Astrophysics and Space Science

, Volume 302, Issue 1–4, pp 43–59 | Cite as

Orientation of Galaxies in the Local Supercluster: A Review

  • F. X. HuEmail author
  • G. X. Wu
  • G. X. Song
  • Q. R. Yuan
  • S. Okamura


The progress of the studies on the orientation of galaxies in the Local Supercluster (LSC) is reviewed and a summary of recent results is given. Following a brief introduction of the LSC, we describe the results of early studies based on two-dimensional analysis, which were mostly not conclusive. We describe next the three-dimensional analysis, which is used widely today. Difficulties and systematic effects are explained and the importance of selection effects is described. Then, results based on the new method and modern databases are given, which are summarized as follows. When the LSC is seen as a whole, galaxy planes tend to align perpendicular to the LSC plane with lenticulars showing the most pronounced tendency. Projections onto the LSC plane of the spin vectors of Virgo cluster member galaxies, and to some extent, those of the total LSC galaxies, tend to point to the Virgo cluster center. This tendency is more pronounced for lenticulars than for spirals. It is suggested that ‘field’ galaxies, i.e., those which do not belong to groups with more than three members, may be better objects than other galaxies to probe the information at the early epoch of the LSC formation through the analysis of galaxy orientations. Field lenticulars show a pronounced anisotropic distribution of spin vectors in the sense that they lay their spin vectors parallel to the LSC plane while field spirals show an isotropic spin-vector distribution.


local supercluster orientation spin vectors anisotropy 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, M.T., Strom, K.M., Strom, S.E.: Astrophy. J. 238, 445 (1980)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Aryal, B., Saurer, W.: Astron. and Astrophys. 364, L97 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Aryal, B., Saurer, W.: Astronomische Gesellschaft Abstract Series 18, 218 (2001a)ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Aryal, B., Saurer, W.: Astronomische Gesellschaft Abstract Series 18, 63 (2001b)ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Aryal, B., Saurer, W.: Private Communication (2004a)Google Scholar
  6. Aryal, B., Saurer, W.: Astron. Astrophys 425, 871 (2004b)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Aryal, B., Saurer, W.: Mon. Not. R. Astron.Soc. 360, 125 (2005a)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Aryal, B., Saurer, W.: Astron. Astrophys 431, 841 (2005b)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Aryal, B., Saurer, W.: Astron. Astrophys 425, 431 (2005c)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Bahcall, N. A.: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys 26, 613 (1988)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Binggeli, B., Sandage, A., Tarenghi, M.: Astron. J. 89, 64 (1984)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Binggeli, B., Sandage, A., Tammann, G. A.: Astron. J. 90, 1681 (1985) (VCC)Google Scholar
  13. Binney, J., Tremaine, S.: Galactic Dynamics (Princeton: Princeton University Press), Princeton, New Jersey. p. 216, p. 256 (1987)Google Scholar
  14. Binney, J., Merrifield, M.: Galactic Astronomy (Princeton: Princeton University Press), New Jersey, p. 184, p. 710 (1998)Google Scholar
  15. Bottineli, L., Gouguenheim, L., Paturel, G., de Vaucouleurs, G.: Astron. Astrophys. 118, 4 (1983)ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, F.G.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 98, 218 (1938)ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, F.G.: Mon. Not. R. Astron.Soc. 95, 534 (1939)ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, F.G.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc 127, 517 (1964)ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown, F.G.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 138, 527 (1968)ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Bukhari, F.A., Cram, L.E.: Astrophys Space Sci. 283, 173 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Cabanela, J.E., Aldering, G.: Astron. J. 116, 1094 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Cabanela, J.E., Dickey, J.M.: Astron J. 118, 46 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Danver, C.-G.: Ann. Lunds Astron. Obs. No. 10 (1942)Google Scholar
  24. Davies, R.L., Efstathious, G., Fall, S.M., Illingworth, G., Schechter, P.L.: Astrophys. J. 266, 41 (1983)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. de Vaucouleurs, G.: Astrophys. J. 58, 30 (1953)Google Scholar
  26. de Vaucouleurs, G.: Vistas in Astronomy 2, 1584 (1956)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. de Vaucouleurs, G.: Astrophys. J. 127, 487 (1958)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. de Vaucouleurs, G.: Soviet Astr.-AJ 3, 897 (1960)ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. de Vaucouleurs, G., de Vaucouleurs, A.: Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies, Austin: University of Texas Press (1964) (RC)Google Scholar
  30. de Vaucouleurs, G., de Vaucouleurs, A., Corwin, Jr., H. G.: Second Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (Austin: University of Texas Press) (1976) (RC2)Google Scholar
  31. de Vaucouleurs, G.: IAU Symp. 79, 205 (1978)ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. de Vaucouleurs, G., Pence, W. D.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 40, 425 (1979)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. de Vaucouleurs, G.: Bull. Astron. Soc. India 9, 1 (1981)ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. de Vaucouleurs, G.: Astrophys. J. 253, 520 (1982)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Djorgovski, S.: in S. M. Faber et al. (eds.), Nearly Normal Galaxies, New York, Springer, p. 227 (1987)Google Scholar
  36. Flin, P.: in Duerbeck H. W. and Flin P. (eds.), Morphological Cosmology, Springer-Verlag, New York, Berlin (1989)Google Scholar
  37. Flin, P.: Comments on Astrophys. 18, 81 (1995)ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Flin, P.: Astron. and Astrophys. Trans. 10, 153 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Flin, P.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 325, 49 (2001)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Flin, P., Godlowski, W.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 222, 525 (1986) (FG)Google Scholar
  41. Flin, P., Godlowski, W.: Sov. Astron. Lett. 15(5), 374 (1989)ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Fouqué, P., Paturel, G.: Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 53, 351 (1983)ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Fouqué, P., Paturel, G.: Astron. Astrophys 150, 192 (1985)ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Fouqué, P., Gourgoulhon, E., Chamaraux, P., Paturel, G.: Astron. Astrophys 93, 211 (1992) (FGCP)Google Scholar
  45. Fuller, T.M., West, M.J., Bridge, T.J.: Astrophys. J. 519, 22 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Garrido, J.L., Battaner, E., Sanchez-Saavedra, M.L., Florido, E.: Astron. Astrophys. 271, 84 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Godlowski, W.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 265, 874 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Godlowski, W.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 271, 19 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Han, C., Gould, A., Sackett, P.D.: Astrophys. J. 445, 46 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Hawley, D.L., Peebles, P.J.E.: Astron . J. 80, 477 (1975)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Heidmann, J., Heidmann, N., de Voucouleurs, G.: Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society 75, 85 (1971)ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Helou, G., Salpeter, E.E.: Astrophys. J. 252, 75 (1982)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Herschel, W.: in Collected works London: R. S., R. A. S., 1912, 1, 157 (1784)Google Scholar
  54. Herschel, W.: ibid. 1, 223 (1785)Google Scholar
  55. Herschel, W.: ibid. 2, 199 (1802)Google Scholar
  56. Herschel, W.: ibid. 2, 459 (1811)Google Scholar
  57. Hoffman, G.L., Lewis, B.M., Helou, G., Salpeter, E.E., Williams, H.L.I.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 69, 65 (1989)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Holmberg, E.: Lund Ann. 6 (1937)Google Scholar
  59. Holmberg, E.: Medd. Lunds Astron. Obs. Ser. VI, No. 117 (1946)Google Scholar
  60. Holmberg, E.: Medd. Lunds Astron. Obs. Ser. 2, No. 136 (1958)Google Scholar
  61. Holmberg, E.: in Sandage, A. Sandage M. and Kristian, J. (eds.), Galaxies and the Universe, The University of Chicago Press, p. 151 (1975)Google Scholar
  62. Hu, F. X., Wu, G. X., Su, H. J.: Publ. Purple Mountain Obs., 12, 65 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. Hu, F.X., Wu, G.X., Su, H.J., Liu, Y. Z.: Astron. Astrophys. 302, 45 (1995) (HWSL)Google Scholar
  64. Hu, F. X., Wu, G. X., Su, H. J., Liu, Y. Z., Yuan, Q. R.: J. Korean Astron. Soc. 29, S53 (1996)Google Scholar
  65. Hu, F. X., Yuan, Q. R., Su, H. J., Wu, G. X., Liu, Y. Z.: Astrophys. J. 495, 179 (1998) (HYSWL)Google Scholar
  66. Illingworth, G.: Astrophys. J. Letters, 218, L43 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Jaansite, J., Saar, E.: Tartu Obs., preprint A-2 (1977)Google Scholar
  68. Jaaniste, J., Saar, E.: IAU Symp. 79, 448 (1978)ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. Kapranidis, S., Sullivan, W. T., III.: Astron. Astrophys. 118, 33 (1983) (KS)Google Scholar
  70. Karachentsev, I. D., Karachentseva, V. E., Parnovsky, S. L., Kudrya, Y. N.: Astron. Nachr. 314, 97 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  71. Kashikawa, N., Okamura, S.: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 44, 493 (1992) (KO)Google Scholar
  72. Kodaira, K., Okamura, S., Ichikawa, S., Hamabe, M., Watanabe, M.: Photometric Atlas of Northern Bright Galaxies (Tokyo: Univ. Tokyo Press) (1990) (PANBG)Google Scholar
  73. Kristian, J.: Astrophys. J. 147, 864 (1967)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Lauberts, A.: The ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO(B) Atlas (Munchen: ESO) (1982) (ESO)Google Scholar
  75. Lundmark, K.: Studies of Anagalactic Nebulae, Medd. Uppsala Obs., No. 30 (1927)Google Scholar
  76. MacGillivray, H.T., Dodd, R.J., McNally, B.V., Corwin, H.G.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 198, 605 (1982)ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. MacGillivray, H.T., Dodd, R.J.: Astron. Astrophys. 145, 269 (1985a)ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. MacGillivray, H.T., Dodd, R.J.: in Richter O. G. and Binggeli B. (eds.), Proc. ESO workshop on the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies (Garching, ESO), p. 217 (1985b)Google Scholar
  79. Mihalas, D., Binney, J.: Galactic Astronomy W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, p. 329 (1981)Google Scholar
  80. Nilson, P.: Uppsala General Catalogue of Galaxies, Nova Acta Uppsala University. Ser. V:A, Vol. 1 (1973) (UGC).Google Scholar
  81. Oort, J.H.: Ann. Rev. Astron. Ap. 21, 373 (1983)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  82. Parnovsky, S.L., Karachentsev, I.D., Karachentseva, V.E.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 268, 665 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. Reaves, G.: Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 70, 461 (1958)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  84. Reinhardt, M., Roberdts, M.S.: Astrophys. Letters 12, 201 (1972)ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. Reinmuth, K.: Die Herschel Nebel, Veroff. Sternw. Heidelberg Bd. 9 (1926)Google Scholar
  86. Reynolds, J.H.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 71, 129 (1920)ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. Reynolds, J.H.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 82, 510 (1922)ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. Sandage, A., Tammann, G.A.: Astrophys. J. 207, L1 (1976)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  89. Sandage, A., Tammann, G.A.: A Revised Shapley-Ames catalog of bright galaxies Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Inst., (RSA) (1981/ 1987)Google Scholar
  90. Shapley, H., Ames, A.: Harvard Obs. Ann. 88(4), 43 (SA) (1932)Google Scholar
  91. Sugai, H., Iye, M.: MNRAS 276, 327 (1995)ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. Thompson, L.A.: Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 85, 528 (1973)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  93. Thompson, L.A.: Astrophys. J. 209, 22 (1976)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  94. Tully, R.B.: Astrophys. J. 257, 389 (1982)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  95. Tully, R.B., Fisher, J.R.: Nearby Galaxies Atlas Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1987)Google Scholar
  96. Tully, R.B.: Nearby Galaxies Catalog, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press (NBG) (1988)Google Scholar
  97. Wu, G.X., Hu, F.X., Su, H.J., Liu, Y.Z.: Astron. Astrophys. 323, 317 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. Wu, G.X., Hu, F.X., Su, H.J., Liu, Y.Z.: Chin. Astron. Astrophys. 22, 17 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  99. Yahil, A., Sandage, A., Tammann, G.A.: Astrophys. J. 242, 448 (1980)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  100. Yuan, Q.R., Hu, F.X., Su, H.J., Huang, K.L.: Astron. J. 114, 1308 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  101. Yuan, Q.R., Wang, L., Shen, C.X.: Journal of Nanjing Normal University (Natural Science edition) 23, No. 2. 47 (2000) (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. X. Hu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • G. X. Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. X. Song
    • 2
    • 3
  • Q. R. Yuan
    • 4
  • S. Okamura
    • 5
  1. 1.Purple Mountain ObservatoryThe Chinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina
  2. 2.National Astronomical ObservatoriesThe Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Shanghai Astronomical ObservatoryThe Chinese Academy of SciencesShanghaiChina
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsNanjing Normal UniversityNanjingChina
  5. 5.Department of Astronomy and Research Center for the Early Universe, School of ScienceUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations