High-contrast imaging constraints on gas giant planet formation—The Herbig Ae/Be star opportunity

  • Sascha P. QuanzEmail author
Review Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Herbig Ae/Be stars


Planet formation studies are often focused on solar-type stars, implicitly considering our Sun as reference point. This approach overlooks, however, that Herbig Ae/Be stars are in some sense much better targets to study planet formation processes empirically, with their disks generally being larger, brighter and simply easier to observe across a large wavelength range. In addition, massive gas giant planets have been found on wide orbits around early type stars, triggering the question if these objects did indeed form there and, if so, by what process. In the following I briefly review what we currently know about the occurrence rate of planets around intermediate mass stars, before discussing recent results from Herbig Ae/Be stars in the context of planet formation. The main emphasis is put on spatially resolved polarized light images of potentially planet forming disks and how these images—in combination with other data—can be used to empirically constrain (parts of) the planet formation process. Of particular interest are two objects, HD100546 and HD169142, where, in addition to intriguing morphological structures in the disks, direct observational evidence for (very) young planets has been reported. I conclude with an outlook, what further progress we can expect in the very near future with the next generation of high-contrast imagers at 8-m class telescopes and their synergies with ALMA.


Planets and satellites: formation Stars: formation Planets and satellites: gaseous planets Planets and satellites: detection Protoplanetary disks 



I would like to thank the referee for a constructive report and H. Avenhaus, A. Garufi, and H.M. Schmid for helpful comments and suggestions that helped improve the quality of the manuscript. Furthermore, I am grateful to the editors of the Topical Collection on HAeBe stars (Willem-Jan de Wit and Rene Oudmaijer) for inviting me to contribute this work and I thank all colleagues who gave permission to reproduce figures from their original publications. Part of this work has been carried out within the frame of the National Centre for Competence in Research PlanetS supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. The author acknowledges the financial support of the SNSF.


  1. Acke, B., van den Ancker, M.E.: Astron. Astrophys. 449, 267 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews, S.M., Wilner, D.J., Espaillat, C., et al.: Astrophys. J. 732, 42 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ardila, D.R., Golimowski, D.A., Krist, J.E., et al.: Astrophys. J. 665, 512 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Augereau, J.C., Lagrange, A.M., Mouillet, D., Ménard, F.: Astron. Astrophys. 365, 78 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avenhaus, H., Quanz, S.P., Schmid, H.M., et al.: Astrophys. J. 781, 87 (2014a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Avenhaus, H., Quanz, S.P., Meyer, M.R., et al.: Astrophys. J. 790, 56 (2014b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baraffe, I., Chabrier, G., Barman, T.S., Allard, F., Hauschildt, P.H.: Astron. Astrophys. 402, 701 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beuzit, J.-L., Feldt, M., Dohlen, K., et al.: Messenger 125, 29 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Beuzit, J.-L., Feldt, M., Dohlen, K., et al.: Proc. SPIE 7014, 701418 (2008) Google Scholar
  10. Biller, B., Lacour, S., Juhász, A., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 753, L38 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Biller, B.A., Males, J., Rodigas, T., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 792, L22 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boccaletti, A., Pantin, E., Lagrange, A.-M., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 560, A20 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Borucki, W.J., Koch, D., Basri, G., et al.: Science 327, 977 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bouwman, J., de Koter, A., Dominik, C., Waters, L.B.F.M.: Astron. Astrophys. 401, 577 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bowler, B.P., Johnson, J.A., Marcy, G.W., et al.: Astrophys. J. 709, 396 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brittain, S.D., Najita, J.R., Carr, J.S., et al.: Astrophys. J. 767, 159 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brittain, S.D., Carr, J.S., Najita, J.R., Quanz, S.P., Meyer, M.R.: Astrophys. J. 791, 136 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, J.M., Blake, G.A., Qi, C., et al.: Astrophys. J. 704, 496 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Canovas, H., Ménard, F., Hales, A., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 556, A123 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carson, J., Thalmann, C., Janson, M., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 763, L32 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Casassus, S., van der Plas, G., Perez, S., et al.: Nature 493, 191 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chauvin, G., Lagrange, A.-M., Beust, H., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 542, A41 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Close, L.M., Follette, K.B., Males, J.R., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 781, L30 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crepp, J.R., Johnson, J.A.: Astrophys. J. 733, 126 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Currie, T., Muto, T., Kudo, T., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 796, L30 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. de Juan Ovelar, M., Min, M., Dominik, C., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 560, A111 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dong, R., Rafikov, R., Zhu, Z., et al.: Astrophys. J. 750, 161 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dong, R., Zhu, Z., Whitney, B.: arXiv:1411.6063 (2014)
  29. Eisner, J.A.: arXiv:1502.05412 (2015)
  30. Follette, K.B., Tamura, M., Hashimoto, J., et al.: Astrophys. J. 767, 10 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Follette, K.B., Grady, C.A., Swearingen, J.R., et al.: Astrophys. J. 798, 132 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fressin, F., Torres, G., Charbonneau, D., et al.: Astrophys. J. 766, 81 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fukagawa, M., Tamura, M., Itoh, Y., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 636, L153 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garufi, A., Quanz, S.P., Avenhaus, H., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 560, A105 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garufi, A., Quanz, S.P., Schmid, H.M., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 568, A40 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grady, C.A., Polomski, E.F., Henning, T., et al.: Astron. J. 122, 3396 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grady, C.A., Woodgate, B., Heap, S.R., et al.: Astrophys. J. 620, 470 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grady, C.A., Muto, T., Hashimoto, J., et al.: Astrophys. J. 762, 48 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hales, A.S., Gledhill, T.M., Barlow, M.J., Lowe, K.T.E.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 365, 1348 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hashimoto, J., Tamura, M., Muto, T., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 729, L17 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hinkley, S., Oppenheimer, B.R., Soummer, R., et al.: Astrophys. J. 701, 804 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Howard, A.W., Marcy, G.W., Bryson, S.T., et al.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 201, 15 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ida, S., Lin, D.N.C.: Astrophys. J. 616, 567 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Janson, M., Bonavita, M., Klahr, H., et al.: Astrophys. J. 736, 89 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnson, J.A., Fischer, D.A., Marcy, G.W., et al.: Astrophys. J. 665, 785 (2007a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Johnson, J.A., Butler, R.P., Marcy, G.W., et al.: Astrophys. J. 670, 833 (2007b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson, J.A., Aller, K.M., Howard, A.W., Crepp, J.R.: Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 905 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson, J.A., Clanton, C., Howard, A.W., et al.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 197, 26 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Joos, F., Buenzli, E., Schmid, H.M., Thalmann, C.: Proc. SPIE 7016, 70161I (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Kennedy, G.M., Kenyon, S.J.: Astrophys. J. 673, 502 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Konopacky, Q.M., Barman, T.S., Macintosh, B.A., Marois, C.: Science 339, 1398 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kratter, K.M., Murray-Clay, R.A., Youdin, A.N.: Astrophys. J. 710, 1375 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kraus, A.L., Ireland, M.J.: Astrophys. J. 745, 5 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kuhn, J.R., Potter, D., Parise, B.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 553, L189 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kusakabe, N., Grady, C.A., Sitko, M.L., et al.: Astrophys. J. 753, 153 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lagrange, A.-M., Gratadour, D., Chauvin, G., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lagrange, A.-M., Bonnefoy, M., Chauvin, G., et al.: Science 329, 57 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lambrechts, M., Johansen, A.: Astron. Astrophys. 544, A32 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Macintosh, B., Graham, J., Palmer, D., et al.: Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006) Google Scholar
  60. Marley, M.S., Fortney, J.J., Hubickyj, O., Bodenheimer, P., Lissauer, J.J.: Astrophys. J. 655, 541 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Marois, C., Lafrenière, D., Doyon, R., Macintosh, B., Nadeau, D.: Astrophys. J. 641, 556 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marois, C., Macintosh, B., Barman, T., et al.: Science 322, 1348 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Marois, C., Zuckerman, B., Konopacky, Q.M., Macintosh, B., Barman, T.: Nature 468, 1080 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mayor, M., Marmier, M., Lovis, C., et al.: arXiv:1109.2497 (2011)
  65. Meru, F., Quanz, S.P., Reggiani, M., Baruteau, C., Pineda, J.E.: arXiv:1411.5366 (2014)
  66. Min, M., Canovas, H., Mulders, G.D., Keller, C.U.: Astron. Astrophys. 537, A75 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Momose, M., Morita, A., Okamoto, Y., et al.: In: New Trends in Radio Astronomy in the ALMA Era: The 30th Anniversary of Nobeyama Radio Observatory, vol. 476, p. 389 (2013) Google Scholar
  68. Mulders, G.D., Paardekooper, S.-J., Panić, O., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 557, A68 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Muto, T., Grady, C.A., Hashimoto, J., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 748, L22 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nielsen, E.L., Liu, M.C., Wahhaj, Z., et al.: Astrophys. J. 776, 4 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Öberg, K.I., Murray-Clay, R., Bergin, E.A.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 743, L16 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Oppenheimer, B.R., Brenner, D., Hinkley, S., et al.: Astrophys. J. 679, 1574 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Osorio, M., Anglada, G., Carrasco-González, C., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 791, L36 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pantin, E., Waelkens, C., Lagage, P.O.: Astron. Astrophys. 361, L9 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. Pepe, F., Ehrenreich, D., Meyer, M.R.: Nature 513, 358 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pérez, L.M., Isella, A., Carpenter, J.M., Chandler, C.J.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 783, L13 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Perrin, M.D., Schneider, G., Duchene, G., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 707, L132 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pineda, J.E., Quanz, S.P., Meru, F., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 788, L34 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pinilla, P., Benisty, M., Birnstiel, T.: Astron. Astrophys. 545, A81 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pinilla, P., de Juan Ovelar, M., Ataiee, S., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 573, A9 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pinte, C., Padgett, D.L., Ménard, F., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 489, 633 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Quanz, S.P., Schmid, H.M., Geissler, K., et al.: Astrophys. J. 738, 23 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Quanz, S.P., Birkmann, S.M., Apai, D., Wolf, S., Henning, T.: Astron. Astrophys. 538, A92 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Quanz, S.P., Amara, A., Meyer, M.R., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 766, L1 (2013a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Quanz, S.P., Avenhaus, H., Buenzli, E., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 766, L2 (2013b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Quanz, S.P., Amara, A., Meyer, M.R., et al.: arXiv:1412.5173 (2014)
  87. Rameau, J., Chauvin, G., Lagrange, A.-M., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 546, A24 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rameau, J., Chauvin, G., Lagrange, A.-M., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 772, L15 (2013a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rameau, J., Chauvin, G., Lagrange, A.-M., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 779, L26 (2013b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rameau, J., Chauvin, G., Lagrange, A.-M., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 553, A60 (2013c) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Reffert, S., Bergmann, C., Quirrenbach, A., Trifonov, T., Künstler, A.: Astron. Astrophys. 574, A116 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Reggiani, M., Quanz, S.P., Meyer, M.R., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 792, L23 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rodigas, T.J., Follette, K.B., Weinberger, A., Close, L., Hines, D.C.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 791, L37 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schmid, H.M., Joos, F., Tschan, D.: Astron. Astrophys. 452, 657 (2006a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schmid, H.M., Beuzit, J.-L., Feldt, M., et al.: In: IAU Colloq. 200: Direct Imaging of Exoplanets: Science & Techniques, p. 165 (2006b) Google Scholar
  96. Skemer, A.J., Hinz, P.M., Esposito, S., et al.: Astrophys. J. 753, 14 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Spiegel, D.S., Burrows, A.: Astrophys. J. 745, 174 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tinbergen, J.: Astronomical Polarimetry, p. 174. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1996). ISBN 0521475317 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Verhoeff, A.P., Min, M., Pantin, E., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 528, A91 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vigan, A., Patience, J., Marois, C., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 544, A9 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Walsh, C., Juhász, A., Pinilla, P., et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 791, L6 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Witzel, G., Eckart, A., Buchholz, R.M., et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 525, A130 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zhu, Z.: Astrophys. J. 799, 16 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zhu, Z., Nelson, R.P., Hartmann, L., Espaillat, C., Calvet, N.: Astrophys. J. 729, 47 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for AstronomyETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations