Advertisement

Autonomous Robots

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 679–698 | Cite as

ROREAS: robot coach for walking and orientation training in clinical post-stroke rehabilitation—prototype implementation and evaluation in field trials

  • Horst-Michael GrossEmail author
  • Andrea Scheidig
  • Klaus Debes
  • Erik Einhorn
  • Markus Eisenbach
  • Steffen Mueller
  • Thomas Schmiedel
  • Thanh Q. Trinh
  • Christoph Weinrich
  • Tim Wengefeld
  • Andreas Bley
  • Christian Martin
Article

Abstract

This paper describes the objectives and the state of implementation of the ROREAS project which aims at developing a socially assistive robot coach for walking and orientation training of stroke patients in the clinical rehabilitation. The robot coach is to autonomously accompany the patients during their exercises practicing their mobility skills. This requires strongly user-centered, polite and attentive social navigation and interaction abilities that can motivate the patients to start, continue, and regularly repeat their self-training. The paper gives an overview of the training scenario and describes the constraints and requirements arising from the scenario and the operational environment. Moreover, it presents the mobile robot ROREAS and gives an overview of the robot’s system architecture and the required human- and situation-aware navigation and interaction skills. Finally, it describes our three-stage approach in conducting function and user tests in the clinical environment: pre-tests with technical staff, followed by function tests with clinical staff and user trials with volunteers from the group of stroke patients, and presents the results of these tests conducted so far.

Keywords

Robotic rehabilitation assistant Walking coach Socially assistive robotics Post-stroke rehabilitation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank their partners of the ROREAS research consortium for their trustful cooperation allowing them to do robotics and HRI research in a challenging real-world scenario and environment, the “m&i Fachklinik” Rehabilitation Center Bad Liebenstein, the SIBIS Institute for Social Research in Berlin, and the health insurance fund Barmer GEK Wuppertal.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Funding

This work has received funding from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research to the project ROREAS (Grant Agreement No. 16SV6133).

Ethical Approval

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 (5).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study. Additional informed consent was obtained from all patients for which identifying information is included in this article.

References

  1. Andrade, A., Pereira, A., Walter, S., Almeida, R., Loureiro, R., Compagna, D., et al. (2014). Bridging the gap between robotic technology and health care. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, 10(10), 65–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arras, K., Mozos, O., & Burgard, W. (2007). Using boosted features for the detection of people in 2D range data. In IEEE international conference on robotics and automation (ICRA) (pp. 3402–3407).Google Scholar
  3. Balakrishnan, N., & Basu, A. P. (1996). Exponential distribution: Theory, methods and applications. New York: Gordon and Breach.Google Scholar
  4. Basteris, A., Nijenhuis, S., Stienen, A., Buurke, J., Prange, G., & Amirabdollahian, F. (2014). Training modalities in robot-mediated upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: A framework for classification based on a systematic review. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 11(111), doi: 10.1186/1743-0003-11-111.
  5. Einhorn, E., Langner, T., Stricker, R., Martin, C., & Gross, H.-M. (2012). MIRA - Middleware for robotic applications. In EEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems (IROS) (pp. 2591–2598).Google Scholar
  6. Einhorn, E., & Gross, H.-M. (2015). Generic NDT mapping in dynamic environments and its application for lifelong SLAM. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 69, 28–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eisenbach, M., Vorndran, A., Sorge, S., & Gross, H.-M. (2015). User recognition for guiding and following people with a mobile robot in a clinical environment. In IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems (IROS) (pp. 3600–3607).Google Scholar
  8. Eisenbach, M., Kolarow, A., Vorndran, A., Niebling, J., & Gross, H.-M. (2015). Evaluation of multi feature fusion at score-level for appearance-based person re-identification. In International joint conference on neural networks (IJCNN 2015) (pp. 469–476).Google Scholar
  9. EU-Robotics (2015). Robotics 2020 multi-annual roadmap for robotics in Europe-Horizon 2020. http://www.eu-robotics.net.
  10. Feil-Seifer, D., & Mataric, M. (2011). Socially assistive robotics. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, 1, 24–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fischinger, D., Einramhof, P., Papoutsakis, K., Wohlkinger, W., Mayer, P., Panek, P., et al. (2014). Hobbit, a care robot supporting independent living at home: First prototype and lessons learned. Robotics and Autonomous Systems,. doi: 10.1016/j.robot.2014.09.029.Google Scholar
  12. Fox, D., Burgard, W., & Thrun, S. (1997). The dynamic window approach to collision avoidance. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, 4(1), 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gross, H.-M., Boehme, H.-J., Schroeter, C., Mueller, S., Koenig, A., Martin, C., Merten, M., & Bley, A. (2008). Shopbot: Progress in developing an interactive mobile shopping assistant for everyday use. In IEEE international conference on systems, man, and cybernetics (SMC) (pp. 3471–3478).Google Scholar
  14. Gross, H.-M., Boehme, H.-J., Schroeter, C., Mueller, S., Koenig, A., Einhorn, E., Martin, C., Merten, M., & Bley, A. (2009). TOOMAS: Interactive shopping guide robots in everyday use-final implementation and experiences from long-term field trials. In IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems (IROS) (pp. 2005–2012).Google Scholar
  15. Gross, H.-M., Schroeter, C., Mueller, S., Volkhardt, M., Einhorn, E., Bley, A., Langner, T., Merten, M., Huijnen, C., van den Heuvel, H., & van Berlo, A. (2012). Further progress towards a home robot companion for people with mild cognitive impairment. In IEEE international conference on systems, man, and cybernetics (SMC) (pp. 637–644).Google Scholar
  16. Gross, H.-M., Debes, K., Einhorn, E., Mueller, S., Scheidig, A., Weinrich, C., Bley, A., & Martin, C. (2014). Mobile robotic rehabilitation assistant for walking and orientation training of stroke patients: A report on work in progress. In IEEE international conference on systems, man, and cybernetics (SMC) (pp. 1880–1887).Google Scholar
  17. Gross, H.-M., Mueller, S., Schroeter, Ch., Volkhardt, M., Scheidig, A., Debes, K., Richter, K., & Doering, N. (2015). Robot companion for domestic health assistance: Implementation, test and case study under everyday conditions in private apartments. In IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems (IROS) (pp. 5992–5999).Google Scholar
  18. Hirata, Y., Hara, A., & Kosuge, K. (2007). Motion control of passive intelligent walker using servo brakes. IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 23(5), 981–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jacobs, T. , & Graf, B. (2012). Practical evaluation of service robots for support and routine tasks in an elderly care facility. In IEEE workshop on advanced robotics and its social impacts (ARSO) (pp. 46–49).Google Scholar
  20. Jensen, B., Tomatis, N., Mayor, L., Drygajlo, A., & Siegwart, R. (2005). Robots meet humans-interaction in public spaces. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 52(6), 1530–1546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kennedy, E.R. (1995). Particle swarm optimization. In IEEE international conference on neural networks (ICNN) (pp. 1942–1948).Google Scholar
  22. Kulyukin, V., Gharpure, C., & Nicholson, J. (2005). RoboCart: Toward robot-assisted navigation of grocery stores by the visually impaired. In IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems (IROS) (pp. 2845–2850).Google Scholar
  23. Magnusson, M., Nüchter, A., Lörken, C., Lilienthal, A., & Hertzberg, J. (2009). Evaluation of 3D registration reliability and speed - a comparison of ICP and NDT. In IEEE international conference on robotics and automation (ICRA) (pp. 3907–3912).Google Scholar
  24. Quigley, M., Gerkey, B., Conley, K., Faust, J., Foote, T., Leibs, J., Berger, E., Wheeler, R., & Ng, A. (2009). ROS: An open-source robot operating system. In ICRA workshop on open source software.Google Scholar
  25. Philippsen, R., & Siegwart, R. (2005). An interpolated dynamic navigation function. In IEEE international conference on robotics and automation (ICRA) (pp. 3782–3789).Google Scholar
  26. Rodriguez-Losada, D., Matia, F., Jimenez, A., Galan, R., & Lacey, G. (2005). Implementing map based navigation in Guido, the robotic smartwalker. In IEEE international conference on robotics and automation (ICRA) (pp. 3390–3395).Google Scholar
  27. Ross, A., & Nandakumar, K. (2009). Encyclopedia of biometrics. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  28. Stoyanov, T., Magnusson, M., Almqvist, H., & Lilienthal, A. (2011). On the accuracy of the 3D normal distributions transform as a tool for spatial representation. In IEEE international conference on robotics and automation (ICRA) (pp. 4080–4085).Google Scholar
  29. Schroeter, Ch., Mueller, S., Volkhardt, M., Einhorn, E., Huijnen, C., van den Heuvel, H., van Berlo, A., Bley, A., & Gross, H.-M. (2013). Realization and user evaluation of a companion robot for people with mild cognitive impairments. In IEEE international conference on robotics and automation (ICRA) (pp. 1145–1151).Google Scholar
  30. Shiomi, M., Zanlungo, F., Hayashi, K., & Kanda, T. (2014). Towards a socially acceptable collision avoidance for a mobile robot navigating among pedestrians using a pedestrian model. International Journal on Social Robotics, 6(3), 443–455.Google Scholar
  31. Stricker, R., Mueller, S., Einhorn, E., Schroeter, C., Volkhardt, M., Debes, K., & Gross, H.-M. (2012). Konrad and Suse, two robots guiding visitors in a university building. In Autonomous mobile systems (AMS), informatik aktuell (pp. 49–58). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  32. Triebel, R., Arras, K., Alami, R., et al. (2015). SPENCER: A socially aware service robot for passenger guidance and help in busy airports. In Field and service robotics (FSR).Google Scholar
  33. Trinh, T., Schroeter, Ch., Kessler, J., & Gross, H.-M. (2015). “Go ahead, please”: Recognition and resolution of conflict situations in narrow passages for polite mobile robot navigation. In International conference on social robotics (ICSR) (pp. 643–653).Google Scholar
  34. Volkhardt, M., Weinrich, C., & Gross, H.-M. (2013). People tracking on a mobile companion robot. In IEEE international conference on systems, man, and cybernetics (SMC) (pp. 4354–4359).Google Scholar
  35. Wade, E., Parnandi, A., Mead, R., & Mataric, M. (2011). Socially assistive robotics for guiding motor task practice. Journal of Behavioral Robotics, 2(4), 218–227.Google Scholar
  36. Weinrich, C., Vollmer, C., & Gross, H.-M. (2012). Estimation of human upper body orientation for mobile robotics using an svm decision tree on monocular images. In IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems (IROS) (pp. 2147–2152).Google Scholar
  37. Weinrich, C., Wengefeld, T., Schroeter, C., & Gross, H.-M. (2014). People detection and distinction of their walking aids in 2D laser range data based on generic distance-invariant features. In IEEE International symposium on robot and human interactive communication (RO-MAN) (pp. 767–773).Google Scholar
  38. Weiss, A., Bernhaupt, R., & Tschegili, M. (2011). The USUS evaluation framework for user-centred HRI. In International symposium on new frontiers in human-robot-interaction (pp. 125–147). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Horst-Michael Gross
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrea Scheidig
    • 1
  • Klaus Debes
    • 1
  • Erik Einhorn
    • 1
  • Markus Eisenbach
    • 1
  • Steffen Mueller
    • 1
  • Thomas Schmiedel
    • 1
  • Thanh Q. Trinh
    • 1
  • Christoph Weinrich
    • 1
  • Tim Wengefeld
    • 1
  • Andreas Bley
    • 2
  • Christian Martin
    • 2
  1. 1.Neuroinformatics and Cognitive Robotics LabTechnische Universität IlmenauIlmenauGermany
  2. 2.MetraLabs Robotics GmbH IlmenauIlmenauGermany

Personalised recommendations