Advertisement

Making Meaning of the Impact of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) on Public Health and Sexual Culture: Narratives of Three Generations of Gay and Bisexual Men

  • Phillip L. HammackEmail author
  • Erin E. Toolis
  • Bianca D. M. Wilson
  • Richard C. Clark
  • David M. Frost
Original Paper

Abstract

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with Truvada has emerged as an increasingly common approach to HIV prevention among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. This study examined generational differences and similarities in narrative accounts of PrEP among a diverse sample of 89 gay and bisexual men in the U.S. Over 50% of men in the older (52–59 years) and younger (18–25 years) generations endorsed positive views, compared with 32% of men in the middle (34–41 years) generation. Men in the middle cohort expressed the most negative (21%) and ambivalent (47%) views of PrEP. Thematic analysis of men’s narratives revealed three central stories about the perceived impact of PrEP: (1) PrEP has a positive impact on public health by preventing HIV transmission (endorsed more frequently by men in the older and younger cohorts); (2) PrEP has a positive effect on gay and bisexual men’s sexual culture by decreasing anxiety and making sex more enjoyable (endorsed more frequently by men in the middle and younger cohorts); and (3) PrEP has a negative impact on public health and sexual culture by increasing condomless, multi-partner sex (endorsed more frequently by men in the middle and younger cohorts). Results are discussed in terms of the significance of generation cohort in meanings of sexual health and culture and implications for public health approaches to PrEP promotion among gay and bisexual men.

Keywords

PrEP HIV/AIDS Gay men Public health Sexual culture Sexual orientation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Research reported in this article is part of the Generations Study, supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) of the National Institutes of Health under award number R01HD078526. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The Generations investigators are: Ilan H. Meyer, Ph.D. (Principal Investigator), David M. Frost, Ph.D., Phillip L. Hammack, Ph.D., Marguerita Lightfoot, Ph.D., Stephen T. Russell, Ph.D., and Bianca D. M. Wilson, Ph.D. (Co-Investigators, listed alphabetically). We acknowledge the research assistance of Jessica Fish, Janae Hubbard, and Evan Krueger. This article was completed while the first author was supported by a fellowship from the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University.

Funding

This study was funded by Grant R01HD078526 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Adam, B. D. (2005). Constructing the neoliberal sexual actor: Responsibility and care of the self in the discourse of barebackers. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7(4), 333–346.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13691050500100773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adam, B. D. (2009). Emergence of a poz sexual culture: Accounting for “barebacking” among gay men. In P. L. Hammack & B. J. Cohler (Eds.), The story of sexual identity: Narrative perspectives on the gay and lesbian life course (pp. 207–222). New York: Oxford University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326789.003.0009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barash, E. A., & Golden, M. (2010). Awareness and use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among attendees of a Seattle gay pride event and sexually transmitted disease clinic. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 24(11), 689–691.  https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2010.0173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.  https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooks, R. A., Landovitz, R. J., Kaplan, R. L., Lieber, E., Lee, S., & Barkley, T. W. (2012). Sexual risk behaviors and acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-negative gay and bisexual men in serodiscordant relationships: A mixed methods study. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 26(2), 87–94.  https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2011.0283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cahill, S., Taylor, S. W., Elsesser, S. A., Mena, L., Hickson, D., & Mayer, K. H. (2017). Stigma, medical mistrust, and perceived racism may affect PrEP awareness and uptake in Black compared to white gay and bisexual men in Jackson, Mississippi and Boston,Massachusetts. AIDS Care, 29(11), 1351–1358.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2017.1300633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Calabrese, S. K., Underhill, K., Earnshaw, V. A., Hansen, N. B., Kershaw, T. S., Hansen, N. B., & Dovidio, J. F. (2016). Framing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the general public: How inclusive messaging may prevent prejudice from diminishing public support. AIDS and Behavior, 20(7), 1499–1513.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-016-1318-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carballo-Dieguez, A., & Bauermeister, J. (2004). “Barebacking”: Intentional condomless anal sex in HIV-risk contexts. Reasons for and against it. Journal of Homosexuality, 47(1), 1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v47n01_01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carter, D. (2004). Stonewall: The riots that sparked the gay revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cass, V. C. (1979). Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219–235.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v04n03_01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV surveillance report, 2016; vol. 28. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/library/reports/hiv-surveillance.html. Published November 2017. Accessed October 13, 2018.
  12. Cohler, B. J., & Hammack, P. L. (2007). The psychological world of the gay teenager: Social change, narrative, and “normality”. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 47–59.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9110-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. D’Emilio, J. (1983). Sexual politics, sexual communities: The making of a homosexual minority in the United States, 1940–1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  14. Davidson, A. G. (1991). Looking for love in the age of AIDS: The language of gay personals, 1978–1988. Journal of Sex Research, 28(1), 125–137.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499109551598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dean, T. (2009). Unlimited intimacy: Reflections on the subculture of barebacking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226139401.001.0001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eaton, L. A., Kalichman, S. C., Price, D., Finneran, S., Allen, A., & Maksut, J. (2017a). Stigma and conspiracy beliefs related to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and interest in using PrEP among Black and white men and transgender women who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 21(5), 1236–1246.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-1690-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eaton, L. A., Matthews, D. D., Driffin, D. D., Bukowski, L., Wilson, P. A., Stall, R. D., & the POWER Study Team. (2017b). A multi-US city assessment of awareness and uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among Black men and transgender women who have sex with men. Prevention Science, 18(5), 505–516.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-017-0756-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fallon, S. A., Park, J. N., Ogbue, C. P., Flynn, C., & German, D. (2017). Awareness and acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in Baltimore. AIDS and Behavior, 21(5), 1268–1277.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-016-1619-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Franks, J., Hirsch-Moverman, Y., Loquere, A. S., Amico, K. R., Grant, R. M., Dye, B. J., & Mannheimer, S. B. (2018). Sex, PrEP, and stigma: Experiences with HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among New York City MSM participating in the HPTN 067/Adapt Study. AIDS and Behavior, 22, 1139–1149.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-1964-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goedel, W. C., Halkitis, P. N., Greene, R. E., & Duncan, D. T. (2016). Correlates of awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men who use geosocial-networking smartphone applications in New York City. AIDS and Behavior, 20(7), 1435–1442.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-016-1353-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grant, R. M., Lama, J. R., Anderson, P. L., McMahan, V., Liu, A. Y., Vargas, L., & Glidden, D. V. (2010). Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(27), 2587–2599.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1011205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Green, J., Willis, K., Hughes, E., Small, R., Welch, N., Gibbs, L., & Daly, J. (2007). Generating best evidence from qualitative research: The role of data analysis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 31(6), 545–550.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.2007.00141.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grov, C., Rendina, H. J., Whitfield, T. H. F., Ventuneac, A., & Parsons, J. T. (2016). Changes in familiarity with and willingness to take preexposure prophylaxis in a longitudinal study of highly sexually active gay and bisexual men. LGBT Health, 3(4), 252–257.  https://doi.org/10.1089/lgbt.2015.0123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grulich, A. E., & Kaldor, J. M. (2008). Trends in HIV incidence in homosexual men in developed countries. Sexual Health, 5(2), 113–118.  https://doi.org/10.1071/SH07075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Halkitis, P. N. (2014). The AIDS generation: Stories of survival and resilience. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Halkitis, P. N., & Parsons, J. T. (2003). Intentional unsafe sex (barebacking) among HIV-positive gay men who seek sexual partners on the Internet. AIDS Care, 15(3), 367–378.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0954012031000105423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Halkitis, P. N., Parsons, J. T., & Wilton, L. (2003). Barebacking among gay and bisexual men in New York City: Explanations for the emergence of intentional unsafe behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32(4), 351–357.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024095016181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Halkitis, P. N., Wilton, L., & Galatowitsch, P. (2005). What’s in a term? How gay and bisexual men understand barebacking. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 9(3–4), 35–48.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19359705.2005.9962411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hammack, P. L. (2018). Gay men’s identity development in the twenty-first century: Continuity and change, normalization and resistance. Human Development, 61, 101–125.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000486469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hammack, P. L., & Cohler, B. J. (2009). Narrative engagement and sexual identity: An interdisciplinary approach to the study of sexual lives. In P. L. Hammack & B. J. Cohler (Eds.), The story of sexual identity: Narrative perspectives on the gay and lesbian life course (pp. 3–22). New York: Oxford University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326789.003.0001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hammack, P. L., & Cohler, B. J. (2011). Narrative, identity, and the politics of exclusion: Social change and the gay and lesbian life course. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 8, 162–182.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13178-011-0060-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hammack, P. L., Frost, D. M., Meyer, I. H., & Pletta, D. (2018a). Gay men’s health and identity: Social change and the life course. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47, 59–74.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-0990-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hammack, P. L., Meyer, I. H., Krueger, E. A., Lightfoot, M., & Frost, D. M. (2018b). HIV testing and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use, familiarity, and attitudes among gay and bisexual men in the United States: A national probability sample of three birth cohorts. PLoS ONE, 13, e0202806.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hammack, P. L., & Toolis, E. E. (2016). Putting the social into personal identity: The master narrative as root metaphor for psychological and developmental science. Human Development, 58, 350–364.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000446054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hannaford, A., Lipshie-Williams, M., Starrels, J. L., Arnsten, J. H., Rizzuto, J., Cohen, P., & Patel, V. V. (2018). The use of online posts to identify barriers to and facilitators of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men: A comparison to a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature. AIDS and Behavior, 22, 1080–1095.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-2011-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Herek, G. M., & Glunt, E. K. (1988). An epidemic of stigma: Public reactions to AIDS. American Psychologist, 43(11), 886–891.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.43.11.886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hoff, C. C., Chakravarty, D., Bircher, A. E., Campbell, C. K., Grisham, K., Neilands, T. B., & Dworkin, S. (2015). Attitudes towards PrEP and anticipated condom use among concordant HIV-negative and HIV-discordant male couples. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 29(7), 408–417.  https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2014.0315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hojilla, J. C., Koester, K. A., Cohen, S. E., Buchbinder, S., Ladzekpo, D., Matheson, T., & Liu, A. Y. (2016). Sexual behavior, risk compensation, and HIV prevention strategies among participants in the San Francisco PrEP demonstration project: A qualitative analysis of counseling notes. AIDS and Behavior, 20(7), 1461–1469.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-015-1055-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hubach, R. D., Currin, J. M., Sanders, C. A., Durham, A. R., Kavanagh, K. E., Wheeler, D. L., & Croff, J. M. (2017). Barriers to access and adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a relatively rural state. AIDS Education and Prevention, 29(4), 315–329.  https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2017.29.4.315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Josselson, R. (2004). The hermeneutics of faith and the hermeneutics of suspicion. Narrative Inquiry, 14, 1–28.  https://doi.org/10.1075/ni.14.1.01jos.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kippax, S. C., Holt, M., & Friedman, S. R. (2011). Bridging the social and the biomedical: Engaging the social and political sciences in HIV research. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 14(Suppl. 2), S1.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1758-2652-14-S2-S1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Klevens, R. M., Martin, B. M., Doherty, R., Fukuda, H. D., Cranston, K., & DeMaria, A. (2018). Factors associated with pre-exposure prophylaxis in a highly insured population of urban men who have sex with men, 2014. AIDS and Behavior, 22, 1201–1208.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-1879-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kubicek, K., Arauz-Cuadra, C., & Kipke, M. D. (2015). Attitudes and perceptions of biomedical HIV prevention methods: Voices from young men who have sex with men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44, 487–497.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-014-0398-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kuhns, L. M., Hotton, A. L., Schneider, J., Garofalo, R., & Fujimoto, K. (2017). Use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in young men who have sex with men is associated with race, sexual risk behavior and peer network size. AIDS and Behavior, 21(5), 1376–1382.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-1739-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kwakwa, H. A., Bessias, S., Sturgis, D., Mvula, N., Wahome, R., Coyle, C., & Flanigan, T. P. (2016). Attitudes toward HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in a United States urban clinic population. AIDS and Behavior, 20(7), 1443–1450.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-016-1407-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lachowsky, N. J., Lin, S. Y., Hull, M. W., Cui, Z., Sereda, P., Jollimore, J., & Moore, D. M. (2016). Pre-exposure prophylaxis awareness among gay and other men who have sex with men in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. AIDS and Behavior, 20(7), 1408–1422.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-016-1319-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Levine, M. P. (1979). Gay ghetto. Journal of Homosexuality, 4(4), 363–377.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v04n04_04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Merchant, R. C., Corner, D., Garza, E., Guan, W., Mayer, K. H., Brown, L., & Chan, P. A. (2016). Preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) information among men who have sex with men (MSM) at community outreach settings. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 20(1), 21–33.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19359705.2015.1105115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674–697.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meyer, I. H., Schwartz, S., & Frost, D. (2008). Social patterning of stress and coping: Does disadvantaged social statuses confer more stress and fewer coping resources? Social Science and Medicine, 67, 368–379.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.03.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Minton, H. L. (2001). Departing from deviance: A history of homosexual rights and emancipatory science in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226304458.001.0001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mosley, T., Khaketla, M., Armstrong, H. L., Cui, Z., Sereda, P., Lachowsky, N. J., & Moore, D. M. (2018). Trends in awareness and use of HIV PrEP among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada 2012–2016. AIDS and Behavior, 22, 3550–3565.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-018-2026-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Oldenburg, C. E., Mitty, J. A., Biello, K. B., Closson, E. F., Safren, S. A., Mayer, K. H., & Mimiaga, M. J. (2016). Differences in attitudes about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis use among stimulant versus alcohol using men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 20(7), 1451–1460.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-015-1226-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Parsons, J. T., Rendina, H. J., Lassiter, J. M., Whitfield, T. H. F., Starks, T. J., & Grov, C. (2017). Uptake of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in a national cohort of gay and bisexual men in the United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 74(3), 285–292.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Parsons, J. T., Rendina, H. J., Whitfield, T. H., & Grov, C. (2016). Familiarity with and preferences for oral and long-acting injectable HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in a national sample of gay and bisexual men in the U.S. AIDS and Behavior, 20(7), 1390–1399.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-016-1370-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pérez-Figueroa, R. E., Kapadia, F., Barton, S. C., Eddy, J. A., & Halkitis, P. N. (2015). Acceptability of PrEP uptake among racially/ethnically diverse young men who have sex with men: The P18 Study. AIDS Education and Prevention, 27(2), 112–125.  https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2015.27.2.112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rendina, H. J., Whitfield, T. H. F., Grov, C., Starks, T. J., & Parsons, J. T. (2017). Distinguishing hypothetical willingness from behavioral intentions to initiate HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): Findings from a large cohort of gay and bisexual men in the U.S. Social Science and Medicine, 172, 115–123.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.10.030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rofes, E. (1998). Dry bones breathe: Gay men creating post-AIDS identities and cultures. New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  59. Schwartz, J., & Grimm, J. (2017). PrEP on Twitter: Information, barriers, and stigma. Health Communication, 32(4), 509–516.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2016.1140271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shapiro, L. (2014). The most celebrated, mistrusted little pill in the world. Huffington Post. Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/prep-hiv-truvada_n_6185028?guccounter=1.
  61. Storholm, E. D., Volk, J. E., Marcus, J. L., Silverberg, M. J., & Satre, D. D. (2017). Risk perception, sexual behaviors, and PrEP adherence among substance-using men who have sex with men: A qualitative study. Prevention Science, 18(6), 737–747.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-017-0799-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Strauss, B. B., Greene, G. J., Phillips, G., Bhatia, R., Madkins, K., Parsons, J. T., & Mustanski, B. (2017). Exploring patterns of awareness and use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among young men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 21(5), 1288–1298.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-016-1480-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tappan, M. B. (1997). Interpretive psychology: Stories, circles, and understanding lived experience. Journal of Social Issues, 53(4), 645–656.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02453.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Troiden, R. R. (1979). Becoming homosexual: A model of gay identity acquisition. Psychiatry, 42, 362–373.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00332747.1979.11024039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Watters, J. K., & Biernacki, P. (1989). Targeted sampling: Options for the study of hidden populations. Social Problems, 36(4), 416–430.  https://doi.org/10.2307/800824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Whitfield, T. H. F., John, S. A., Rendina, H. J., Grov, C., & Parsons, J. T. (2018). Why I quit pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)? A mixed-method study exploring reasons for PrEP discontinuation and potential re-initiation among gay and bisexual men. AIDS and Behavior, 22, 3566–3575.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-018-2045-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wilson, B. D. M., & Miller, R. L. (2003). Examining strategies for culturally grounded HIV prevention: A review. AIDS Education and Prevention, 15(2), 184–202.  https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.15.3.184.23838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Young, I., Flowers, P., & McDaid, L. (2016). Can a pill prevent HIV? Negotiating the biomedicalisation of HIV prevention. Sociology of Health & Illness, 38(3), 411–425.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California,Santa CruzSanta CruzUSA
  2. 2.Williams InstituteUCLA School of LawLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyCity University of New York Graduate CenterNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of Social ScienceUniversity CollegeLondonUK

Personalised recommendations