, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 495–509 | Cite as

Relational Biology of Symbiosis

  • A. H. LouieEmail author
Original Paper


I formulate in relational terms the ubiquitous biological interaction of symbiosis. I explicate the topology of the different modes of relational interactions of (M, R)-networks, the entailment diagrams that model the host and the symbiont. These modes all have biological realizations as various categories of symbiotic relationships, ranging from mutualism to parasitism to infection.


Relational biology Symbiosis (M, R)-systems Infection Interaction 


  1. Louie AH (2006) (M, R)-systems and their realizations. Axiomathes 16(1–2):35–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Louie AH (2008) Functional entailment and immanent causation in relational biology. Axiomathes 18(3):289–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Louie AH (2009) More than life itself: a synthetic continuation in relational biology. Ontos verlag, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  4. Louie AH, Kercel SW (2007) Topology and life redux: Robert Rosen’s relational diagrams of living systems. Axiomathes 17(2):109–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Wilkinson DM (2001) At cross purposes. Nature 412:485CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations