Advertisement

Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 48, Issue 8, pp 2435–2459 | Cite as

When Orgasms Do Not Equal Pleasure: Accounts of “Bad” Orgasm Experiences During Consensual Sexual Encounters

  • Sara B. Chadwick
  • Miriam Francisco
  • Sari M. van AndersEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Orgasms during consensual sex are often assumed to be wholly positive experiences. This assumption overshadows the possibility that orgasm experiences during consensual sex could be “bad” (i.e., negative and/or non-positive). In the present study, we employed an online survey to explore the possibility that orgasm experiences could be “bad” during consensual sex by asking participants of diverse gender and sexual identities (N = 726, M age = 28.42 years, SD = 7.85) about a subset of potential bad orgasm experiences. Specifically, we asked participants whether they have ever had an orgasm during coerced sex, compliant sex, and/or when they felt pressured to have an orgasm (i.e., orgasm pressure). We also asked participants who had such an experience to describe it, resulting in qualitative descriptions from 289 participants. Using mixed quantitative and qualitative analyses, we found compelling evidence that orgasm experiences can be “bad” during consensual sex. Specifically, many participants described their experiences in negative and/or non-positive ways despite orgasm occurrence, reported that their orgasms were less pleasurable compared to other experiences, and suggested that their orgasm experiences had negative impacts on their relationships, sexuality, and/or psychological health. Participants also suggested that social location shaped their bad orgasm experiences, citing gender and sexual identity, gender identity conflict, race/ethnicity, and religion as important to their perceptions of and responses to their experiences. Results directly challenge the assumption that orgasms during consensual sex are always and/or unilaterally positive experiences.

Keywords

Orgasm Gender Sexual pressure Coercion Compliance Feminist science 

Notes

Funding

This study was funded by faculty discretionary funds.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Armstrong, E. A., England, P., & Fogarty, A. C. K. (2012). Accounting for women’s orgasm and sexual enjoyment in college hookups and relationships. American Sociological Review,77, 435–462.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122412445802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson, T. G. (1974). Amazon odyssey: The first collection of writings by the political pioneer of the women’s movement. New York: Link Books.Google Scholar
  3. Attwood, F. (2005). What do people do with porn? Qualitative research into the consumption, use, and experience of pornography and other sexually explicit media. Sexuality and Culture,9, 65–86.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-005-1008-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baier, J. L., Rosenzweig, M. G., & Whipple, E. G. (1991). Patterns of sexual behavior, coercion, and victimization of university students. Journal of College Student Development,32, 310–322.Google Scholar
  5. Barker, M. (2011). Existential sex therapy. Sexual and Relationship Therapy,26, 33–47.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14681991003685879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barker, M.-J., Gill, R., & Harvey, L. (2018). Mediated intimacy: Sex advice in media culture. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Barker, M., & Langdridge, D. (2008). II. Bisexuality: Working with a silenced sexuality. Feminism and Psychology,18, 389–394.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959353508092093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Basile, K. C. (1999). Rape by acquiescence: The ways in which women “give in” to unwanted sex with their husbands. Violence Against Women, 5, 1036–1058. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801299005009004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Basile, K. C. (2002). Prevalence of wife rape and other intimate partner sexual coercion in a nationally representative sample of women. Violence and Victims, 17, 511–524.  https://doi.org/10.1891/vivi.17.5.511.33717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauer, G. R., & Hammond, R. (2015). Toward a broader conceptualization of trans women’s sexual health. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality,24, 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.3138/cjhs.24.1-CO1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bay-Cheng, L. Y., & Eliseo-Arras, R. K. (2008). The making of unwanted sex: Gendered and neoliberal norms in college women’s unwanted sexual experiences. Journal of Sex Research,45, 386–397.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490802398381.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blair, K. L., Cappell, J., & Pukall, C. F. (2018). Not all orgasms were created equal: Differences in frequency and satisfaction of orgasm experiences by sexual activity in same-sex versus mixed-sex relationships. Journal of Sex Research,55, 719–733.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2017.1303437.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bolsø, A. (2005). Orgasm and lesbian sociality. Sex Education,5, 29–48.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1468181042000301876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2013). Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for beginners. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Braun, V., Gavey, N., & McPhillips, K. (2003). The ‘fair deal’? Unpacking accounts of reciprocity in heterosex. Sexualities,6, 237–261.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1363460703006002005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brotto, L. A., Basson, R., & Luria, M. (2008). A mindfulness-based group psychoeducational intervention targeting sexual arousal disorder in women. Journal of Sexual Medicine,5, 1646–1659.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.00850.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, A. L., Testa, M., & Messman-Moore, T. L. (2009). Psychological consequences of sexual victimization resulting from force, incapacitation, or verbal coercion. Violence Against Women,15, 898–919.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801209335491.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Bryant-Davis, T., Ullman, S. E., Tsong, Y., Tillman, S., & Smith, K. (2010). Struggling to survive: Sexual assault, poverty, and mental health outcomes of African American women. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,80, 61–70.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01007.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Byers, E. S. (2005). Relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction: A longitudinal study of individuals in long-term relationships. Journal of Sex Research,42, 113–118.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490509552264.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Califia, P. (1979). Lesbian sexuality. Journal of Homosexuality,4, 255–266.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v04n03_04.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chadwick, S. B., & van Anders, S. M. (2017). Do women’s orgasms function as a masculinity achievement for men? Journal of Sex Research,54, 1141–1152.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2017.1283484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chamberlain, L., & Levenson, R. (2012). Addressing intimate partner violence, reproductive and sexual coercion: A guide for obstetric, gynecologic and reproductive health care settings (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Futures Without Violence.Google Scholar
  23. Coker, A. L., Davis, K. E., Arias, I., Desai, S., Sanderson, M., Brandt, H. M., & Smith, P. H. (2002). Physical and mental health effects of intimate partner violence for men and women. American Journal of Preventive Medicine,23, 260–268.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00514-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Conroy, N. E., Krishnakumar, A., & Leone, J. M. (2015). Reexamining issues of conceptualization and willing consent: The hidden role of coercion in experiences of sexual acquiescence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,30, 1828–1846.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260514549050.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Crown, L., & Roberts, L. J. (2007). Against their will: Young women’s nonagentic sexual experiences. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,24, 385–405.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407507077228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cupach, W. R., & Comstock, J. (1990). Satisfaction with sexual communication in marriage: Links to sexual satisfaction and dyadic adjustment. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,7, 179–186.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407590072002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Danieli, Y. (Ed.). (1998). The Plenum series on stress and coping: International handbook of multigenerational legacies of trauma. New York: Plenum Publishers.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-5567-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Denman, C. (2004). Sexuality: A biopsychosocial approach. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Donovan, R., & Williams, M. (2002). Living at the intersection. Women and Therapy,25, 95–105.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J015v25n03_07.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Doorduin, T., & van Berlo, W. (2014). Trans people’s experience of sexuality in the Netherlands: A pilot study. Journal of Homosexuality,61, 654–672.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2014.865482.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Eaton, A. A., & Matamala, A. (2014). The relationship between heteronormative beliefs and verbal sexual coercion in college students. Archives of Sexual Behavior,43, 1443–1457.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-014-0284-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Edelson, M. G., Hokoda, A., & Ramos-Lira, L. (2007). Differences in effects of domestic violence between Latina and non-Latina women. Journal of Family Violence,22, 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-006-9051-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Elo, S., & Kyngäs, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing,62, 107–115.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Fahs, B. (2014). Coming to power: Women’s fake orgasms and best orgasm experiences illuminate the failures of (hetero)sex and the pleasures of connection. Culture, Health and Sexuality,16, 974–988.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2014.924557.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Finger, W. W., Lund, M., & Slagel, M. A. (1997). Medications that may contribute to sexual disorders: A guide to assessment and treatment in family practice. Journal of Family Practice,44, 33–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Frederick, D. A., John, H. K. S., Garcia, J. R., & Lloyd, E. A. (2018). Differences in orgasm frequency among gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual men and women in a U.S. national sample. Archives of Sexual Behavior,47, 273–288.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-0939-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Freud, S. (1905). Three essays on the theory of sexuality. Standard Edition,7, 125–245.Google Scholar
  38. Frith, H. (2013). Labouring on orgasms: Embodiment, efficiency, entitlement and obligations in heterosex. Culture, Health and Sexuality,15, 494–510.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2013.767940.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Frith, H. (2015). Sexercising to orgasm: Embodied pedagogy and sexual labour in women’s magazines. Sexualities,18, 310–328.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1363460714550912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Garcia, J. R., Lloyd, E. A., Wallen, K., & Fisher, H. E. (2014). Variation in orgasm occurrence by sexual orientation in a sample of U.S. singles. Journal of Sexual Medicine,11, 2645–2652.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jsm.12669.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Garnets, L., & Peplau, L. A. (2006). Sexuality in the lives of adult lesbian and bisexual women. In D. C. Kimmel, T. Rose, & S. David (Eds.), Research and clinical perspectives on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender aging (pp. 70–90). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Gilfoyle, J., Wilson, J., & Own, B. (1992). Sex, organs and audiotape: A discourse analytic approach to talking about heterosexual sex and relationships. Feminism and Psychology,2, 209–230.  https://doi.org/10.1177/095935359222010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gordon, L. E. (2006). Bringing the U-haul: Embracing and resisting sexual stereotypes in a lesbian community. Sexualities,9, 171–192.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1363460706063118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gordon, A. S., Panahian-Jand, M., McComb, F., Melegari, C., & Sharp, S. (2003). Characteristics of women with vulvar pain disorders: Responses to a web-based survey. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,29, 45–58.  https://doi.org/10.1080/713847126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Grace, V., Potts, A., Gavey, N., & Vares, T. (2006). The discursive condition of viagra. Sexualities,9, 295–314.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1363460706065050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Herbenick, D., Barnhart, K., Beavers, K., & Fortenberry, D. (2018). Orgasm range and variability in humans: A content analysis. International Journal of Sexual Health,30, 195–209.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19317611.2018.1491920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Herbenick, D., & Fortenberry, J. D. (2011). Exercise-induced orgasm and pleasure among women. Sexual and Relationship Therapy,26, 373–388.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14681994.2011.647902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hite, S. (1976). The Hite report. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  49. Hoppe, T. (2011). Circuits of power, circuits of pleasure: Sexual scripting in gay men’s bottom narratives. Sexualities,14, 193–217.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1363460711399033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Iantaffi, A., & Bockting, W. O. (2011). Views from both sides of the bridge? Gender, sexual legitimacy and transgender people’s experiences of relationships. Culture, Health and Sexuality,13, 355–370.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2010.537770.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Impett, E. A., & Peplau, L. A. (2003). Sexual compliance: Gender, motivational, and relationship perspectives. Journal of Sex Research,40, 87–100.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490309552169.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Impett, E. A., Peplau, L. A., & Gable, S. L. (2005). Approach and avoidance sexual motives: Implications for personal and interpersonal well-being. Personal Relationships,12, 465–482.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.2005.00126.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jagose, A. (2010). Counterfeit pleasures: Fake orgasm and queer agency. Textual Practice,24, 517–539.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09502361003690849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Johnston, J. (1973). Lesbian nation: The feminist solution. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  55. Kamen, P. (2000). Her way: Young women remake the sexual revolution. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Katz, J., & Myhr, L. (2008). Perceived conflict patterns and relationship quality associated with verbal sexual coercion by male dating partners. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,23, 798–814.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260507313949.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kiefer, A. K., Sanchez, D. T., Kalinka, C. J., & Ybarra, O. (2006). How women’s nonconscious association of sex with submission relates to their subjective sexual arousability and ability to reach orgasm. Sex Roles,55, 83–94.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-006-9060-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Koedt, A. (1973). The myth of the vaginal orgasm. In A. Koedt, E. Levine, & A. Rapone (Eds.), Radical feminism (pp. 198–207). New York: Quadrangle Books.Google Scholar
  59. Lafrance, M. N., Stelzl, M., & Bullock, K. (2017). “I’m not gonna fake it”: University women’s accounts of resisting the normative practice of faking orgasm. Psychology of Women Quarterly,41, 210–222.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684316683520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Láng, A., Cooper, E. B., & Meskó, N. (2018). The relationship between dimensions of adult attachment and motivation for faking orgasm in women. Journal of Sex Research.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2018.1525333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lavie, M., & Willig, C. (2005). I don’t feel like melting butter”: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experience of ‘inorgasmia. Psychology and Health,20, 115–128.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08870440412331296044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lavie-Ajayi, M., & Joffe, H. (2009). Social representations of female orgasm. Journal of Health Psychology,14, 98–107.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105308097950.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lenning, E., & Buist, C. L. (2013). Social, psychological and economic challenges faced by transgender individuals and their significant others: Gaining insight through personal narratives. Culture, Health and Sexuality,15, 44–57.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2012.738431.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Levin, R. J., & van Berlo, W. (2004). Sexual arousal and orgasm in subjects who experience forced or non-consensual sexual stimulation: A review. Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine,11, 82–88.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcfm.2003.10.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Litzinger, S., & Gordon, K. C. (2005). Exploring relationships among communication, sexual satisfaction, and marital satisfaction. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,31, 409–424.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00926230591006719.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Livingston, J. A., Buddie, A. M., Testa, M., & VanZile-Tamsen, C. (2004). The role of sexual precedence in verbal sexual coercion. Psychology of Women Quarterly,28, 287–297.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2004.00146.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mah, K., & Binik, Y. M. (2001). The nature of human orgasm: A critical review of major trends. Clinical Psychology Review,21, 823–856.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(00)00069-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mah, K., & Binik, Y. M. (2002). Do all orgasms feel alike? Evaluating a two-dimensional model of the orgasm experience across gender and sexual context. Journal of Sex Research,39, 104–113.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490209552129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Mah, K., & Binik, Y. M. (2005). Are orgasms in the mind or the body? Psychosocial versus physiological correlates of orgasmic pleasure and satisfaction. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,31, 187–200.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00926230590513401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mah, K., & Binik, Y. M. (2010). Orgasm Rating Scale. In T. D. Fisher, C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber, & S. L. Davis (Eds.), The handbook of sexuality-related measures (pp. 500–502). New York: Routledge.  https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315881089.ch167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Masters, W. H., & Johnson, V. (1966). Human sexual response. Brown: Little.Google Scholar
  72. Masters, W. H., & Johnson, V. E. (1970). Human sexual inadequacy. Brown: Little.Google Scholar
  73. Matsick, J. L., & Rubin, J. D. (2018). Bisexual prejudice among lesbian and gay people: Examining the roles of gender and perceived sexual orientation. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity,5, 143–155.  https://doi.org/10.1037/sgd0000283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McCabe, M. P., Sharlip, I. D., Atalla, E., Balon, R., Fisher, A. D., Laumann, E., … Segraves, R. T. (2016). Definitions of sexual dysfunctions in women and men: A consensus statement from the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine 2015. Journal of Sexual Medicine,13, 135–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2015.12.019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. McClelland, S. I. (2014). “What do you mean when you say that you are sexually satisfied?” A mixed methods study. Feminism and Psychology,24, 74–96.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959353513508392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mogorovich, A., Nilsson, A. E., Tyritzis, S. I., Carlsson, S., Jonsson, M., Haendler, L., … Wiklund, N. P. (2013). Radical prostatectomy, sparing of the seminal vesicles, and painful orgasm. Journal of Sexual Medicine,10, 1417–1423.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jsm.12086.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Muehlenhard, C. L., & Shippee, S. K. (2010). Men’s and women’s reports of pretending orgasm. Journal of Sex Research,47, 552–567.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490903171794.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Muise, A., Impett, E. A., & Desmarais, S. (2013). Getting it on versus getting it over with: Sexual motivation, desire, and satisfaction in intimate bonds. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,39, 1320–1332.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167213490963.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Murray, S. H. (2019). Not always in the mood: The new science of men, sex, and relationships. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  80. Nichols, M. (1987). Doing sex therapy with lesbians: Bending a heterosexual paradigm to fit a gay lifestyle. In Lesbian Psychologies (Ed.), Boston lesbian psychologies collective (pp. 242–260). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  81. Nicolson, P., & Burr, J. (2003). What is ‘normal’ about women’s (hetero)sexual desire and orgasm? A report of an in-depth interview study. Social Science and Medicine,57, 1735–1745.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00012-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. O’Sullivan, L. F., & Allgeier, E. R. (1998). Feigning sexual desire: Consenting to unwanted sexual activity in heterosexual dating relationships. Journal of Sex Research,35, 234–243.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499809551938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Opperman, E., Braun, V., Clarke, V., & Rogers, C. (2014). “It feels so good it almost hurts”: Young adults’ experiences of orgasm and sexual pleasure. Journal of Sex Research,51, 503–515.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2012.753982.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Porst, H., Montorsi, F., Rosen, R. C., Gaynor, L., Grupe, S., & Alexander, J. (2007). The premature ejaculation prevalence and attitudes (PEPA) survey: Prevalence, comorbidities, and professional help-seeking. European Urology,51, 816–824.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2006.07.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Potts, A. (2000). Coming, coming, gone: A feminist deconstruction of heterosexual orgasm. Sexualities,3, 55–76.  https://doi.org/10.1177/136346000003001003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Reynolds, E. (2007). ‘Pass the cream, hold the butter’: Meanings of HIV positive semen for bugchasers and giftgivers. Anthropology and Medicine,14, 259–266.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13648470701694693.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Rider, J. R., Wilson, K. M., Sinnott, J. A., Kelly, R. S., Mucci, L. A., & Giovannucci, E. L. (2016). Ejaculation frequency and risk of prostate cancer: Updated results with an additional decade of follow-up. European Urology,70, 974–982.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2016.03.027.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Roberts, C., Kippax, S., Waldby, C., & Crawford, J. (1995). Faking it. Women’s Studies International Forum,18, 523–532.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395(95)80090-C.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Salisbury, C. M. A., & Fisher, W. A. (2014). “Did you come?” A qualitative exploration of gender differences in beliefs, experiences, and concerns regarding female orgasm occurrence during heterosexual sexual interactions. Journal of Sex Research,51, 616–631.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2013.838934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schilder, A. J., Orchard, T. R., Buchner, C. S., Miller, M. L., Fernandes, K. A., Hogg, R. S., & Strathdee, S. A. (2008). ‘It’s like the treasure’: Beliefs associated with semen among young HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men. Culture, Health and Sexuality,10, 667–679.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13691050802183899.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Schreurs, K. M. G. (1993). Sexuality in lesbian couples: The importance of gender. Annual Review of Sex Research,4, 49–66.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10532528.1993.10559884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Segal, L. (1994). Straight sex: Rethinking the politics of pleasure. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  93. Seidman, S. (1989). Constructing sex as a domain of pleasure and self-expression: sexual ideology in the sixties. Theory, Culture and Society,6, 293–315.  https://doi.org/10.1177/026327689006002006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shotland, R. L., & Goodstein, L. (1992). Sexual precedence reduces the perceived legitimacy of sexual refusal: An examination of attributions concerning date rape and consensual sex. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,18, 756–764.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167292186012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Singer, J., & Singer, I. (1972). Types of female orgasm. Journal of Sex Research,8, 255–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Smith, R. E., Pine, C. J., & Hawley, M. E. (1988). Social cognitions about adult male victims of female sexual assault. Journal of Sex Research,24, 101–112.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224498809551401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Struckman-Johnson, D., & Struckman-Johnson, C. (1991). Men and women’s acceptance of coercive sexual strategies varied by initiator gender and couple intimacy. Sex Roles,25, 661–676.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00289570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Symonds, T., Roblin, D., Hart, K., & Althof, S. (2003). How does premature ejaculation impact a man’s life? Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,29, 361–370.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00926230390224738.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Thomas, E. J., Stelzl, M., & Lafrance, M. N. (2017). Faking to finish: Women’s accounts of feigning sexual pleasure to end unwanted sex. Sexualities,20, 281–301.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1363460716649338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tiefer, L. (1994). Might premature ejaculation be organic? The perfect penis takes a giant step forward. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy,20, 7–8.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01614576.1994.11074096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tiefer, L. (2004). Sex is not a natural act & other essays (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.  https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429494659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Trudel, G., & Saint-laurent, S. (1983). A comparison between the effects of Kegel’s exercises and a combination of sexual awareness relaxation and breathing on situational orgasmic dysfunction in women. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,9, 204–209.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00926238308405848.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Vance, E. B., & Wagner, N. N. (1976). Written descriptions of orgasm: A study of sex differences. Archives of Sexual Behavior,5, 87–98.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01542242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Wade, L. D., Kremer, E. C., & Brown, J. (2005). The incidental orgasm: The presence of clitoral knowledge and the absence of orgasm for women. Women and Health,42, 117–138.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J013v42n01_07.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Waldinger, M. D., & Schweitzer, D. H. (2005). Retarded ejaculation in men: An overview of psychological and neurobiological insights. World Journal of Urology,23, 76–81.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-004-0487-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Waldner-Haugrud, L. K., & Magruder, B. (1995). Male and female sexual victimization in dating relationships: Gender differences in coercion techniques and outcomes. Violence and Victims,10, 203–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Walker, A. (2014). ‘Our little secret’: How publicly heterosexual women make meaning from their ‘undercover’ same-sex sexual experiences. Journal of Bisexuality,14, 194–208.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15299716.2014.902347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Walzer, A. S., & Czopp, A. M. (2011). Able but unintelligent: Including positively stereotyped black subgroups in the stereotype content model. Journal of Social Psychology,151, 527–530.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2010.503250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. West, C. M. (2006). Sexual violence in the lives of African American women: Risk, response, resilience. Retrieved February 4, 2019 from http://www.vawnet.org.
  110. Wiederman, M. W. (2005). The gendered nature of sexual scripts. The Family Journal,13, 496–502.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1066480705278729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wincze, J. P., & Carey, M. P. (2001). Sexual dysfunction: A guide for assessment and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  112. Zweig, J. M., Crockett, L. J., Sayer, A., & Vicary, J. R. (1999). A longitudinal examination of the consequences of sexual victimization for rural young adult women. Journal of Sex Research,36, 396–409.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499909552012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara B. Chadwick
    • 1
  • Miriam Francisco
    • 2
  • Sari M. van Anders
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Departments of Psychology and Women’s StudiesUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of EnglishUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Psychology, Gender Studies, and NeuroscienceQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations