This article is based on two hypotheses. The first one is the existence of the gravitational repulsion between particles and antiparticles. Consequently, virtual particle-antiparticle pairs in the quantum vacuum might be considered as gravitational dipoles. The second hypothesis is that the Universe has geometry of a four-dimensional hyper-spherical shell with thickness equal to the Compton wavelength of a pion, which is a simple generalization of the usual geometry of a 3-hypersphere. It is striking that these two hypotheses lead to a simple relation for the gravitational mass density of the vacuum, which is in very good agreement with the observed dark energy density. It might be a sign that QCD fields provide the largest contribution to the gravitational mass of the physical vacuum; contrary to the prediction of the Standard Model that QCD contribution is much smaller than some other contributions.
Dark energy Vacuum fluctuations Extra dimension Cosmological constant problem
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