Man, Woman, “Other”: Factors Associated with Nonbinary Gender Identification
Using a unique dataset of 7479 respondents to the online Australian Sex Survey (July–September 2016), we explored factors relevant for individuals who self-identify as one of the many possible nonbinary gender options (i.e., not man or woman). Our results identified significant sex differences in such factors; in particular, a positive association between female height, higher educational levels, and greater same-sex attraction (female–female) versus a negative effect of lower income levels and more offspring. With respect to sex similarities, older males and females, heterosexuals, those with lower educational levels, and those living outside capital cities were all more likely to identify as the historically dichotomous gender options. These factors associated with nonbinary gender identification were also more multifaceted for females than for males, although our interaction terms demonstrated that younger females (relative to younger males) and nonheterosexuals (relative to heterosexuals) were more likely to identify as nonbinary. These effects were reversed, however, in the older cohort. Because gender can have such significant lifetime impacts for both the individual and society as a whole, our findings strongly suggest the need for further research into factors that impact gender diversity.
KeywordsNonbinary gender Gender diversity Sex Gender identity
The authors would like to thank James Templeman for all his assistance with this research project; without whom this study would not have been possible. We would also like to thank Ho Fai Chan, Sara Casey, and Yarrow Andrew for helpful comments and feedback. Stephen Whyte acknowledges funding support from an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. The authors would also like to recognize and thank Lifeline for its valued role in supporting Australian human behavioral research. The authors declare no conflict of interest (material or financial) that relates to the research described in this article. All researches were conducted in accordance with the institution’s (Queensland University of Technology) Human Research Ethics Clearance (No. 1600000221).
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