 8 cases each), 16 women with preterm labor, and 21 women with uncomplicated pregnancy. The concentration of cell-free fetal DNA was measured by PCR by detecting hypermethylated region of the RASSF1A gene. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of the placenta samples using primary polyclonal antibodies to ZBP-1. Significant increase in the level of cell-free fetal DNA was found in women with preeclampsia (both early and late-onset form) in comparison with uncomplicated pregnancy. The concentration of cell-free fetal DNA in preterm labor group did not differ from the control group; however, it was significantly lower than in early-onset preeclampsia, but not late preeclampsia. Immunohistochemical study showed higher expression of ZBP-1 in the villus syncytiotrophoblast in early-onset preeclampsia in comparison with that in preterm labor group (p=0.006). Fragments of damaged placental cells, predominantly trophoblast, enter maternal circulation and are the source of cell-free fetal DNA and a potential ligand for ZBP-1, which leads to further cell damage and the formation of a vicious circle. The increase in the content of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood and ZBP-1 expression in the syncytiotrophoblast in preeclampsia are interrelated processes reflecting impaired morphofunctional state of the placenta.
Key Wordscell-free fetal DNA RASSF1A gene ZBP-1 preeclampsia preterm labor
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