Astrophysics and Space Science

, 361:371 | Cite as

Influence of the Centaurs and TNOs on the main belt and its families

  • Mattia A. GaliazzoEmail author
  • Paul Wiegert
  • Safwan Aljbaae
Original Article


Centaurs are objects whose orbits are found between those of the giant planets. They are supposed to originate mainly from the Trans-Neptunian objects, and they are among the sources of Near-Earth Objects. Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) cross Neptune’s orbit and produce the Centaurs. We investigate their interactions with main belt asteroids to determine if chaotic scattering caused by close encounters and impacts by these bodies may have played a role in the dynamical evolution of the main belt. We find that Centaurs and TNOs that reach the inner Solar System can modify the orbits of main belt asteroids, though only if their mass is of the order of \(10^{-9} m_{\odot }\) for single encounters or, one order less in case of multiple close encounters. Centaurs and TNOs are unlikely to have significantly dispersed young asteroid families in the main belt, but they could have perturbed some old asteroid families. Current main belt asteroids that originated as Centaurs or Trans-Neptunian Objects may lie in the outer belt with short lifetime \(\leq 4~\mbox{My}\), most likely between 2.8 and 3.2 au at larger eccentricities than typical of main belt asteroids.


Minor planets Asteroids: general – celestial mechanics 



MAG wants to acknowledge the support by the Austrian FWF project P23810-N16 and the “Reitoria de pós-graduação da UNESP” (PROPg, grant PVExt-2015). The core part of this work was done when MAG has been present at UNESP as “visiting fellow”. MAG wants also to thanks Prof. V. Carruba for his important suggestions for the paper and Dr. Y. Cavecchi for suggestions in computational improvements and Prof. A. Morbidelli for data on the population decay of the TNOs. SA wants to thank Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq, grant 13/15357-1). This work was also supported in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.


  1. Adams, E.R., Gulbis, A.A.S., Elliot, J.L., Benecchi, S.D., Buie, M.W., Trilling, D.E., Wasserman, L.H.: Astron. J. 148, 55 (2014). 1311.3250. doi: 10.1088/0004-6256/148/3/55 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey, B.L., Malhotra, R.: Icarus 203, 155 (2009). 0906.4795. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.03.044 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bancelin, D., Hestroffer, D., Thuillot, W.: Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astron. 112, 221 (2012). doi: 10.1007/s10569-011-9393-8 ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brasser, R., Morbidelli, A.: Icarus 225, 40 (2013). 1303.3098. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2013.03.012 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brasser, R., Schwamb, M.E., Lykawka, P.S., Gomes, R.S.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 420, 3396 (2012). 1111.7037. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.20264.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, M.E., Schaller, E.L.: Science 316, 1585 (2007). doi: 10.1126/science.1139415 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brož, M., Morbidelli, A., Bottke, W.F., Rozehnal, J., Vokrouhlický, D., Nesvorný, D.: Astron. Astrophys. 551, 117 (2013). 1301.6221. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219296 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carruba, V., Huaman, M.E., Domingos, R.C., Santos, C.R.D., Souami, D.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 439, 3168 (2014). 1401.6332. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stu192 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carruba, V., Nesvorný, D., Aljbaae, S., Huaman, M.E: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 451, 244 (2015). 1505.03745. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stv997 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carruba, V., Nesvorný, D., Aljbaae, S., Domingos, R.C., Huaman, M.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 458, 3731 (2016). 1603.00818. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stw533 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. di Sisto, R.P., Brunini, A.: Icarus 190, 224 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.02.012 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. di Sisto, R.P., Brunini, A., de Elía, G.C.: Astron. Astrophys. 519, 112 (2010). 1005.3267. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913668 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dones, L., Levison, H.F., Duncan, M.: In: Rettig, T., Hahn, J.M. (eds.) Completing the Inventory of the Solar System. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 107, p. 233 (1996) Google Scholar
  14. Eggl, S., Dvorak, R.: In: Souchay, J., Dvorak, R. (eds.) Dynamics of Small Solar System Bodies and Exoplanets. Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 790, p. 431. Springer, Berlin (2010). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-04458-8_9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fernández, J.A., Sosa, A.: Planet. Space Sci. 118, 14 (2015). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2015.07.010 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fernández, J.A., Gallardo, T., Brunini, A.: Icarus 172, 372 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2004.07.023 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fuentes, C., Trilling, D.E., Schlichting, H.: In: AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts. AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts, vol. 46, p. 421 (2014) Google Scholar
  18. Galiazzo, M.A.: The threat of NEA’s and the origin of terrestrial planets impactors. PhD thesis, University of Vienna (2013) Google Scholar
  19. Galiazzo, M.A., Schwarz, R.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 445, 3999 (2014). doi: 10.1093/mnras/stu2016 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Galiazzo, M.A., Bazsó, Á., Dvorak, R.: Planet. Space Sci. 84, 5 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2013.03.017 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Galiazzo, M.A., Bazsó, Á., Huber, M.S., Losiak, A., Dvorak, R., Koeberl, C.: Astron. Nachr. 334, 936 (2013). 1305.3631. doi: 10.1002/asna.201211964 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Galiazzo, M.A., Bazso, A., Dvorak, R.: Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. Suppl. 26, 38 (2014) ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Gladman, B., Kavelaars, J.J., Petit, J.-M., Morbidelli, A., Holman, M.J., Loredo, T.: Astron. J. 122, 1051 (2001). doi: 10.1086/322080 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gladman, B., Marsden, B.G., Vanlaerhoven, C.: In: Barucci, M.A., Boehnhardt, H., Cruikshank, D.P., Morbidelli, A., Dotson, R. (eds.) Nomenclature in the Outer Solar System, p. 43 (2008) Google Scholar
  25. Hanslmeier, A., Dvorak, R.: Astron. Astrophys. 132, 203 (1984) ADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  26. Hartmann, W.K., Ryder, G., Dones, L., Grinspoon, D.: In: Canup, R.M., Righter, K., et al.(eds.) The Time-Dependent Intense Bombardment of the Primordial Earth/Moon System, p. 493 (2000) Google Scholar
  27. Horner, J., Evans, N.W., Bailey, M.E.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 354, 798 (2004a). astro-ph/0407400. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.08240.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Horner, J., Evans, N.W., Bailey, M.E.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 355, 321 (2004b). astro-ph/0408576. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.08342.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Huaman, M.E., Carruba, V., Domingos, R.C.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 444, 2985 (2014). 1408.7080. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stu1655 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kirchoff, M.R., Chapman, C.R., Marchi, S., Curtis, K.M., Enke, B., Bottke, W.F.: Icarus 225, 325 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2013.03.018 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Knežević, Z., Milani, A.: Astron. Astrophys. 403, 1165 (2003). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030475 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Levison, H.F., Duncan, M.J.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 406, 35 (1993). doi: 10.1086/186780 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Levison, H.F., Duncan, M.J.: Icarus 127, 13 (1997). doi: 10.1006/icar.1996.5637 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lykawka, P.S., Horner, J., Jones, B.W., Mukai, T.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398, 1715 (2009). 0909.0404. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15243.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Migliorini, F., Zappalà, V., Vio, R., Cellino, A.: Icarus 118, 271 (1995). doi: 10.1006/icar.1995.1191 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Morbidelli, A.: Icarus 127, 1 (1997). doi: 10.1006/icar.1997.5681 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Napier, W.M.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 448, 27 (2015). 1503.04451. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stu2681 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nesvorny, D.: NASA Planetary Data System 189 (2012) Google Scholar
  39. Nesvorný, D., Bottke, W.F. Jr., Dones, L., Levison, H.F.: Nature 417, 720 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Novaković, B., Cellino, A., Knežević, Z.: Icarus 216, 69 (2011). 1108.3740. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2011.08.016 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rabinowitz, D.L., Schaefer, B.E., Tourtellotte, S.W.: Astron. J. 133, 26 (2007). astro-ph/0605745. doi: 10.1086/508931 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schwamb, M.E., Brown, M.E., Fraser, W.C.: Astron. J. 147, 2 (2014). 1310.7049. doi: 10.1088/0004-6256/147/1/2 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Spoto, F., Milani, A., Knežević, Z.: Icarus 257, 275 (2015). 1504.05461. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2015.04.041 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tedesco, E.F., Veeder, G.J., Fowler, J.W., Chillemi, J.R.: The IRAS minor planet survey. Technical report (Dec. 1992) Google Scholar
  45. Tiscareno, M.S., Malhotra, R.: Astron. J. 126, 3122 (2003). astro-ph/0211076. doi: 10.1086/379554 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Volk, K., Malhotra, R.: Icarus 224, 66 (2013). 1211.2774. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2013.02.016 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Warner, B.D., Harris, A.W., Vokrouhlický, D., Nesvorný, D., Bottke, W.F.: Icarus 204, 172 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.06.004 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zappalà, V., Bendjoya, P., Cellino, A., Farinella, P., Froeschlé, C.: Icarus 116, 291 (1995). doi: 10.1006/icar.1995.1127 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mattia A. Galiazzo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Paul Wiegert
    • 1
    • 2
  • Safwan Aljbaae
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  2. 2.Institute of AstrophysicsUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  3. 3.Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration (CPSX)LondonCanada
  4. 4.UNESP, Grupo de dinâmica Orbital e PlanetologiaUniv. Estadual PaulistaGuaratinguetáBrazil

Personalised recommendations