Mid-water current aided localization for autonomous underwater vehicles
- 553 Downloads
Survey-class autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) typically rely on Doppler Velocity Logs (DVL) for precision localization near the seafloor. In cases where the seafloor depth is greater than the DVL bottom-lock range, localizing between the surface and the seafloor presents a localization problem since both GPS and DVL observations are unavailable in the mid-water column. This work proposes a solution to this problem that exploits the fact that current profile layers of the water column are near constant over short time scales (in the scale of minutes). Using observations of these currents obtained with the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler mode of the DVL during descent, along with data from other sensors, the method discussed herein constrains position error. The method is validated using field data from the Sirius AUV coupled with view-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) and on descents up to 3km deep with the Sentry AUV.
KeywordsAUV ADCP Underwater Localization Mid-water Navigation
This work is supported in part by NCRIS IMOS, the Australian Research Council (ARC), the New South Wales Government and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Sirius AUV data was obtained on cruises supported by the University of Tasmania and the IMOS AUV Facility program. We thank the cruise PIs (N. Barrett and C. Johnson), the officers and crew of the R/V Challenger and the Sirius operations team (D. Mercer and G. Powell). Deep water data was obtained on cruises AT26-09 (PIs: G. Wheat, A. Fisher, and S. Hulme) and AT26-17 (PIs: J. Kinsey, T. Crone, and E. Mittelsteadt) through funding from National Science Foundation. We thank the officers and crew of the R/V Atlantis and the Sentry operations team (Z. Berkowitz, A. Duester, J. Fujii, J. Hansen, M. Loebecker, S. Suman) for their assistance.
- Atkinson, C. (2008). Analysis of shipboard ADCP data from RRS Discovery Cruise D324: RAPID Array Eastern Boundary. Technical report: National Oceanography Centre Southampton.Google Scholar
- Brokloff, N. (1994). Matrix algorithm for Doppler sonar navigation. Brest, France, 2, 378–83.Google Scholar
- Brokloff, N. (1997). Dead reckoning with an ADCP and current extrapolation. In OCEANS 1997. MTS/IEEE conference proceedings (vol 2, pp. 994–1000)Google Scholar
- Crees, T., Kaminski, C., Ferguson, J., Laframboise, J., Forrest, A., Williams, J., MacNeil, E., Hopkin, D., & Pederson, R. (2010). UNCLOS under ice survey—A historic AUV deployment in the Canadian high Arctic. In: IEEE/MTS Oceans (pp. 1–8)Google Scholar
- Flenniken, I. V. W. (2005). Modeling inertial measurement units and analyzing the effect of their errors in navigation applications. Masters Thesis, Auburn University.Google Scholar
- Fossen, T. (1994). Guidance and control of ocean vehicles. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Furlong, M. E., Paxton, D., Stevenson, P., Pebody, M., McPhail, S. D., & Perrett, J. (2012). Autosub long range: A long range deep diving AUV for ocean monitoring. In Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV), 2012 IEEE/OES (pp. 1–7).Google Scholar
- German, C., Yoerger, D., Jakuba, M., Shank, T., Langmuir, C., & Nakamura, K. (2008). Hydrothermal exploration with the autonomous Benthic explorer. In Deep-sea research part I-oceanographic research papers (vol. 55(2), pp. 203–219). doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2007.11.004.
- Gordon, R. (1996). Principles of operation a practical primer. San Diego: RD Instruments.Google Scholar
- Hegrenaes, O., & Berglund, E. (2009). Doppler water-track aided inertial navigation for autonomous underwater vehicle. In OCEANS 2009-EUROPE, 2009. OCEANS’09 (pp. 1–100). doi: 10.1109/OCEANSE.2009.5278307.
- Hobson, B. W., Bellingham, J. G., Kieft, B., McEwen, R., Godin, M., & Zhang, Y. (2012). Tethys-class long range AUVs—extending the endurance of propeller-driven cruising AUVs from days to weeks. In 2012 IEEE/OES autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) (pp. 1–8).Google Scholar
- Hunt, M. M., Marquet, W. M., Moller, D. A., Peal, K. R., Smith, W. K., & Spindell, R. C. (1974). An acoustic navigation system. Technical report WHOI-74-6, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA.Google Scholar
- iXSea (Accessed 22–03-2012) PHINS brochure.Google Scholar
- Kaess, M., Johannsson, H., Roberts, R., Ila, V., Leonard, J., & Dellaert, F. (2011). isam2: Incremental smoothing and mapping with fluid relinearization and incremental variable reordering. In IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, IEEE (pp. 3281–3288).Google Scholar
- Kinsey, J. C., Eustice, R. M., & Whitcomb, L. L. (2006). A survey of underwater vehicle navigation: Recent advances and new challenges. In IFAC conference of manoeuvering and control of marine craft Google Scholar
- Kinsey, J. C., Yoerger, D. R., Jakuba, M. V., Camilli, R., Fisher, C. R., & German, C. R. (2011). Assessing the deepwater Horizon oil spill with the Sentry autonomous underwater vehicle. In IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems (IROS), 2011, IEEE (pp. 261–267).Google Scholar
- Kinsey, J. C., Yang, Q., & Howland, J. C. (2014). Nonlinear dynamic model-based state estimators for underwater navigation of remotely operated vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 99, 1–1.Google Scholar
- Lupton, T. (2010). Inertial slam with delayed initialisation. PhD Thesis, University of Sydney.Google Scholar
- Lupton, T., & Sukkarieh, S. (2009). Efficient integration of inertial observations into visual SLAM without initialization. In IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems (pp. 1547–1552). doi: 10.1109/IROS.2009.5354267.
- Martin, S., & Whitcomb, L. (2008). Preliminary results in experimental identification of 3-dof coupled dynamical plant for underwater vehicles. In OCEANS 2008, IEEE (pp. 1–9).Google Scholar
- Medagoda, L., Jakuba, M. V., Pizarro, P., & Williams, W. (2010). Water column current profile aided localisation for autonomous underwater vehicles. In OCEANS 2010. Sydney: IEEE.Google Scholar
- Medagoda, L., Williams, S. B., Pizarro , O., & Jakuba, M. V. (2011). Water column current profile aided localisation combined with view-based SLAM for autonomous underwater vehicles. In International conference on robotics and automation 2011, IEEE, Shanghai.Google Scholar
- Medagoda, L., Eilders, M., & Kinsey, J. (2015). Autonomous underwater vehicle navigation in a spatiotemporally varying water current field. In IEEE international conference on robotics and automation (pp. 565–572).Google Scholar
- Napolitano, F. (2004). PHINS: THE AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION SOLUTION. Sea TechnologyGoogle Scholar
- Nicholls, K., Abrahamsen, E., Buck, J., Dodd, P., Goldblatt, C., Griffiths, G., et al. (2006). Measurements beneath an Antarctic ice shelf using an autonomous underwater vehicle. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(8), doi: 10.1029/2006GL025998.
- Paull, L., Saeedi, S., Seto, M., & Li, H. (2014). AUV navigation and localization: A review. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering Google Scholar
- Shih, H., Payton, C., Sprenke, J., & Mero, T. (2000). Towing basin speed calibration of acoustic Doppler current profiling instruments. In Joint conference on water resources engineering and water resources planning and management, American Society of Civil Engineers.Google Scholar
- Stanway, M. (2011). Dead reckoning through the water column with an acoustic Doppler current profiler: Field experiences. In OCEANS 2011, IEEE (pp. 1–8).Google Scholar
- Stanway, M. (2012). Contributions to automated realtime underwater navigation. PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
- Todd, R. E., Rudnick, D. L., Mazloff, M. R., Davis, R. E., & Cornuelle, B. D. (2011). Poleward flows in the southern california current system: Glider observations and numerical simulation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012) 116(C2).Google Scholar
- van Graas, F., & Soloviev, A. (2004). Precise velocity estimation using a stand-alone GPS receiver. Navigation (Washington, DC), 51(4), 283–292.Google Scholar
- Whitcomb, L. L., Yoerger, D. R., Singh, H., & Howland, J. (1999). Combined Doppler/LBL based navigation of underwater vehicles. In Proceedings of the the 11th international symposium on unmanned untethered submersible technology, Durham, NH.Google Scholar
- Williams, S., Pizarro, O., Mahon, I., & Johnson-Roberson, M. (2009). Simultaneous localisation and mapping and dense stereoscopic seafloor reconstruction using an AUV. In Experimental robotics. Berlin: Springer, (pp. 407–416).Google Scholar