Advertisement

Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 48, Issue 8, pp 2491–2506 | Cite as

Emotion Regulation in Couples Affected by Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder

  • Justin P. Dubé
  • Serena Corsini-Munt
  • Amy Muise
  • Natalie O. RosenEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD) is associated with psychological, relational, and sexual consequences for affected women, and their romantic partners also suffer repercussions. Prior research suggests that women with FSIAD report more difficulties with emotion regulation than controls. Yet, whether emotion regulation is associated with the psychological, relational, and sexual well-being of both members of affected couples is unknown. Eighty-seven women diagnosed with FSIAD via a clinical interview and their male partners completed standardized measures of difficulties in emotion regulation, depression, anxiety, relationship satisfaction, dyadic conflict, sexual desire, and sexual distress. A subset (n = 71 couples) also completed measures of emotional suppression and reappraisal in relation to sex. Analyses used multilevel modeling guided by the actor–partner interdependence model. When women reported greater difficulties regulating negative emotion, they reported greater depression and anxiety, and when men reported more of these difficulties, they had greater depression, anxiety, and sexual distress, and the women with FSIAD reported lower relationship satisfaction. When women reported greater emotional suppression, they reported greater depression and anxiety, and lower relationship satisfaction; when they reported greater use of emotional reappraisal, they had fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, and their partners reported lower dyadic conflict. When men reported greater emotional suppression, they had greater depression, lower relationship satisfaction, and sexual desire; when they reported greater emotional reappraisal, they had lower depression and anxiety, higher relationship satisfaction, lower dyadic conflict, higher sexual desire and women reported higher relationship satisfaction and lower dyadic conflict. Emotion regulation may be an important target for interventions to help couples cope with FSIAD.

Keywords

Female sexual interest/arousal disorder Couples Emotion regulation Sexual dysfunction DSM–5 

Notes

Acknowledgements

J. P. Dubé was supported by a Canadian Graduate Scholarship from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) and by a Nova Scotia Graduate Scholarship. S. Corsini-Munt was supported by a SSHRC postdoctoral fellowship. This research was supported by a New Investigator Salary Award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) awarded to N. O. Rosen, as well as operating grants from the CIHR and SSHRC held by N. O. Rosen and A. Muise. We are grateful to Megan Muise, Kathy Petite, Nicole Snowball, Carmen Boudreau, and Cindy Mackie for their assistance with data collection, and to the couples who participated in this research.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Abdo, C. H., Valadares, A. L., Oliveira, W. M., Jr., Scanavino, M. T., & Afif-Abdo, J. (2010). Hypoactive sexual desire disorder in a population-based study of Brazilian women: Associated factors classified according to their importance. Menopause,17, 1114–1121.Google Scholar
  2. Aldao, A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2012). The influence of context on the implementation of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Behaviour Research and Therapy,50, 493–501.Google Scholar
  3. Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review,30, 217–237.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Bancroft, J., Loftus, J., & Long, J. S. (2003). Distress about sex: A national survey of women in heterosexual relationships. Archives of Sexual Behavior,32, 193–208.Google Scholar
  6. Bar-Haim, Y., Lamy, D., Pergamin, L., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2007). Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin,133, 1–24.Google Scholar
  7. Bardeen, J. R., Fergus, T. A., Hannan, S. M., & Orcutt, H. K. (2016). Addressing psychometric limitations of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation scale through item modification. Journal of Personality Assessment,98, 298–309.Google Scholar
  8. Baumeister, R. F., Catanese, K. R., & Vohs, K. D. (2001). Is there a gender difference in strength of sex drive? Theoretical views, conceptual distinctions, and a review of relevant evidence. Personality and Social Psychology Review,5, 242–273.Google Scholar
  9. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). BDI-II, Beck depression inventory: Manual (2nd ed.). Boston: Harcourt, Brace, and Company.Google Scholar
  10. Ben-Naim, S., Hirschberger, G., Ein-Dor, T., & Mikulincer, M. (2013). An experimental study of emotion regulation during relationship conflict interactions: The moderating role of attachment orientations. Emotion,13, 506–519.Google Scholar
  11. Benjamini, Y., Krieger, A. M., & Yekutieli, D. (2006). Adaptive linear step-up procedures that control the false discovery rate. Biometrika,93, 491–507.Google Scholar
  12. Bloch, L., Haase, C. M., & Levenson, R. W. (2014). Emotion regulation predicts marital satisfaction: More than a wives’ tale. Emotion,14, 130–144.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brotto, L. A., & Laan, E. (2015). Problems of sexual desire and arousal in women. ABC of Sexual Health,259, 59.Google Scholar
  14. Burri, A. V., Cherkas, L. M., & Spector, T. D. (2009). Emotional intelligence and its association with orgasmic frequency in women. Journal of Sexual Medicine,6, 1930–1937.Google Scholar
  15. Busby, D. M., Christensen, C., Crane, D. R., & Larson, J. H. (1995). A revision of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale for use with distressed and nondistressed couples: Construct hierarchy and multidimensional scales. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy,21, 289–308.Google Scholar
  16. Butler, E. A. (2011). Temporal interpersonal emotion systems: The “ties” that form relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Review,15, 367–393.Google Scholar
  17. Butler, E. A., Egloff, B., Wlhelm, F. H., Smith, N. C., Erickson, E. A., & Gross, J. J. (2003). The social consequences of expressive suppression. Emotion,3, 48–67.Google Scholar
  18. Cameron, L. D., & Overall, N. C. (2018). Suppression and expression as distinct emotion-regulation processes in daily interactions: Longitudinal and meta-analyses. Emotion,18, 465–480.  https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Campbell-Sills, L., Barlow, D. H., Brown, T. A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2006). Acceptability and suppression of negative emotion in anxiety and mood disorders. Emotion,6, 587–595.Google Scholar
  20. Carvalho, J., & Nobre, P. (2011). Gender differences in sexual desire: How do emotional and relationship factors determine sexual desire according to gender? Sexologies,20, 207–211.Google Scholar
  21. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,56, 267–283.Google Scholar
  22. Cherkasskaya, E., & Rosario, M. (2019). The relational and bodily experiences theory of sexual desire in women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48, 1659–1681.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-018-1212-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chervonsky, E., & Hunt, C. (2017). Suppression and expression of emotion in social and interpersonal outcomes: A meta-analysis. Emotion,17, 669–683.Google Scholar
  24. Cook, W. L., & Kenny, D. A. (2005). The actor–partner interdependence model: A model of bidirectional effects in developmental studies. International Journal of Behavioral Development,29, 101–109.Google Scholar
  25. Corsini-Munt, S., Rancourt, K. M., Dubé, J. P., Rossi, M. A., & Rosen, N. O. (2017). Vulvodynia: A consideration of clinical and methodological research challenges and recommended solutions. Journal of Pain Research,10, 2425–2436.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dawson, S. J., & Chivers, M. L. (2014). Gender differences and similarities in sexual desire. Current Sexual Health Reports,6, 211–219.Google Scholar
  27. Debrot, A., Schoebi, D., Perrez, M., & Horn, A. B. (2014). Stroking your beloved one’s white bear: Responsive touch by the romantic partner buffers the negative effect of thought suppression on daily mood. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,33, 75–97.Google Scholar
  28. DePesa, N. S., & Cassisi, J. E. (2017). Affective and autonomic responses to erotic images: Evidence of disgust-based mechanisms in female sexual interest/arousal disorder. Journal of Sex Research,54, 877–886.Google Scholar
  29. DeRogatis, L., Clayton, A., Lewis-D’Agostino, D., Wunderlich, G., & Fu, Y. (2008). Validation of the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised for assessing distress in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Journal of Sexual Medicine,5, 357–364.Google Scholar
  30. Donovan-Kicken, E., & Caughlin, J. P. (2010). A multiple goals perspective on topic avoidance and relationship satisfaction in the context of breast cancer. Communication Monographs,77, 231–256.Google Scholar
  31. Doolan, E. L., Bryant, R. A., Liddell, B. J., & Nickerson, A. (2017). The conceptualization of emotion regulation difficulties, and its association with posttraumatic stress symptoms in traumatized refugees. Journal of Anxiety Disorders,50, 7–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Eplov, L., Giraldi, A., Davidsen, M., Garde, K., & Kamper-Jorgensen, F. (2007). Sexual desire in a nationally representative Danish population. Journal of Sexual Medicine,4, 47–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fiedler, K., Kutzner, F., & Krueger, J. I. (2012). The long way from α-error control to validity proper: Problems with a short-sighted false-positive debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science,7, 661–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Finkel, E. J., Slotter, E. B., Luchies, L. B., Walton, G. M., & Gross, J. J. (2013). A brief intervention to promote conflict reappraisal preserves marital quality over time. Psychological Science,24, 1595–1601.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612474938.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Frigon, J. Y., & Laurencelle, L. (1993). Analysis of covariance: A proposed algorithm. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 1–18.Google Scholar
  36. Funk, J. L., & Rogge, R. D. (2007). Testing the ruler with item response theory: Increasing precision of measurement for relationship satisfaction with the couples satisfaction index. Journal of Family Psychology,21, 572–583.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.21.4.572.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Glowacka, M., Vannier, S. A., & Rosen, N. O. (2020). Sexual contingent self-worth scale. In R. R. Milhausen, J. K. Sakaluk, T. D. Fisher, C. M. Davis, & W. L. Yarber (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality-related measures (4th ed., pp. 537–539). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Gotlib, I. H., Krasnoperova, E., Yue, D. N., & Joormann, J. (2004). Attentional biases for negative interpersonal stimuli in clinical depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,113, 121–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment,26, 41–54.Google Scholar
  40. Gratz, K. L., & Tull, M. T. (2010). Emotion regulation as a mechanism of change in acceptance-and mindfulness-based treatments. In R. Baer (Ed.), Assessing mindfulness and acceptance processes in clients: Illuminating the theory and practice of change (pp. 107–133). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
  41. Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology,2, 271–299.Google Scholar
  42. Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology,39, 281–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gross, J. J. (2014). Handbook of emotion regulation (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  44. Gross, J. J. (2015). Emotion regulation: Current status and future prospects. Psychological Inquiry,26, 1–26.Google Scholar
  45. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,85, 348–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Heim, S. C., & Snyder, D. K. (1991). Predicting depression from marital distress and attributional processes. Journal of Marital Family Therapy,17, 67–72.Google Scholar
  47. Hill, C. A., & Preston, L. K. (1996). Individual differences in the experience of sexual motivation: Theory and measurement of dispositional sexual motives. Journal of Sex Research,33, 27–45.Google Scholar
  48. Hofmann, S. G. (2014). Interpersonal emotion regulation model of mood and anxiety disorders. Cognitive Therapy and Research,38, 483–492.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Impett, E. A., Kogan, A., English, T., John, O., Oveis, C., Gordon, A. M., & Keltner, D. (2012). Suppression sours sacrifice: Emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,38, 707–720.Google Scholar
  50. Impett, E. A., Peplau, L. A., & Gable, S. L. (2005). Approach and avoidance sexual motives: Implications for personal and interpersonal well-being. Personal Relationships,12, 465–482.Google Scholar
  51. Iwamitsu, Y., Shimoda, K., Abe, H., & Okawa, M. (2005). Anxiety, emotional suppression, and psychological distress before and after breast cancer diagnosis. Psychosomatics, 46, 19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Jager, L. R., & Leek, J. T. (2013). An estimate of the science-wise false discovery rate and application to the top medical literature. Biostatistics,15, 1–12.Google Scholar
  53. John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality,72, 1301–1334.Google Scholar
  54. Kenny, D. A., Kashy, D. A., & Cook, W. L. (2006). Dyadic data analysis. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  55. Kingsberg, S. A. (2014). Attitudinal survey of women living with low sexual desire. Journal of Women’s Health,23, 817–823.Google Scholar
  56. Klein, S. R., Renshaw, K. D., & Curby, T. W. (2016). Emotion regulation and perceptions of hostile and constructive criticism in romantic relationships. Behavior Therapy,47, 143–154.Google Scholar
  57. Krapf, J. M., Buster, J. E., & Goldstein, A. T. (2016). Management of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). In L. I. Lipshultz, A. W. Pastuszak, A. T. Goldstein, A. Giraldi, & M. A. Perelman (Eds.), Management of sexual dysfunction in men and women (pp. 233–249). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  58. Kret, M. E., & De Gelder, B. (2012). A review on sex differences in processing emotional signals. Neuropsychologia,50, 1211–1221.Google Scholar
  59. Krueger, R. F., & Markon, K. E. (2006). Reinterpreting comorbidity: A model-based approach to understanding and classifying psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology,2, 111–133.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Larsen, J. K., Vermulst, A. A., Geenen, R., Van Middendorp, H., English, T., Gross, J. J., & Engels, R. C. (2013). Emotion regulation in adolescence: A prospective study of expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. Journal of Early Adolescence,33, 184–200.Google Scholar
  61. Laumann, E. O., Nicolosi, A., Glasser, D. B., Paik, A., Gingell, C., Moreira, E., & Wang, T. (2005). Sexual problems among women and men aged 40–80 years: Prevalence and correlates identified in the global study of sexual attitudes and behaviors. International Journal of Impotence Research,17, 39–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Laumann, E. O., Paik, A., & Rosen, R. C. (1999). Sexual dysfunction in the United States—Prevalence and predictors. Journal of the American Medical Association,281, 537–544.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.281.6.537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Levine, S. B. (2003). The nature of sexual desire: A clinician’s perspective. Archives of Sexual Behavior,32, 279–285.Google Scholar
  64. Liverant, G. I., Kamholz, B. W., Sloan, D. M., & Brown, T. A. (2011). Rumination in clinical depression: A type of emotional suppression? Cognitive Therapy and Research,35, 253–265.Google Scholar
  65. Li, L., Yang, Y., He, J., Yi, J., Wang, Y., Zhang, J., & Zhu, X. (2015). Emotional suppression and depressive symptoms in women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer. BMC Women's Health, 15, 91.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. López-Pérez, B., & Ambrona, T. (2015). The role of cognitive emotion regulation on the vicarious emotional response. Motivation and Emotion,39, 299–308.Google Scholar
  67. Lutz, J., Gross, R. T., & Vargovich, A. M. (2018). Difficulties in emotion regulation and chronic pain-related disability and opioid misuse. Addictive Behaviors,87, 200–205.Google Scholar
  68. Lykins, A. D., Janssen, E., & Graham, C. A. (2006). The relationship between negative mood and sexuality in heterosexual college women and men. Journal of Sex Research,43, 136–143.Google Scholar
  69. Madioni, F., & Mammana, L. A. (2001). Toronto Alexithymia scale in outpatients with sexual disorders. Psychopathology,34, 95–98.Google Scholar
  70. Mark, K. P. (2015). Sexual desire discrepancy. Current Sexual Health Reports,7, 198–202.Google Scholar
  71. Marteau, T. M., & Bekker, H. (1992). The development of a six-item short-form of the state scale of the Spielberger State—Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). British Journal of Clinical Psychology,31, 301–306.Google Scholar
  72. Masters, W. H., & Johnson, V. E. (1970). Human sexual inadequacy (1st ed.). Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  73. Mauss, I. B., Cook, C. L., Cheng, J. Y., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Individual differences in cognitive reappraisal: Experiential and physiological responses to an anger provocation. International Journal of Psychophysiology,66, 116–124.Google Scholar
  74. Maxwell, J. A., Muise, A., MacDonald, G., Day, L. C., Rosen, N. O., & Impett, E. A. (2017). How implicit theories of sexuality shape sexual and relationship well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,112, 238–279.Google Scholar
  75. Mendes, W. B., Reis, H. T., Seery, M. D., & Blascovich, J. (2003). Cardiovascular correlates of emotional expression and suppression: Do content and gender context matter? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,84, 771–792.Google Scholar
  76. Mitchell, K. R., Jones, K. G., Wellings, K., Johnson, A. M., Graham, C. A., Datta, J., & Macdowall, W. (2016). Estimating the prevalence of sexual function problems: The impact of morbidity criteria. Journal of Sex Research,53, 955–967.Google Scholar
  77. Moyano, N., Vallejo-Medina, P., & Sierra, J. C. (2017). Sexual Desire Inventory: Two or three dimensions? Journal of Sex Research,54, 105–116.Google Scholar
  78. Muise, A., Bergeron, S., Impett, E. A., & Rosen, N. O. (2017). The costs and benefits of sexual communal motivation for couples coping with vulvodynia. Health Psychology, 36, 819–823.  https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Murray, S. H., Milhausen, R. R., Graham, C. A., & Kuczynski, L. (2017). A qualitative exploration of factors that affect sexual desire among men aged 30–65 in long-term relationships. Journal of Sex Research,54, 319–330.Google Scholar
  80. Nobre, P. J., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2006). Emotions during sexual activity: Differences between sexually functional and dysfunctional men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35, 491–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Nobre, P. J., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2008). Cognitions, emotions, and sexual response: Analysis of the relationship among automatic thoughts, emotional responses, and sexual arousal. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37, 652–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Aldao, A. (2011). Gender and age differences in emotion regulation strategies and their relationship to depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences,51, 704–708.Google Scholar
  83. Parish, S. J., & Hahn, S. R. (2016). Hypoactive sexual desire disorder: A review of epidemiology, biopsychology, diagnosis, and treatment. Sexual Medicine Reviews,4, 103–120.Google Scholar
  84. Paterson, L. Q. P., Handy, A. B., & Brotto, L. A. (2016). A pilot study of eight-session mindfulness-based cognitive therapy adapted for women’s sexual interest/arousal disorder. Journal of Sex Research, 54(7), 850–861.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2016.1208800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Peplau, L. A. (2003). Human sexuality: How do men and women differ? Current Directions in Psychological Science,12, 37–40.Google Scholar
  86. Perneger, T. V. (1998). What’s wrong with Bonferroni adjustments. British Medical Journal,316, 1236–1238.Google Scholar
  87. Raisanen, J. C., Chadwick, S. B., Michalak, N., & van Anders, S. M. (2018). Average associations between sexual desire, testosterone, and stress in women and men over time. Archives of Sexual Behavior,47, 1613–1631.Google Scholar
  88. Rancourt, K., Flynn, M., & Rosen, N. O. (2020). Sexual communication patterns scale. In R. R. Milhausen, J. K. Sakaluk, T. D. Fisher, C. M. Davis, & W. L. Yarber (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality-related measures (4th ed., pp. 235–237). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  89. Rehman, U., Lizdek, I., Fallis, E., Sutherland, S., & Goodnight, J. (2017). How is sexual communication different from nonsexual communication? A moment-by-moment analysis of discussions between romantic partners. Archives of Sexual Behavior,46, 2339–2352.Google Scholar
  90. Rellini, A. H., Vujanovic, A. A., Gilbert, M., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2012). Childhood maltreatment and difficulties in emotion regulation: Associations with sexual and relationship satisfaction among young adult women. Journal of Sex Research,49, 434–442.Google Scholar
  91. Rellini, A. H., Vujanovic, A. A., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2010). Emotional dysregulation: Concurrent relation to sexual problems among trauma-exposed adult cigarette smokers. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,36, 137–153.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00926230903554545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Renshaw, K. D., Blais, R. K., & Caska, C. M. (2010). Distinctions between hostile and nonhostile forms of perceived criticism from others. Behavior Therapy,41, 364–374.Google Scholar
  93. Richards, J. M., Butler, E. A., & Gross, J. J. (2003). Emotion regulation in romantic relationships: The cognitive consequences of concealing feelings. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 20, 599–620.Google Scholar
  94. Roberton, T., Daffern, M., & Bucks, R. S. (2012). Emotion regulation and aggression. Aggression and Violent Behavior,17, 72–82.Google Scholar
  95. Rosen, N. O., & Bergeron, S. (2019). Genito-pelvic pain through a dyadic lens: Moving toward an interpersonal emotion regulation model of women’s sexual dysfunction. Journal of Sex Research, 56(4−5), 440–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rosen, N., Dewitte, M., Merwin, K., & Bergeron, S. (2017). Interpersonal goals and well-being in couples coping with genito-pelvic pain. Archives of Sexual Behavior,46, 2007–2019.Google Scholar
  97. Rosen, N. O., Dubé, J. P., Corsini-Munt, S., & Muise, A. (2019). Partners experience consequences, too: A comparison of the sexual, relational, and psychological adjustment of women with sexual interest/arousal disorder and their partners to control couples. Journal of Sexual Medicine,16, 83–95.Google Scholar
  98. Rosen, N. O., Rancourt, K., Bergeron, S., & Corsini-Munt, S. (2014). Beyond a “woman’s problem”: The role of relationship processes in genital pain. Current Sexual Health Reports,6, 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11930-013-0006-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rosen, R. C., Shifren, J. L., Monz, B. U., Odom, D. M., Russo, P. A., & Johannes, C. B. (2009). Correlates of sexually related personal distress in women with low sexual desire. Journal of Sexual Medicine,6, 1549–1560.Google Scholar
  100. Santos-Iglesias, P., Mohamed, B., Danko, A., & Walker, L. M. (2018). Psychometric validation of the Female Sexual Distress scale in male samples. Archives of Sexual Behavior,47, 1733–1743.Google Scholar
  101. Sarin, S., Amsel, R., & Binik, Y. M. (2016). A streetcar named “derousal”? A psychophysiological examination of the desire–arousal distinction in sexually functional and dysfunctional women. Journal of Sex Research,53, 711–729.Google Scholar
  102. Sheppes, G., Scheibe, S., Suri, G., & Gross, J. J. (2011). Emotion-regulation choice. Psychological Science,22, 1391–1396.Google Scholar
  103. Sheppes, G., Scheibe, S., Suri, G., Radu, P., Blechert, J., & Gross, J. J. (2014). Emotion regulation choice: A conceptual framework and supporting evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,143, 163–181.Google Scholar
  104. Spector, I. P., Carey, M. P., & Steinberg, L. (1996). The Sexual Desire Inventory: Development, factor structure, and evidence of reliability. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,22, 175–190.Google Scholar
  105. Stephenson, K. R., & Meston, C. M. (2010). Differentiating components of sexual well-being in women: Are sexual satisfaction and sexual distress independent constructs? Journal of Sexual Medicine,7, 2458–2468.Google Scholar
  106. Swart, M., Kortekaas, R., & Aleman, A. (2009). Dealing with feelings: Characterization of trait alexithymia on emotion regulation strategies and cognitive-emotional processing. PLoS ONE,4(6), e5751.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005751.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Tamagawa, R., Giese‐Davis, J., Speca, M., Doll, R., Stephen, J., & Carlson, L. E. (2013). Trait mindfulness, repression, suppression, and self‐reported mood and stress symptoms among women with breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69, 264–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Tani, F., Pascuzzi, D., & Raffagnino, R. (2015). Emotion regulation and quality of close relationship: The effects of emotion dysregulation processes on couple intimacy. BPA-Applied Psychology Bulletin (Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata), 63, 272.Google Scholar
  109. Timmers, M., Fischer, A. H., & Manstead, A. S. (1998). Gender differences in motives for regulating emotions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,24, 974–985.Google Scholar
  110. Troy, A. S., Wilhelm, F. H., Shallcross, A. J., & Mauss, I. B. (2010). Seeing the silver lining: Cognitive reappraisal ability moderates the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms. Emotion,10, 783–795.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Trudel, G., Aubin, S., & Matte, B. (1995). Sexual behaviors and pleasure in couples with hypoactive sexual desire. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy,21, 210–216.Google Scholar
  112. Trudel, G., Boulos, L., & Matte, B. (1993). Dyadic adjustment in couples with hypoactive sexual desire. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy,19, 31–36.Google Scholar
  113. Vater, A., & Schröder-Abé, M. (2015). Explaining the link between personality and relationship satisfaction: Emotion regulation and interpersonal behaviour in conflict discussions. European Journal of Personality,29, 201–215.Google Scholar
  114. Velotti, P., Balzarotti, S., Tagliabue, S., English, T., Zavattini, G. C., & Gross, J. J. (2016). Emotional suppression in early marriage: Actor, partner, and similarity effects on marital quality. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,33, 277–302.Google Scholar
  115. Vidgen, B., & Yasseri, T. (2016). p values: Misunderstood and misused. Frontiers in Physics, 4, 6.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphy.2016.00006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wegner, D. M., Schneider, D. J., Carter, S. R., & White, T. L. (1987). Paradoxical effects of thought suppression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,53, 5–13.Google Scholar
  117. Wise, T., Osborne, C., Strand, J., Fagan, P., & Schmidt, C., Jr. (2002). Alexithymia in patients attending a sexual disorders clinic. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,28, 445–450.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Life Sciences CentreDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyYork UniversityTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyIWK Health CentreHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations