Gender Inequality or Gender Inversion? Gender Comparison of Several Ethics and Research Integrity Groups, Ethics and Research Integrity Journals, and Sex and Gender Journals
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It is most frequent to observe both horizontal and vertical occupational gender segregations based on authority, prestige, power, and income (Palermo & Giuffra, 2008; Shen, 2013, 2016; Shendruk, 2016; Urry, 2015). According to different studies in the U.S. and the EU, a woman’s salary can be as much as 25–40% lower than that of men (Shen, 2013, 2016). In Canada, the pay gap between men and women in the fields of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) decreased to 7.5% (in 2010) from 15% (in 1997) while the employment rate of STEM-related women hardly changed during the last 20–30 years and remains very low (20% in 1987; 22% in 2011) (Shendruk, 2016). Gender and pay imbalance is prevalent in Brazilian science, where female scientists are more represented in lower levels of productivity scholarship ranking, whereas men dominated higher levels of this ranking (Valentova, Otta, Silva, & McElliott, 2017). These gender-related differences in pay might not necessarily be...
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The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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