Automated Software Engineering

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 117–161 | Cite as

A monitoring approach for runtime service discovery

  • K. Mahbub
  • G. Spanoudakis
  • A. Zisman


Effective runtime service discovery requires identification of services based on different service characteristics such as structural, behavioural, quality, and contextual characteristics. However, current service registries guarantee services described in terms of structural and sometimes quality characteristics and, therefore, it is not always possible to assume that services in them will have all the characteristics required for effective service discovery. In this paper, we describe a monitor-based runtime service discovery framework called MoRSeD. The framework supports service discovery in both push and pull modes of query execution. The push mode of query execution is performed in parallel to the execution of a service-based system, in a proactive way. Both types of queries are specified in a query language called SerDiQueL that allows the representation of structural, behavioral, quality, and contextual conditions of services to be identified. The framework uses a monitor component to verify if behavioral and contextual conditions in the queries can be satisfied by services, based on translations of these conditions into properties represented in event calculus, and verification of the satisfiability of these properties against services. The monitor is also used to support identification that services participating in a service-based system are unavailable, and identification of changes in the behavioral and contextual characteristics of the services. A prototype implementation of the framework has been developed. The framework has been evaluated in terms of comparison of its performance when using and when not using the monitor component.


Runtime service discovery Proactive discovery Service monitoring Query 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aggarwal, R., Verma, K., Miller, J., Milnor, W.: Constraint driven web service composition in METEOR-S. In: Int. Conf. on Services Comp. (2004) Google Scholar
  2. Anagnostopoulos, C., Tsounis, A., Hadjiefthymiades, S.: Context awareness in mobile computing environments: a survey. In: Mobile eConference (2004) Google Scholar
  3. Arabshian, K., Schulzrinne, H.: Distributed context-aware agent architecture for global service discovery. In: The Second International Workshop on Semantic Web Technology for Ubiquitous and Mobile Applications (SWUMA’06), Trentino, Italy, August (2006) Google Scholar
  4. Arabshian, K., Schulzrinne, H.: Combining ontology queries with key word search in service discovery. In: ACM/IFIP/USENIX 8th International Middleware Conference, Newport Beach California, November (2007) Google Scholar
  5. Arabshian, K., Schulzrinne, H.: An ontology-based hierarchical peer-to-peer global service discovery system. J. Ubiquitous Comput. Intell. 1(2), 133–144 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arabshian, K., Dickmann, C., Schulzrinne, H.: Service composition in an ontology-based global service discovery system. Columbia University Technical Report CUCS-033-07, New York, September 2007 Google Scholar
  7. Ardagna, D., Pernici, B.: Adaptive service composition in flexible processes. IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng. 33(6) 369–384 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baldauf, M., Dustdar, S., Rosenberg, F.: A survey on context-aware systems. Int. J. Ad Hoc Ubiq. Comput. 2(4) 263–277 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bardram, J.E.: The Java context awareness framework (JCAF)—a service infrastructure and programming framework for context-aware applications. In: Gellersen, H., Want, R., Schmidt, A. (eds.) Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Pervasive Computing. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin (2005) Google Scholar
  10. Baresi, L., Guinea, S.: Dynamo: dynamic monitoring of WS-BPEL processes. In: 3rd International Conference on Service Oriented Computing, ICSOC 05, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (2005) Google Scholar
  11. Baresi, L., Di Nitto, E., Ghezzi, C., Guinea, S.: A framework for the deployment of adaptable web service compositions. Serv. Oriented Comput. Appl. 1(1), 75–91 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beeri, C., Eyal, A., Kamenkovich, S., Milo, T.: Querying business processes. In: 32nd International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, VLDB. Korea (2006) Google Scholar
  13. Bettini, C., Maggiorini, D., Riboni, D.: Distributed context monitoring for continuous mobile services. In: Krogstie, J., Kautz, K., Allen, D. (eds.) Mobile Information Systems II: IFIP Working Conference on Mobile Information Systems (MOBIS), pp. 123–137. Springer, Berlin (2005) Google Scholar
  14. Bettini, C., Maggiorini, D., Riboni, D.: Distributed context monitoring for the adaptation of continuous services. In: World Wide Web Journal (WWWJ), Special Issue on Multichannel Adaptive Information Systems on the World Wide Web. Springer, Berlin (2007) Google Scholar
  15. Bianculli, D., Ghezzi, C.: Monitoring conversational web services. In: IWSOSWE’ 07 (2007) Google Scholar
  16. Blake, M.B., Kahan, D.R., Nowlan, M.F.: Context-aware agents for user-oriented web services discovery and execution. Distribut. Parallel Databases 21(1), 39–58 (2007). Special issue on context-based web services CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bormann, F., et al.: Towards context-aware service discovery: a case study for a new advice of charge service. In: 14th IST Mobile and Wireless Communications Summit (2005) Google Scholar
  18. Bratskas, P., Paspallis, N., Papadopoulos, G.A.: An evaluation of the state of the art in contextaware architectures. In: Sixteenth International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD 2007). Springer, Berlin (2007) Google Scholar
  19. Braun, I., Strunk, A., Stoyanova, G., Buder, B.: ConQo—a context- and qos-aware service discovery. In: IADIS; Proceedings of WWW/Internet (2008) Google Scholar
  20. Capra, L., et al.: Reflective Middleware Solutions for Context-Aware Applications. LNCS, vol. 2192 (2001) Google Scholar
  21. Capra, L., Emmerich, W., Mascolo, C.: Carisma: Context-aware reflective middleware system for mobile applications. IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng. J. 29(10), 929–945 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Casati, F., Ilnicki, S., Jin, L., Krishnamoorthy, V., Shan, M.: Adaptive and dynamic service composition in eFlow. Software Technology Laboratory, HPL-2000-39, March 2000 Google Scholar
  23. Chen, F., Rosu, G.: Towards monitoring-oriented programming: a paradigm combining specification and implementation. Electronic Notes in Theor. Comput. Sci. 89(2), 108–127 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Choonhwa, L., Helal, S.: Context attributes: an approach to enable context-awareness for service discovery. In: Symp. on App. & the Internet (2003) Google Scholar
  25. Cordella, L.P., et al.: An improved algorithm for matching large graphs. In: 3rd IAPR-TC15 Work. on Graph-based Representations (2001) Google Scholar
  26. Cuddy, S., Katchabaw, M., Lutfiyya, H.: Context-aware service selection based on dynamic and static service attributes. In: IEEE Int. Conf. on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Comm. (2005) Google Scholar
  27. Dingwall-Smith, A., Finkelstein, A.: From requirements to monitors by way of aspects. In: Proc. of 1st Int. Conf. on Aspect-Oriented Software Development (2002) Google Scholar
  28. Dranidis, D., Kourtesis, D., Ramollari, E.: Formal verification of web service behavioural conformance through testing. In: Proc. of the 3rd South-East European Workshop on Formal Methods, November (2007) Google Scholar
  29. Dranidis, D., Ramollari, E., Kourtesis, D.: Run-time verification of behavioural conformance for conversational web services. In: European Conference on Web Services, Eindhoven, November (2009) Google Scholar
  30. Duftler, M.J., Mukhi, N.K., Slominski, A., Weerawarana, S.: Web services invocation framework (WSIF). In: Proceedings of the OOPSLA Workshop on Object-Oriented Web Services, October (2001) Google Scholar
  31. Eisenstein, J., Vanderdonckt, J., Puerta, A.: Adapting to mobile contexts with user-interface modeling. In: Proc. of 3rd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, WMCSA (2000) Google Scholar
  32. Feather, M., Fickas, S.: Requirements monitoring in dynamic environments. In: Proc. of Int. Conf. on Requirements Engineering (1995) Google Scholar
  33. Feather, M., et al.: Reconciling system requirements and runtime behaviour. In: Proc. of 9th Int. Work. on Software Specification & Design (1998) Google Scholar
  34. Gan, Y., Chechik, M., Nejati, S., Bennett, J., O’Farrell, B.: Runtime monitoring of web service conversations. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Conference of the Center for Advanced Studies on Collaborative Research, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada (2007) Google Scholar
  35. Ghezzi, C., Guinea, S.: Runtime monitoring in service oriented architectures. In: Baresi, L., di Nitto, E. (eds.) Test and Analysis of Web Services, pp. 237–264. Springer, Berlin (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Goslar, K., Buchholz, S., Schill, A., Vogler, H.: A multidimensional approach to context awareness. In: Proceedings of the 7th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (SCI2003) International Institute of Informatics and Systemics (2003) Google Scholar
  37. Grirori, D., Corrales, J.C., Bouzeghoub, M.: Behavioral matching for service retrieval. In: International Conference on Web Services, USA (2006) Google Scholar
  38. Grundy, J., Ding, G.: Automatic validation of deployed J2EE components using aspects. In: IEEE 16th International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, USA (2001) Google Scholar
  39. Hall, R.J., Zisman, A.: Behavioral models as service descriptions. In: Int. Conf. on Service Oriented Computing, USA (2004) Google Scholar
  40. Halle, S., Villemaire, R.: Runtime monitoring of message-based workflows with data. In: 12th International IEEE Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (2008) Google Scholar
  41. Hallé, S., Villemaire, R.: Runtime monitoring of web service choreographies using streaming XML. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, Honolulu, Hawaii (2009) Google Scholar
  42. Hariri, M.-A., Tabary, D., Lepreux, S., Kolski, C.: Context aware business adaptation toward user interface adaptation. In: Communications of SIWN, pp. 46–52. Springer, Berlin (2008) Google Scholar
  43. Hausmann, J.H., Heckel, R., Lohman, M.: Model-based discovery of web services. In: Int. Conf. on Web Services (2004) Google Scholar
  44. Havelund, K., Roşu, G.: An overview of the runtime verification tool Java PathExplorer. Form. Methods Syst. Des. 24, 189–215 (2004) CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoschek, W.: The web service discovery architecture. In: IEEE/ACM Supercomputing Conf., USA (2002) Google Scholar
  46. Juric, M.B., Mathew, B., Sarang, P.: Business Process Execution Language for Web Services: An Architect and Developer’s Guide to Orchestrating Web Services. Pack Publishing, Birmingham (2006) Google Scholar
  47. Keller, U., Lara, R., Lausen, H., Polleres, A., Fensel, D.: Automatic location of services. In: European Semantic Web Conference (2005) Google Scholar
  48. Klan, F.: Context-aware service discovery, selection and usage. In: 18th GI-Workshop on the Foundations of Databases (2006) Google Scholar
  49. Klein, M., Bernstein, A.: Toward high-precision service retrieval. IEEE Internet Comput. 8(1), 30–36 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Klusch, M., Fries, B., Sycara, K.: Automated semantic web service discovery with OWLS-MX. In: Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (2006) Google Scholar
  51. Kozlenkov, A., Spanoudakis, G., Zisman, A., Fasoulas, V., Sanchez, F.: Architecture-driven service discovery for service centric systems, electronic government: concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications. In: Anttiroiko, A.-V. (ed.) Chapter 2.24 (version of journal below) (2008). Information Science Reference, 978-1-59904-947-2, pp. 811–842 (2008) Google Scholar
  52. Kozlenkov, A., Spanoudakis, G., Zisman, A., Fasoulas, V., Sanchez, F.: Architecture-driven service discovery for service centric systems. Int. J. Web Serv. Res. 4(2), 82–113 (2007). Special issue on service engineering CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lamport, L.: What good is temporal logic. Inf. Process. 83, 657–668 (1983) Google Scholar
  54. Li, Q.: A dynamic verification platform for BPEL environments. MSc. thesis, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, May 29, 2007 Google Scholar
  55. Li, L., Horrock, I.: A software framework for matchmaking based on semantic web technology. In: WWW Conf. Work. on Eservices and the Semantic Web (2003) Google Scholar
  56. Lynch, D., Keeney, J., Lewis, D., O’Sullivan, D.: A proactive approach to semantically oriented service discovery. In: Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Innovations in Web Infrastructure (IWI 2006), Co-located with the 15th International World-Wide Web Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, May (2006) Google Scholar
  57. Mahbub, K., Spanoudakis, G.: A framework for requirements monitoring of service based systems. In: 2nd International Conference on Service Oriented Computing, ICSOC, 2004, pp. 84–93. (2004) Google Scholar
  58. Mahbub, K., Spanoudakis, G.: Run-time monitoring of requirements for systems composed of web-services: initial implementation and evaluation experience. In: IEEE International Conference on Web Services, ICWS’05, pp. 257–265. Springer, Berlin (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mahbub, K., Spanoudakis, G.: Monitoring WS-agreements: an event calculus based approach. In: Baresi, L., diNitto, E. (eds.) Springer Monograph on Test and Analysis of Web Services. Springer, Berlin (2007) Google Scholar
  60. Mahbub, K., Zisman, A.: Replacement policies for service-based systems. In: 2nd International Workshop on Service Monitoring, Adaptation and Beyond (MONA+), Collocated with ICSOC/ServiceWave, Stockholm, Sweden, November 23–24 (2009) Google Scholar
  61. Mikhaiel, R., Stroulia, E.: Interface- and usage-aware service discovery. In: 4th International Conference on Service Oriented Computing (ICSOC), December (2006) Google Scholar
  62. Morato, J., Marzal, M.A., Llorens, J., Moreiro, J.: WordNet application. In: Proceedings of GWC 2004. The Second Global Wordnet Conf. 2004, Brno, Czech Republic (2004) Google Scholar
  63. Moser, O., Rosenberg, F., Dustdar, S.: VieDAME—flexible and robust BPEL processes through monitoring and adaptation. ICSE Companion 00, 917–918 (2008a) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moser, O., Rosenberg, F., Dustdar, S.: Non-intrusive monitoring and service adaptation for WS-BPEL. WWW 815–824 (2008b) Google Scholar
  65. Newberger, A., Dey, A.: Designer support for context monitoring and control. Intel Research Berkeley, Technical Report IRB-TR-03-017 (2003) Google Scholar
  66. OASIS Standard: Web services business process execution language version 2.0, 11 April 2007 Google Scholar
  67. Pantazoglou, M., Tsalgatidou, A., Athanasopoulos, G.: Discovering web services in JXTA peer-to-peer services in a unified manner. In: 4th International Conference on Service Oriented Computing (ICSOC), December (2006) Google Scholar
  68. Pantazoglou, M., Tsalgatidou, A., Spanoudakis, G.: Behavior-aware, unified service discovery. In: Proceedings of the Service-Oriented Computing: a Look at the Inside Workshop, SOC@Inside’07, Austria, September(2007) Google Scholar
  69. Papazoglou, M., Aiello, M., Pistore, M., Yang, J.: XSRL: A request language for web services. In: Internet Computing, IEEE (2002) Google Scholar
  70. Robinson, W.: Monitoring software requirements using instrumented code. In: Proc. of the Hawaii Int. Conf. on Systems Sciences (2002) Google Scholar
  71. Romeikat, R., Bauer, B.: Towards semantically-enhanced distributed service discovery. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Internet and Web Applications (ICIW 2007), Le Morne, Mauritius, May (2007) Google Scholar
  72. Salifu, M., Yu, Y., Nuseibeh, B.: Analysing monitoring and switching requirements using constraint satisfiability. Technical Report ISSN 1744-1986, Department of Computing, Faculty of Maths, Computing and Technology, UK (2008) Google Scholar
  73. Salifu, M., Yu, Y., Nuseibeh, B.: Specifying monitoring and switching problems in context. In: 15th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (2007) Google Scholar
  74. SECSE Project. (2002–2006)
  75. Seffah, A., Forbrig, P., Javahery, H.: Multi-devices “multiple” user interfaces: development models and research opportunities. J. Syst. Softw. 73, 287–300 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Shanahan, M.: The event calculus explained. In: Wooldridge, M.J., Veloso, M. (eds.) Artificial Intelligence Today. LNCS, vol. 1600, pp. 409–430. Springer, Berlin (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Shen, Z., Su, J.: Web service discovery based on behavior signatures. In: Int. Conf. on Service Computing, SCC, July (2005) Google Scholar
  78. Simmonds, J., Gan, Y., Chechik, M., Nejati, S., O’Farrell, B., Litani, E., Waterhouse, J.: Runtime monitoring of web service conversations. In: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing. IEEE computer Society Digital Library. IEEE Computer Society, 29 Jun. (2009) Google Scholar
  79. Singh, S., Grundy, J., Hosking, J., Sun, J.: An architecture for developing aspect-oriented web services. In: 3rd European Conf. in Web Services (2005) Google Scholar
  80. Spanoudakis, G., Mahbub, K., Zisman, A.: A platform for context aware runtime web service discovery. In: IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS), Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, July 9–13, 2007 Google Scholar
  81. Sun, J.-Z., Sauvola, J.: Towards a conceptual model for context-aware adaptive services. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies, pp. 27–29 (2003) Google Scholar
  82. Talwar, V., Shankar, C., Rafaeli, S., Milojicic, D., Iyer, S., Farkas, K., Chen, Y.: Adaptive monitoring: automated change management for monitoring systems. In: Proceedings of the 13th Workshop of the HP OpenView University Association (HP-OVUA 2006), pp. 21–24 (2006) Google Scholar
  83. Wac, K.E.: Towards QOS-awareness of context-aware mobile applications and services. In: Proceedings of the on the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2005: CoopIS, DOA, and ODBASE (OTM2005), Agia Napa, Cyprus, 31 Oct—4 Nov 2005. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3760, pp. 751–760. Springer, Berlin (2005) Google Scholar
  84. Wang, X., Vitvar, T., Kerrigan, T., Toma, I.: A QoS-aware selection model for semantic web services. In: 4th International Conference on Service Oriented Computing, ICSOC, USA (2006) Google Scholar
  85. World Wide Web Consortium, W3C: Resource description framework, W3C recommendation, 10 February 2004.
  86. WS-Eventing: http://www/w3/org/Submission/WS-Eventing, 15 March 2006
  87. WSDL:, 15 March 2001
  88. Ye, Y., Fischer, G.: Context-aware browsing of large component repositories. In: IEEE 16th International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, ASE, USA, November (2001) Google Scholar
  89. Yunyao, L.Y., Yanh, H., Jagadish, H.: NaLIX: an interactive natural language interface for querying XML, SIGMOD 2005, Baltimore, June (2005) Google Scholar
  90. Zisman, A., Spanoudakis, G., Dooley, J.: A framework for dynamic service discovery. In: IEEE Int. Conference on Automated Software Engineering, ASE, Italy, September (2008a) Google Scholar
  91. Zisman, A., Spanoudakis, G., Dooley, J.: Proactive runtime service discovery. In: IEEE 2008 International Service Computing Conference (SCC ’08), Hawaii, July (2008b) Google Scholar
  92. Zisman, A., Spanoudakis, G., Dooley, J.: A query language for service discovery. In: 4th International Conference on Software and Data Technologies—ICSOFT 2009, Bulgaria, July (2009) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of InformaticsCity University LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations