Familiality of Gender Nonconformity Among Homosexual Men
We examined whether recalled childhood gender nonconformity and self-reported adult gender nonconformity is familial, using data from 1154 families selected for having at least two homosexual brothers. Specifically, we examined the extent to which homosexual men’s variation in gender nonconformity runs in families by examining pairs of genetic brothers who were both homosexual (N = 672–697 full sibling concordant pairs). We also examined similarity between homosexual and heterosexual brothers (N = 79–82 full sibling discordant pairs). Consistent with past studies, concordant pairs yielded modest positive correlations consistent with moderate genetic and/or familial environmental effects on gender nonconformity. Unlike results of smaller past studies, discordant pairs also yielded modest positive, though nonsignificant, correlations. Our results support the feasibility of supplementing genetic studies of male sexual orientation with analyses of gender nonconformity variation.
KeywordsSexual orientation Homosexuality Gender nonconformity Familiality Genetics
This research was supported by NICHD: the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (A.R.S., Grant No. R01HD041563).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical approval of NorthShore University HealthSystem IRB.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Bailey, J. M., & Pillard, R. C. (1991). A genetic study of male sexual orientation. Archives of General Psychiatry,48, 1089–1096. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810360053008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kinsey, P., Pomeroy, W. B., & Martin, C. E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar