Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 753–761 | Cite as

Measuring Self-Perceived Effects of Pornography: A Short-Form Version of the Pornography Consumption Effects Scale

  • Dan J. MillerEmail author
  • Garry Kidd
  • Gert Martin Hald
Original Paper


The Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES) is a 47-item measure of self-perceived effects of pornography use. While the PCES is frequently used in the pornography research literature, its length may limit its applicability in some research situations. This study investigated if a short-form version of the PCES could be created for use with heterosexual men. The study employed an online sample of 312 self-identified heterosexual men. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to produce a 14-item version of the PCES. This short-form PCES (PCES-SF) showed excellent psychometric properties in terms of reliability, concurrent validity with the long-form PCES, and discriminant validity with respect to social desirability. Similar to the full-length PCES, the PCES-SF generates both an overall positive effect score and an overall negative effect score.


Pornography Sexually explicit media Self-perceived effects Psychometrics Men 



The third author was supported by the Carlsberg Foundation Distinguished Associate Professor Fellowship, Grant CF16-0094, for the duration of 2017–2019.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dan J. Miller
    • 1
    Email author
  • Garry Kidd
    • 1
  • Gert Martin Hald
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, College of Healthcare Sciences, Division of Tropical Health and MedicineJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Public HealthUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Clinic of SexologyCopenhagen University HospitalCopenhagenDenmark

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