It is proposed that the cost of production of titanium sponge can be lowered by replacing the expensive and environmentally hazardous Mg-thermal conversion process by hydrogen reduction of titanium tetrachloride. The Kroll process, which is mainly used to produce titanium, is costly, which determines the high cost of titanium sponge. The reprocessing of titanium sponge into ingots requires large amounts of energy and specialized equipment. Preliminary research shows that hydrogen reduction of titanium with significant production cost reduction and enhanced environmental compatibility of the process is theoretically possible.
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Duisebaev, B.O., Baitasov, K.M. & Mukusheva, A.S. Theoretical Basis for Using Hydrogen Reduction in Titanium Production. At Energy 127, 127–129 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10512-019-00597-z