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Autonomous Robots

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 399–414 | Cite as

A momentum-based balance controller for humanoid robots on non-level and non-stationary ground

  • Sung-Hee Lee
  • Ambarish GoswamiEmail author
Article

Abstract

Recent research suggests the importance of controlling rotational dynamics of a humanoid robot in balance maintenance and gait. In this paper, we present a novel balance strategy that controls both linear and angular momentum of the robot. The controller’s objective is defined in terms of the desired momenta, allowing intuitive control of the balancing behavior of the robot. By directly determining the ground reaction force (GRF) and the center of pressure (CoP) at each support foot to realize the desired momenta, this strategy can deal with non-level and non-stationary grounds, as well as different frictional properties at each foot-ground contact. When the robot cannot realize the desired values of linear and angular momenta simultaneously, the controller attributes higher priority to linear momentum at the cost of compromising angular momentum. This creates a large rotation of the upper body, reminiscent of the balancing behavior of humans. We develop a computationally efficient method to optimize GRFs and CoPs at individual foot by sequentially solving two small-scale constrained linear least-squares problems. The balance strategy is demonstrated on a simulated humanoid robot under experiments such as recovery from unknown external pushes and balancing on non-level and moving supports.

Keywords

Humanoid robot balance Linear and angular momentum Non-level ground Momentum control Centroidal momentum matrix 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was mainly done while S.H.L. was with HRI. S.H.L. was also supported in part by the Global Frontier R&D Program on “Human-Centered Interaction for Coexistence” funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-M1AXA003-2011-0028374).

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Information and CommunicationsGwangju Institute of Science and TechnologyGwangjuSouth Korea
  2. 2.Honda Research InstituteMountain ViewUSA

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