Astrophysics and Space Science

, Volume 345, Issue 1, pp 183–193 | Cite as

Investigation of X-ray cavities in the cooling flow system Abell 1991

  • M. B. Pandge
  • N. D. Vagshette
  • S. S. Sonkamble
  • M. K. PatilEmail author
Original Article


We present results based on the systematic analysis of Chandra archive data on the X-ray bright Abell Richness class-I type cluster Abell 1991 with an objective to investigate properties of the X-ray cavities hosted by this system. The unsharp masked image as well as 2-d β model subtracted residual image of Abell 1991 reveals a pair of X-ray cavities and a region of excess emission in the central ∼12 kpc region. Both the cavities are of ellipsoidal shape and exhibit an order of magnitude deficiency in the X-ray surface brightness compared to that in the undisturbed regions. Spectral analysis of X-ray photons extracted from the cavities lead to the temperature values equal to \(1.77_{-0.12}^{+0.19}~\mathrm{keV}\) for N-cavity and \(1.53_{-0.06}^{+0.05}~\mathrm{keV}\) for S-cavity, while that for the excess X-ray emission region is found to be equal to \(2.06_{-0.07}^{+0.12}~\mathrm{keV}\). Radial temperature profile derived for Abell 1991 reveals a positive temperature gradient, reaching to a maximum of 2.63 keV at ∼76 kpc and then declines in outward direction. 0.5–2.0 keV soft band image of the central 15′′ region of Abell 1991 reveals relatively cooler three different knot like features that are about 10′′ off the X-ray peak of the cluster. Total power of the cavities is found to be equal to \({\sim}8.64\times10^{43}~\mathrm{erg\,s}^{-1}\), while the X-ray luminosity within the cooling radius is found to be \(6.04 \times10^{43}~\mathrm{erg\,s}^{-1}\), comparison of which imply that the mechanical energy released by the central AGN outburst is sufficient to balance the radative loss.


Galaxies: active Galaxies: clusters X-rays: galaxies: clusters Cooling flows: intergalactic medium 



The authors are grateful to the anonymous referee for their encouraging and constructive comments on the manuscript, that greatly helped us to improve its quality. M.B.P. gratefully acknowledges financial support from DST, New Delhi (file No. IF/10179), N.D.V. acknowledges support from UGC, New Delhi (F.No. 36-240/2008-SR). Usage of the High Performance Computing facility procured under the DST-FIST scheme (SR/FST/PSI-145) is gratefully acknowledged. This work has made use of data from the Chandra archive, NASA’s Astrophysics Data System (ADS), Extragalactic Database (NED), and software provided by the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC).


  1. Bautz, L.P., Morgan, W.W.: Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 2, 294 (1970) ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Binney, J., Tabor, G.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 276, 663 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Bîrzan, L., Rafferty, D.A., McNamara, B.R., Wise, M.W., Nulsen, P.E.J.: Astrophys. J. 607, 800 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bîrzan, L., Rafferty, D.A., Nulsen, P.E.J., McNamara, B.R., Röttgering, H.J.A., Wise, M.W., Mittal, R.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 3468 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blandford, R.D., Rees, M.J.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 169, 395 (1974) ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Boehringer, H., Voges, W., Fabian, A.C., Edge, A.C., Neumann, D.M.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 264, 25 (1993) ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Burns, J.O.: Astron. J. 99, 14 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cavagnolo, K.W., Donahue, M., Voit, G.M., Sun, M.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 182, 12 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cavagnolo, K.W., McNamara, B.R., Nulsen, P.E.J., Carilli, C.L., Jones, C., Bîrzan, L.: Astrophys. J. 720, 1066 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colafrancesco, S., Marchegiani, P.: Astron. Astrophys. 484, 51 (2008) ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Croston, J.H., Hardcastle, M.J., Birkinshaw, M., Worrall, D.M., Laing, R.A.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1709 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. David, L.P., Jones, C., Forman, W., Nulsen, P., Vrtilek, J., O’Sullivan, E., Giacintucci, S., Raychaudhury, S.: Astrophys. J. 705, 624 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dickey, J.M., Lockman, F.J.: Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 28, 215 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dong, R., Rasmussen, J., Mulchaey, J.S.: Astrophys. J. 712, 883 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dunn, R.J.H., Fabian, A.C., Taylor, G.B.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 364, 1343 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fabian, A.C., Sanders, J.S., Ettori, S., Taylor, G.B., Allen, S.W., Crawford, C.S., Iwasawa, K., Johnstone, R.M., Ogle, P.M.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 65 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fabian, A.C., Sanders, J.S., Taylor, G.B., Allen, S.W., Crawford, C.S., Johnstone, R.M., Iwasawa, K.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 366, 417 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gehrels, N.: Astrophys. J. 303, 336 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gitti, M., Brighenti, F., McNamara, B.R.: Adv. Astron. (2012) Google Scholar
  20. Guo, F., Oh, S.P.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 384, 251 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jones, T.W., De Young, D.S.: Astrophys. J. 624, 586 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McNamara, B.R., Nulsen, P.E.J.: Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 45, 117 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McNamara, B.R., Wise, M.W., Nulsen, P.E.J., David, L.P., Carilli, C.L., Sarazin, C.L., O’Dea, C.P., Houck, J., Donahue, M., Baum, S., Voit, M., O’Connell, R.W., Koekemoer, A.: Astrophys. J. 562, 149 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McNamara, B.R., Rafferty, D.A., Bîrzan, L., Steiner, J., Wise, M.W., Nulsen, P.E.J., Carilli, C.L., Ryan, R., Sharma, M.: Astrophys. J. 648, 164 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Narayan, R., Medvedev, M.V.: Astrophys. J. 562, 129 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pandge, M.B., Vagshette, N.D., David, L.P., Patil, M.K.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 421, 808 (2012) ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Peterson, J.R., Fabian, A.C.: Phys. Rep. 427, 1 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Peterson, J.R., Kahn, S.M., Paerels, F.B.S., Kaastra, J.S., Tamura, T., Bleeker, J.A.M., Ferrigno, C., Jernigan, J.G.: Astrophys. J. 590, 207 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Prestwich, A.H., Kilgard, R.E., Primini, F., McDowell, J.C., Zezas, A.: Astrophys. J. 705, 1632 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rafferty, D.A., McNamara, B.R., Nulsen, P.E.J., Wise, M.W.: Astrophys. J. 652, 216 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Randall, S.W., Sarazin, C.L., Irwin, J.A.: Astrophys. J. 600, 729 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Randall, S.W., Forman, W.R., Giacintucci, S., Nulsen, P.E.J., Sun, M., Jones, C., Churazov, E., David, L.P., Kraft, R., Donahue, M., Blanton, E.L., Simionescu, A., Werner, N.: Astrophys. J. 726, 86 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sharma, M., McNamara, B.R., Nulsen, P.E.J., Owers, M., Wise, M.W., Blanton, E.L., Sarazin, C.L., Owen, F.N., David, L.P.: Astrophys. J. 613, 180 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Soker, N., Sarazin, C.L.: Astrophys. J. 348, 73 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stewart, G.C., Fabian, A.C., Jones, C., Forman, W.: Astrophys. J. 285, 1 (1984) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Struble, M.F., Rood, H.J.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 125, 35 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vagshette, N.D., Pandge, M.B., Patil, M.K.: arXiv:1205.6057 (2012)
  38. Voigt, L.M., Fabian, A.C.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 347, 1130 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. ZuHone, J.A.: Astrophys. J. 728, 54 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. B. Pandge
    • 1
  • N. D. Vagshette
    • 1
  • S. S. Sonkamble
    • 1
  • M. K. Patil
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Physical SciencesSwami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada UniversityNandedIndia

Personalised recommendations