Advertisement

Axiomathes

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 15–78 | Cite as

Situated Ideological Systems: A Formal Concept, a Computational Notation, some Applications

  • Antônio Carlos da Rocha CostaEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper introduces a formal concept of ideology and ideological system. The formalization takes ideologies and ideological systems to be situated in agent societies. An ideological system is defined as a system of operations able to create, maintain, and extinguish the ideologies adopted by the social groups of agent societies. The concepts of group ideology, ideological contradiction, ideological dominance, and dominant ideology of an agent society, are defined. An ideology-based concept of social group is introduced. Relations between the proposed formal concept of ideology and the classical concepts of ideology elaborated in social sciences are examined. A computational notation is presented, to support the realization of ideological systems in computationally implemented agent societies. The adequacy of the approach for the formal modeling and analysis of ideological issues is illustrated through three case studies.

Keywords

Ideologies Ideological systems Agent societies Computational notation for situated ideological systems Formal modeling and analysis of ideological issues 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author thanks Helder Coelho, Agemir Bavaresco and the anonymous referees for their comments and suggestions. CAPES, FAPERGS and CNPq (Grant No. 310423/2014-7) contributed partial financial support.

References

  1. Abramsky S, Gabbay D, Maibaum T (eds) (1994) Handbook of logic in computer science. Claredon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  2. Althusser L (1971) Ideology and ideological state apparatus. In: Brewster B (ed) Lenin and philosophy, and other essays. Monthly Review Press, New York, pp 127–186Google Scholar
  3. Balzer W, Moulines CU, Sneed JD (1987) An architectonic for science—the structuralist program. Reidel, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bourdieu P, Passeron JC (1990) Reproduction in education, society and culture. Sage, Beverley HillsGoogle Scholar
  5. Bowen K, Kowalski R (1982) Amalgamating language and metalanguage in logic programming. In: Clark K, Ake-Trnlund S (eds) Logic programming. Academic Press, New York, pp 153–173Google Scholar
  6. Calhoun C (ed) (1994) Social theory and the politics of identity. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Calhoun C (1994) Social theory and the politics of identity. In: Calhoun et al. (1994), pp 9–36Google Scholar
  8. Carbonell JG (1978) POLITICS: automated ideological reasoning. Cogn Sci 2:27–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Conte R, Castelfranchi C (1995) Cognitive and social action. UCL Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Cook KS, Whitmeyer JM (1992) Two approaches to social structure: exchange theory and network analysis. Annu Rev Sociol 18:109–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Costa ACR (2014a) On the bases of an architectural style for agent societies: Concept and core operational structure. Open publication on www.ResearchGate.net. doi: 10.13140/2.1.4583.8720
  12. Costa ACR (2014b) Proposal for a notion of modularity in multiagent systems. In: van Riemskijk MB, Dalpiaz F, Dix J (eds) Informal proceedings of EMAS 2014, AAMAS@Paris, IFAAMAS, LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  13. Costa ACR (2014c) On the legal aspects of agent societies. Open publication on www.ResearchGate.net. doi: 10.13140/2.1.4345.7923
  14. Costa ACR (2015) Situated legal systems and their operational semantics. Artif Intell Law 43:43–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Costa ACR, Dimuro GP (2007) A basis for an exchange value-based operational notion of morality for multiagent systems. In: Neves J, Santos M, Machado J (eds) Progress in artificial intelligence, 13th Portuguese Conference on artificial intelligence, EPIA 2007. Number 4874 in LNAI. Springer, Berlin, pp 580–592Google Scholar
  16. Costa ACR, Dimuro GP (2009) A minimal dynamical organization model. In: Dignum V (ed) Hanbook of multi-agent systems: semantics and dynamics of organizational models. IGI Global, Hershey, pp 419–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Costa ACR, Dimuro GP, Dugdale J, Demazeau Y (2009) A formal notion of objective expectations in the context of multiagent systems routines. In: Lopes LS, Lau N, Mariano P, Rocha LM (eds) New trends in artifical intelligence, proceedings of 14th Portuguese conference on artificial intelligence. Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, pp 367–378Google Scholar
  18. Costa ACR, Hübner JF, Bordini RH (1994) On entering an open society. In: Proceedings of the XI Brazilian symposium on artificial intelligence. Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, Fortaleza, pp 535–546Google Scholar
  19. Cox OC (1959) Foundations of capitalism. Philosophical Library, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Cox OC (1964) Capitalism as a system. Montly Review, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Cox OC (2011) Capitalism and American leadership. Literaty Licensing, WhitefishGoogle Scholar
  22. Cubitt S (2000) Simulation and social theory. Sage, Beverley HillsGoogle Scholar
  23. Dimuro GP, Costa ACR, Palazzo LAM (2005) Systems of exchange values as tools for multi-agent organizations. J Braz Comput Soc 11:31–50 (Special Issue on Agents’ Organizations) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Durkheim E (1997) The division of labor in society. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Eagleton T (2007) Ideology: an introduction. Verso, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Emerson R (1976) Social exchange theory. In: Inkeles A, Colemen J, Smelser N (eds) Annual review of sociology. Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, pp 335–362Google Scholar
  27. Enderton H (2001) Introduction to mathematical logic. Hartcourt, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  28. Geertz C (1964) Ideology as a cultural system. In: Apter DE (ed) Ideology and discontent. Free Press, New York, pp 47–76Google Scholar
  29. Grimaldo F, Lozano M, Barber F (2008) Coordination and sociability for intelligent virtual agents. In Sichman J, Noriega P, Padget J, Ossowski S (eds) Coordination, organizations, institutions, and norms in agent systems III. Number 4870 in LNAI, Springer, Berlin, pp 58–70Google Scholar
  30. Homans G (1961) Social behavior—its elementary forms. Harcourt, Brace & World, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Hunt M (2009) Ideology and U.S. foreign policy. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  32. Kelsen H (1991) General theory of norms. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kelsen H (2007) General theory of law and state. The Law Book ExchangeGoogle Scholar
  34. Kreinovich V (2014) Decision making under interval uncertainty (and beyond). In: Guo P, Pedrycz W (eds) Human-centric decision-making models for social sciences. Springer, Berlin, pp 163–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mannheim K (1954) Ideology and utopia: an introduction to the sociology of knowledge. Hartcourt, Brace & Co., San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  36. Marx K (1973) The poverty of philosophy—answer to the philosophy of poverty by M. Proudhon. Progress Publishers, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  37. McCarthy J (1960) Recursive functions of symbolic expressions and their computation by machine, part I. Commun ACM 3:184–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McLellan D (1995) Ideology. University of Minessota Press, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  39. Ophir S (1998) Simulating ideologies. J Artif Soc Soc Simul 1(4). http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/1/4/5.html
  40. Piaget J (1995) Sociological studies. Routledge, London. Collection edited by Leslie SmithGoogle Scholar
  41. Plotkin G (1981) A structural approach to operational semantics. Technical report, University of AarhusGoogle Scholar
  42. Rattansi A (2007) Racism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rattansi A (2011) Multiculturalism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rawls J (1999) A theory of justice. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  45. Rodrigues MR, Luck M (2007) Cooperative interactions: an exchange values model. In: Noriega P, Vázquez-Salceda J, Boella G, Boissier O, Dignum V, Fornara N, Matson E (eds) Coordination, organizations, institutions and norms in MAS II. Number 4386 in LNAI. Springer, Berlin, pp 16–23Google Scholar
  46. Rodrigues MR, Bordini RH, Costa ACR (2003) A system of exchange values to support social interactions in artificial societes. In: AAMAS 2003—2nd international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems, pp 81–88Google Scholar
  47. Schaff A (1967) La définition fonctionelle de l’idéologie et et le problème de la “fin du siècle” de l’idéologie. L’Homme et la Société 4:49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schank R, Carbonell J (1978) Re: the Gettysburgh Address—representing social and political acts. Yale University, Department of Computer Science. Research Report #127Google Scholar
  49. Sicart M (2014) Family values: ideology, computer games & Sims. In: Proceedings of the 2003 DiGRA international conference: level up, DIGRA Online at: http://www.digra.org/wp-content/uploads/digital-library/05150.09529
  50. Somers MR (1994) The narrative constitution of identity: a relational and network approach. Theory Soc 23:605–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Somers MR, Gibson GD (1994) Reclaiming the epistemological ‘other’: narrative and the social constitution of identity. In: Calhoun et al. (1994), pp 9–36Google Scholar
  52. Suppes P (1960) A comparison of the meaning and uses of models in mathematics and the empirical sciences. Technical report, Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  53. Taylor C, Gutmann A (1992) Multiculturalism and “the politics of recognition”: an essay with commentary. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  54. Thompson JB (1990) Ideology and modern culture. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  55. Vicente G (1517/1997) Auto da Barca do Inferno (Act of the Ship of Hell). In: Lappin A (ed) Gil Vicente—three discovery plays. Aris & Phillips, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  56. Weiss G (ed) (1999) Multiagent systems: a modern approach to distributed artificial intelligence. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  57. Wooldridge M (2000) Reasoning about rational agents. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  58. Wooldridge M (2011) Introduction to multiagent systems, 2nd edn. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  59. Zadeh LA (1965) Fuzzy sets. Inf Control 8:338–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PPGComp - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURGRio GrandeBrazil
  2. 2.PGIE - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGSPorto AlegreBrazil

Personalised recommendations