Primordial clouds are supposed to host the so-called population III stars. These stars are very massive and completely metal-free. The final stage of the life of population III stars with masses between 130 and 260 solar masses is a very energetic hypernova explosion. A hypernova drives a shock, behind which a spherically symmetric very dense supershell forms, which might become gravitationally unstable, fragment, and form stars. In this paper we study under what conditions can an expanding supershell become gravitationally unstable and how the feedback of these supershell stars (SSSs) affects its surroundings. We simulate, by means of a 1-D Eulerian hydrocode, the early evolution of the primordial cloud after the hypernova explosion, the formation of SSSs, and the following evolution, once the SSSs start to release energy and heavy elements into the interstellar medium. Our results indicate that a shell, enriched with nucleosynthetic products from SSSs, propagates inwards, towards the center of the primordial cloud. In a time span of a few Myr, this inward-propagating shell reaches a distance of only a few parsec away from the center of the primordial cloud. Its density is extremely high and its temperature very low, thus the conditions for a new episode of star formation are achieved. We study what fraction of these two distinct populations of stars can remain bound and survive until the present day. We study also under what conditions can this process repeat and form multiple stellar populations. We extensively discuss whether the proposed scenario can help to explain some open questions of the formation mechanism of globular clusters.
Dark ages, reionization, first stars ISM: supernova remnants Stars: formation Globular clusters: general
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Support for this project was provided by the Czech Science Foundation grant 15-06012S and by the project RVO: 6785815. We thank the anonymous referee for very useful and insightful remarks and suggestions. We thank Sona Ehlerova and Anthony Whitworth for assistance with the preparation of the manuscript.
Niederhofer, F., Bastian, N., Kozhurina-Platais, V., Larsen, S., Hollyhead, K., Lardo, C., Cabrera-Ziri, I., Kacharov, N., Platais, I., Salaris, M., Cordero, M., Dalessandro, E., Geisler, D., Hilker, M., Li, C., Mackey, D., Mucciarelli, A.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 465, 4159 (2017)