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Familiality of Gender Nonconformity Among Homosexual Men

  • J. Michael BaileyEmail author
  • Gerulf Rieger
  • Ritesha S. Krishnappa
  • Alana B. Kolundzija
  • Khytam Dawood
  • Alan R. Sanders
Original Paper

Abstract

We examined whether recalled childhood gender nonconformity and self-reported adult gender nonconformity is familial, using data from 1154 families selected for having at least two homosexual brothers. Specifically, we examined the extent to which homosexual men’s variation in gender nonconformity runs in families by examining pairs of genetic brothers who were both homosexual (N = 672–697 full sibling concordant pairs). We also examined similarity between homosexual and heterosexual brothers (N = 79–82 full sibling discordant pairs). Consistent with past studies, concordant pairs yielded modest positive correlations consistent with moderate genetic and/or familial environmental effects on gender nonconformity. Unlike results of smaller past studies, discordant pairs also yielded modest positive, though nonsignificant, correlations. Our results support the feasibility of supplementing genetic studies of male sexual orientation with analyses of gender nonconformity variation.

Keywords

Sexual orientation Homosexuality Gender nonconformity Familiality Genetics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by NICHD: the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (A.R.S., Grant No. R01HD041563).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical approval of NorthShore University HealthSystem IRB.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of EssexColchesterUK
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Collective ImpactSan FranciscoUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  6. 6.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesNorthShore University HealthSystem Research InstituteEvanstonUSA
  7. 7.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral NeuroscienceUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA

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