Advertisement

A Life History Approach to the Female Sexual Orientation Spectrum: Evolution, Development, Causal Mechanisms, and Health

  • Severi Luoto
  • Indrikis Krams
  • Markus J. Rantala
Target Article

Abstract

Women’s capacity for sexual fluidity is at least as interesting a phenomenon from the point of view of evolutionary biology and behavioral endocrinology as exclusively homosexual orientation. Evolutionary hypotheses for female nonheterosexuality have failed to fully account for the existence of these different categories of nonheterosexual women, while also overlooking broader data on the causal mechanisms, physiology, ontogeny, and phylogeny of female nonheterosexuality. We review the evolutionary-developmental origins of various phenotypes in the female sexual orientation spectrum using the synergistic approach of Tinbergen’s four questions. We also present femme-specific and butch-specific hypotheses at proximate and ultimate levels of analysis. This review article indicates that various nonheterosexual female phenotypes emerge from and contribute to hormonally mediated fast life history strategies. Life history theory provides a biobehavioral explanatory framework for nonheterosexual women’s masculinized body morphology, psychological dispositions, and their elevated likelihood of experiencing violence, substance use, obesity, teenage pregnancy, and lower general health. This pattern of life outcomes can create a feedback loop of environmental unpredictability and harshness which destabilizes intrauterine hormonal conditions in mothers, leading to a greater likelihood of fast life history strategies, global health problems, and nonheterosexual preferences in female offspring. We further explore the potential of female nonheterosexuality to function as an alloparental buffer that enables masculinizing alleles to execute their characteristic fast life history strategies as they appear in the female and the male phenotype. Synthesizing life history theory with the female sexual orientation spectrum enriches existing scientific knowledge on the evolutionary-developmental mechanisms of human sex differences.

Keywords

Female sexual orientation Homosexuality Neurodevelopment Evolutionary-developmental psychology Behavioral endocrinology Life history evolution Women’s health 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Parts of this article were presented at the 46th Annual Behavior Genetics Meeting, Brisbane, Australia in 2016. The authors wish to thank the members of the University of Auckland Language, Cognition and Culture Lab for valuable comments on earlier drafts. Constructive inputs from anonymous reviewers helped us improve this article. The authors are particularly thankful to Paul Vasey for his thoughtful editorial contributions.

Funding

A travel grant (S.L.) was provided by the Behavior Genetics Association to present this research at 46th Annual Behavior Genetics Meeting, Brisbane, Australia.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The material contained in this article is a review of previously published or presented data. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the authors.

References

  1. Abel, E. L., Kruger, M. M., & Pandya, K. (2012). Sopranos but not tenors live longer. The Aging Male, 15, 109–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adkins-Regan, E. (2005). Hormones and animal social behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Adkins-Regan, E. (2017). A bird’s eye view. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(6), 1593–1594.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-0998-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alanko, K., Santtila, P., Harlaar, N., Witting, K., Varjonen, M., Jern, P., … Sandnabba, N. K. (2010). Common genetic effects of gender atypical behavior in childhood and sexual orientation in adulthood: A study of Finnish twins. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 81–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alanko, K., Santtila, P., Salo, B., Jern, P., Johansson, A., & Sandnabba, N. K. (2011). Testing causal models of the relationship between childhood atypical behaviour and parent–child relationship. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 214–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Allen, A. S. (2012). “Brides” without husbands: Lesbians in the Afro-Brazilian religion Candomblé. Transforming Anthropology, 20, 17–31.Google Scholar
  7. Allen, A. S. (2016). Violence and desire in Brazilian lesbian relationships. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  8. Anderson, K. G. (2015). Father absence, childhood stress, and reproductive maturation in South Africa. Human Nature, 26, 401–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderssen, N., Amlie, C., & Ytteroy, E. A. (2002). Outcomes for children with lesbian or gay parents: A review of studies from 1978 to 2000. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43, 335–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Apicella, C. L., Crittenden, A. N., & Tobolsky, V. A. (2017). Hunter-gatherer males are more risk-seeking than females, even in late childhood. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38, 592–603.Google Scholar
  11. Apostolou, M. (2016a). The evolution of female same-sex attractions: The weak selection pressures hypothesis. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 10(4), 270–283.  https://doi.org/10.1037/ebs0000072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Apostolou, M. (2016b). The evolution of same-sex attractions: Parental and intimate partners’ reactions to deviations from exclusive heterosexual orientation. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 380–389.Google Scholar
  13. Apostolou, M. (2017). Why sexual plasticity in women is unlikely to be an adaptation to reduce conflict in polygynous marriages [Letter to the Editor]. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(2), 329–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Apostolou, M., Shialos, M., Khalil, M., & Paschali, V. (2017). The evolution of female same-sex attraction: The male choice hypothesis. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 372–378.Google Scholar
  15. Arnocky, S., Carré, J. M., Bird, B. M., Moreau, B. J., Vaillancourt, T., Ortiz, T., & Marley, N. (2018). The facial width-to-height ratio predicts sex drive, sociosexuality, and intended infidelity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(5), 1375–1385.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-1070-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Arnold, A. P. (2017). A general theory of sexual differentiation. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 95(1–2), 291–300.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Asamoah, B. O., & Agardh, A. (2018). Individual-and family-level determinants of risky sexual behavior among Swedish-and Foreign-born young adults 18–30 years of age, residing in Skåne, Sweden. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(2), 517–528.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-0978-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Asencio, M. (2009). Migrant Puerto Rican lesbians: Negotiating gender, sexuality, and ethnonationality. NWSA Journal, 21, 1–23.Google Scholar
  19. Atkinson, B. M., Smulders, T. V., & Wallenberg, J. C. (2017). An endocrine basis for tomboy identity: The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) in “tomboys”. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 79, 9–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Auger, J., Le Denmat, D., Berges, R., Doridot, L., Salmon, B., Canivenc-Lavier, M. C., & Eustache, F. (2013). Environmental levels of oestrogenic and antiandrogenic compounds feminize digit ratios in male rats and their unexposed male progeny. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 280(1768), 20131532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Auger, A. P., & Olesen, K. M. (2009). Brain sex differences and the organisation of juvenile social play behaviour. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 21(6), 519–525.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2826.2009.01871.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Bagemihl, B. (1999). Biological exuberance: Animal homosexuality and natural diversity (1st ed.). New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  23. Bailey, J. M., Dunne, M. P., & Martin, N. G. (2000). Genetic and environmental influences on sexual orientation and its correlates in an Australian twin sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 524–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bailey, J. V., Farquhar, C., Owen, C., & Whittaker, D. (2003). Sexual behaviour of lesbians and bisexual women. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 79, 147–150.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Bailey, J. M., Kim, P. Y., Hills, A., & Linsenmeier, J. A. W. (1997). Butch, femme, or straight acting? Partner preferences of gay men and lesbians. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 960–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bailey, J. M., Pillard, R. C., Neale, M. C., & Agyei, Y. (1993). Heritable factors influence sexual orientation in women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 217–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bailey, J. M., Vasey, P. L., Diamond, L. M., Breedlove, S. M., Vilain, E., & Epprecht, M. (2016). Sexual orientation, controversy, and science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17, 45–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bailey, J. M., Willerman, L., & Parks, C. (1991). A test of the maternal stress theory of human male homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20, 277–293.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01541847.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Baker, R., & Bellis, M. (1995). Human sperm competition: Copulation, masturbation, and infidelity. New York: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  30. Bakker, J., De Mees, C., Douhard, Q., Balthazart, J., Gabant, P., Szpirer, J., & Szpirer, C. (2006). Alpha-fetoprotein protects the developing female mouse brain from masculinization and defeminization by estrogens. Nature Neuroscience, 9(2), 220–226.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1624.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Baldwin, A., Schick, V. R., Dodge, B., van Der Pol, B., Herbenick, D., Sanders, S. A., & Fortenberry, J. D. (2017). Variation in sexual identification among behaviorally bisexual women in the Midwestern United States: Challenging the established methods for collecting data on sexual identity and orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46, 1337–1348.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-016-0817-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Balsam, K. F., Rothblum, E. D., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2005). Victimization over the life span: A comparison of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual siblings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 477–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Balthazart, J. (2011). The biology of homosexuality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Balthazart, J., & Court, L. (2017). Human sexual orientation: The importance of evidentiary convergence [Commentary]. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(6), 1595–1600.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-0997-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Balthazart, J., & Young, L. J. (2015). Mate selection, sexual orientation and pair bonding. In E. Knobil & J. D. Neill (Eds.), Knobil and Neill’s physiology of reproduction (pp. 2157–2210). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  36. Bao, A. M., & Swaab, D. F. (2011). Sexual differentiation of the human brain: Relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 32, 214–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Baranowski, A. M., & Hecht, H. (2015). Gender differences and similarities in receptivity to sexual invitations: Effects of location and risk perception. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(8), 2257–2265.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-015-0520-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Barbaro, N., Boutwell, B. B., Barnes, J. C., & Shackelford, T. K. (2017). Genetic confounding of the relationship between father absence and age at menarche. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(3), 357–365.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bassett, J., Pearcey, S., & Dabbs, J. M. (2001). Jealousy and partner preference among butch and femme lesbians. Psychology, Evolution & Gender, 3, 155–165.Google Scholar
  40. Bateson, P., & Gluckman, P. (2011). Plasticity, robustness, development and evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Bateson, P., & Laland, K. N. (2013). Tinbergen’s four questions: An appreciation and an update. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 28, 712–718.Google Scholar
  42. Baum, M. J., & Bakker, J. (2017). Reconsidering prenatal hormonal influences on human sexual orientation: Lessons from animal research [Commentary]. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(6), 1601–1605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Bekker, M., Van Heck, G. L., & Vingerhoets, A. J. (1996). Gender-identity, body-experience, sexuality, and the wish for having children in DES-daughters. Women and Health, 24, 65–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Belsky, J. (2012). The development of human reproductive strategies: Progress and prospects. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(5), 310–316.Google Scholar
  45. Belsky, J., Ruttle, P. L., Boyce, W. T., Armstrong, J. M., & Essex, M. J. (2015). Early adversity, elevated stress physiology, accelerated sexual maturation, and poor health in females. Developmental Psychology, 51, 816–822.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Belsky, J., Schlomer, G. L., & Ellis, B. J. (2012). Beyond cumulative risk: Distinguishing harshness and unpredictability as determinants of parenting and early life history strategy. Developmental Psychology, 48(3), 662–673.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024454.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Beral, V., & Colwell, L. (1981). Randomised trial of high doses of stilboestrol and ethisterone therapy in pregnancy: Long-term follow-up of the children. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 35, 155–160.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Berenbaum, S. A., Bryk, K. K., Nowak, N., Quigley, C. A., & Moffat, S. (2009). Fingers as a marker of prenatal androgen exposure. Endocrinology, 150, 5119–5124.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Berenbaum, S. A., & Resnick, S. M. (1997). Early androgen effects on aggression in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 22(7), 505–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Berglund, H., Lindstrom, P., & Savic, I. (2006). Brain response to putative pheromones in lesbian women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103, 8269–8274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Björntorp, P. (1991a). Metabolic implications of body fat distribution. Diabetes Care, 14, 1132–1143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Björntorp, P. (1991b). Adipose tissue distribution and function. International Journal of Obesity, 15, 67–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Black, C. J., Figueredo, A. J., & Jacobs, W. J. (2017). Substance, history, and politics: An examination of the conceptual underpinnings of alternative approaches to the life history narrative. Evolutionary Psychology.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1474704916670402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Blackwood, E. (1986). The many faces of homosexuality: Anthropological approaches to homosexual behavior. New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  55. Blackwood, E. (2010). Falling into the lesbi world: Desire and difference in Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
  56. Blair, K. L., & Hoskin, R. A. (2015). Experiences of femme identity: Coming out, invisibility and femmephobia. Psychology & Sexuality, 6(3), 229–244.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19419899.2014.921860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Blair, K. L., & Hoskin, R. A. (2016). Contemporary understandings of femme identities and related experiences of discrimination. Psychology & Sexuality, 7(2), 101–115.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19419899.2015.1053824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Boehmer, U., & Bowen, D. J. (2009). Examining factors linked to overweight and obesity in women of different sexual orientations. Preventive Medicine, 48, 357–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Boehmer, U., Bowen, D. J., & Bauer, G. R. (2007). Overweight and obesity in sexual-minority women: Evidence from population-based data. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 1134–1140.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Boehmer, U., Miao, X., Linkletter, C., & Clark, M. A. (2012). Adult health behaviors over the life course by sexual orientation. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 292–300.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Bogaert, A. F. (1998). Physical development and sexual orientation in women: Height, weight, and age of puberty comparisons. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 115–121.Google Scholar
  62. Bogaert, A. F., & Friesen, C. (2002). Sexual orientation and height, weight, and age of puberty: New tests from a British national probability sample. Biological Psychology, 59, 135–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Bogaert, A. F., Friesen, C., & Klentrou, P. (2002). Age of puberty and sexual orientation in a national probability sample. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 73–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Boothroyd, L. G., Jones, B. C., Burt, D. M., DeBruine, L. M., & Perrett, D. I. (2008). Facial correlates of sociosexuality. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 211–218.Google Scholar
  65. Bossio, J. A., Suschinsky, K. D., Puts, D. A., & Chivers, M. L. (2014). Does menstrual cycle phase influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women’s genital and subjective sexual arousal? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43, 941–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Bowen, D. J., Balsam, K. F., & Ender, S. R. (2008). A review of obesity issues in sexual minority women. Obesity, 16, 221–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Breedlove, S. M. (2010). Minireview: Organizational hypothesis: Instances of the fingerpost. Endocrinology, 151, 4116–4122.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Breedlove, S. M. (2017a). Prenatal influences on human sexual orientation: Expectations versus data. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(6), 1583–1592.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-016-0904-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Breedlove, S. M. (2017b). Response to commentaries. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(6), 1625–1629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Bribiescas, R. G., Ellison, P. T., & Gray, P. B. (2012). Male life history, reproductive effort, and the evolution of the genus Homo: New directions and perspectives. Current Anthropology, 53, S424–S435.Google Scholar
  71. Brown, W. M., Finn, C. J., & Breedlove, S. M. (2002a). Sexual dimorphism in digit-length ratios of laboratory mice. Anatomical Record, 267, 231–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Brown, W. M., Finn, C. J., Cooke, B. M., & Breedlove, S. M. (2002b). Differences in finger length ratios between self-identified “butch” and “femme” lesbians. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 123–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Brown, W. M., Hines, M., Fane, B. A., & Breedlove, S. M. (2002c). Masculinized finger length patterns in human males and females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Hormones and Behavior, 42, 380–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Burri, A., Spector, T., & Rahman, Q. (2015). Common genetic factors among sexual orientation, gender nonconformity, and number of sex partners in female twins: Implications for the evolution of homosexuality. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 12, 1004–1011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Buss, D. M., Haselton, M. G., Shackelford, T. K., Bleske, A. L., & Wakefield, J. C. (1998). Adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels. American Psychologist, 53(5), 533–548.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.5.533.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Byne, W., Tobet, S., Mattiace, L. A., Lasco, M. S., Kemether, E., Edgar, M. A., … Jones, L. B. (2001). The interstitial nuclei of the human anterior hypothalamus: An investigation of variation with sex, sexual orientation, and HIV status. Hormones and Behavior, 40(2), 86–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Cabeza de Baca, T., Figueredo, A. J., & Ellis, B. J. (2012). An evolutionary analysis of variation in parental effort: Determinants and assessment. Parenting, 12(2–3), 94–104.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2012.680396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Cabeza de Baca, T., Wojcicki, J. M., Epel, E. S., & Adler, N. E. (2018). Lack of partner impacts newborn health through maternal depression: A pilot study of low-income immigrant Latina women. Midwifery, 64, 63–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2018.05.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Cain, K. E., & Ketterson, E. D. (2012). Competitive females are successful females; phenotype, mechanism, and selection in a common songbird. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 66, 241–252.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Calzo, J. P., Masyn, K. E., Austin, S. B., Jun, H. J., & Corliss, H. L. (2017). Developmental latent patterns of identification as mostly heterosexual versus lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 27, 246–253.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12266.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Camperio Ciani, A., Battaglia, U., Cesare, L., Camperio Ciani, G., & Capiluppi, C. (2018). Possible balancing selection in human female homosexuality. Human Nature, 29(1), 14–32.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-017-9309-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Camperio Ciani, A., Corna, F., & Capiluppi, C. (2004). Evidence for maternally inherited factors favouring male homosexuality and promoting female fecundity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 271(1554), 2217–2221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Caramagno, T. C. (2002). Irreconcilable differences?: Intellectual stalemate in the gay rights debate. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  84. Carre, J. M., & Olmstead, N. A. (2015). Social neuroendocrinology of human aggression: Examining the role of competition-induced testosterone dynamics. Neuroscience, 286, 171–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Carroll, J. L., Volk, K. D., & Hyde, J. S. (1985). Differences between males and females in motives for engaging in sexual intercourse. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 131–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Case, P., Bryn Austin, S., Hunter, D. J., Manson, J. E., Malspeis, S., Willett, W. C., & Spiegelman, D. (2004). Sexual orientation, health risk factors, and physical functioning in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Journal of Women’s Health, 13, 1033–1047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Cherkas, L. F., Oelsner, E. C., Mak, Y. T., Valdes, A., & Spector, T. D. (2004). Genetic influences on female infidelity and number of sexual partners in humans: A linkage and association study of the role of the vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A). Twin Research, 7, 649–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Chivers, M. L. (2017a). The specificity of women’s sexual response and its relationship with sexual orientations: A review and ten hypotheses. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46, 1161–1179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Chivers, M. L. (2017b). Response to commentaries. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46, 1213–1221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Chivers, M. L., Bouchard, K. N., & Timmers, A. D. (2015). Straight but not narrow; within-gender variation in the gender-specificity of women’s sexual response. PLoS ONE, 10, 15.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Chivers, M. L., Seto, M. C., & Blanchard, R. (2007). Gender and sexual orientation differences in sexual response to sexual activities versus gender of actors in sexual films. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 1108–1121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Clark, A. P. (2004). Self-perceived attractiveness and masculinization predict women’s sociosexuality. Evolution and Human Behavior, 25, 113–124.Google Scholar
  93. Clemens, L. G., & Gladue, B. A. (1978). Feminine sexual behavior in rats enhanced by prenatal inhibition of androgen aromatization. Hormones and Behavior, 11, 190–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Codding, B. F., Bird, R. B., & Bird, D. W. (2011). Provisioning offspring and others: Risk-energy trade-offs and gender differences in hunter-gatherer foraging strategies. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278(1717), 2502–2509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Comings, D. E., Muhleman, D., Johnson, J. P., & MacMurray, J. P. (2002). Parent–daughter transmission of the androgen receptor gene as an explanation of the effect of father absence on age of menarche. Child Development, 73, 1046–1051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Conroy-Beam, D., Buss, D. M., Pham, M. N., & Shackelford, T. K. (2015). How sexually dimorphic are human mate preferences? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41, 1082–1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Cooke, P. S., Nanjappa, M. K., Ko, C., Prins, G. S., & Hess, R. A. (2017). Estrogens in male physiology. Physiological Reviews, 97, 995–1043.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Cornwell, R. E., & Perrett, D. I. (2008). Sexy sons and sexy daughters: The influence of parents’ facial characteristics on offspring. Animal Behaviour, 76, 1843–1853.Google Scholar
  99. Costa, P., Jr., Terracciano, A., & McCrae, R. R. (2001). Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: Robust and surprising findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 322–331.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Coviello, A. D., Zhuang, W. V., Lunetta, K. L., Bhasin, S., Ulloor, J., Zhang, A., … Murabito, J. M. (2011). Circulating testosterone and SHBG concentrations are heritable in women: The Framingham Heart Study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 96(9), E1491–E1495.Google Scholar
  101. Cowell, W. J., & Wright, R. J. (2017). Sex-specific effects of combined exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors on neuroendocrine development: A review of recent findings and putative mechanisms. Current Environmental Health Reports, 4(4), 415–425.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40572-017-0165-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Cross, C. P., Copping, L. T., & Campbell, A. (2011). Sex differences in impulsivity: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 97–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Crusio, W. E. (2012). Heritability estimates in behavior genetics: Wasn’t that station passed long ago? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35(5), 361–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Csathó, Á., & Birkás, B. (2018). Early-life stressors, personality development, and fast life strategies: An evolutionary perspective on malevolent personality features. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 305.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00305.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Daly, M., & Wilson, M. (1999). The truth about Cinderella: A Darwinian view of parental love. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  106. de Jonge, F. H., Muntjewerff, J. W., Louwerse, A. L., & Van de Poll, N. E. (1988). Sexual behavior and sexual orientation of the female rat after hormonal treatment during various stages of development. Hormones and Behavior, 22, 100–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. De Vries, G. J., Rissman, E. F., Simerly, R. B., Yang, L. Y., Scordalakes, E. M., Auger, C. J., … Arnold, A. P. (2002). A model system for study of sex chromosome effects on sexually dimorphic neural and behavioral traits. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(20), 9005–9014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. de Waal, F. (1998). Chimpanzee politics: Power and sex among apes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Del Giudice, M. (2012). Fetal programming by maternal stress: Insights from a conflict perspective. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37, 1614–1629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Del Giudice, M., & Belsky, J. (2011). The development of life history strategies: Toward a multi-stage theory. In D. M. Buss & P. H. Hawley (Eds.), The evolution of personality and individual differences (pp. 154–176). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Denson, T. F., O’Dean, S. M., Blake, K. R., & Beames, J. R. (2018). Aggression in women: Behavior, brain, and hormones. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 81.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00081.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. Diamant, A. L., Schuster, M. A., McGuigan, K., & Lever, J. (1999). Lesbians’ sexual history with men—Implications for taking a sexual history. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159, 2730–2736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Diamond, L. M. (2007). The evolution of plasticity in female-female desire. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 18(4), 245–274.Google Scholar
  114. Diamond, L. M. (2008a). Sexual fluidity: Understanding women’s love and desire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Diamond, L. M. (2008b). Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: Results from a 10-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 44, 5–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Diamond, L. M. (2017). Wanting women: Sex, gender, and the specificity of sexual arousal. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(5), 1181–1185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Dickins, T. E., & Barton, R. A. (2013). Reciprocal causation and the proximate–ultimate distinction. Biology and Philosophy, 28(5), 747–756.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10539-012-9345-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Dickson, N., Paul, C., & Herbison, P. (2003). Same-sex attraction in a birth cohort: Prevalence and persistence in early adulthood. Social Science and Medicine, 56, 1607–1615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Dittmann, R. W., Kappes, M. E., & Kappes, M. H. (1992). Sexual behavior in adolescent and adult females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 17(2), 153–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Dittmann, R. W., Kappes, M. H., Kappes, M. E., Börger, D., Stegner, H., Willig, R. H., & Wallis, H. (1990). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia I: Gender-related behavior and attitudes in female patients and sisters. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 15, 401–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Dixson, A. F. (2012). Primate sexuality: Comparative studies of the prosimians, monkeys, apes and human beings (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Döhler, K. D., Coquelin, A., Davis, F., Hines, M., Shryne, J. E., & Gorski, R. A. (1984). Pre-and postnatal influence of testosterone propionate and diethylstilbestrol on differentiation of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in male and female rats. Brain Research, 302, 291–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Doughty, C., Booth, J. E., McDonald, P. G., & Parrott, R. F. (1975). Inhibition, by the anti-oestrogen MER-25, of defeminization induced by the synthetic oestrogen RU 2858. Journal of Endocrinology, 67, 459–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Draper, P., & Harpending, H. (1982). Father absence and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Anthropological Research, 38, 255–273.Google Scholar
  125. Dubuc, P. U. (1976). Body weight regulation in female rats following neonatal testosterone. Acta Endocrinologica, 81, 215–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Dunkel, C. S., & Lukaszewski, A. W. (2015). Is sexual debut in adolescence an accelerator of life history strategy? Evolutionary Psychological Science, 1, 201–206.Google Scholar
  127. Dynes, W. R., & Donaldson, S. (Eds.). (1992). Ethnographic studies of homosexuality. New York: Garland Science.Google Scholar
  128. Ebneter, C., Pick, J. L., & Tschirren, B. (2016). A trade-off between reproductive investment and maternal cerebellum size in a precocial bird. Biology Letters, 12(12), 20160659.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2016.0659.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Ehrhardt, A. A., Grisanti, G. C., & Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L. (1977). Prenatal exposure to medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in girls. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2, 391–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Ehrhardt, A. A., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Rosen, L. R., Feldman, J. F., Veridiano, N. P., Zimmerman, I., & McEwen, B. S. (1985). Sexual orientation after prenatal exposure to exogenous estrogen. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 57–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Eliason, M. J., & Fogel, S. C. (2015). An ecological framework for sexual minority women’s health: Factors associated with greater body mass. Journal of Homosexuality, 62(7), 845–882.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2014.1003007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Ellis, B. J., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Pettit, G. S., & Woodward, L. (2003). Does father absence place daughters at special risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy? Child Development, 74, 801–821.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Ellis, B. J., Bianchi, J., Griskevicius, V., & Frankenhuis, W. E. (2017a). Beyond risk and protective factors: An adaptation-based approach to resilience. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(4), 561–587.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691617693054.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Ellis, L., & Cole-Harding, S. (2001). The effects of prenatal stress, and of prenatal alcohol and nicotine exposure, on human sexual orientation. Physiology & Behavior, 74, 213–226.Google Scholar
  135. Ellis, B. J., Schlomer, G. L., Tilley, E. H., & Butler, E. A. (2012). Impact of fathers on risky sexual behavior in daughters: A genetically and environmentally controlled sibling study. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 317–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Ellis, L., Skorska, M. N., & Bogaert, A. F. (2017b). Handedness, sexual orientation, and somatic markers for prenatal androgens: Are southpaws really that gay? Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 22(2), 157–180.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1357650X.2016.1151024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Ellison, P. T. (2017). Endocrinology, energetics, and human life history: A synthetic model. Hormones and Behavior, 91, 97–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2016.09.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Engel, K. C., Männer, L., Ayasse, M., & Steiger, S. (2015). Acceptance threshold theory can explain occurrence of homosexual behaviour. Biology Letters, 11(1), 20140603.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2014.0603.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Erol, A., & Karpyak, V. M. (2015). Sex and gender-related differences in alcohol use and its consequences: Contemporary knowledge and future research considerations. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 156, 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.08.023.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Everett, B. G., Rosario, M., McLaughlin, K. A., & Austin, S. B. (2014). Sexual orientation and gender differences in markers of inflammation and immune functioning. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 47, 57–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Faber, K. A., & Hughes, C. L. (1991). The effect of neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol, genistein, and zearalenone on pituitary responsiveness and sexually dimorphic nucleus volume in the castrated adult rat. Biology of Reproduction, 45, 649–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Faderman, L. (1992). The return of butch and femme: A phenomenon in lesbian sexuality of the 1980s and 1990s. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 2(4), 578–596.Google Scholar
  143. Fernandes, H. B., Woodley, M. A., Hutz, C. S., Kruger, D. J., & Figueredo, A. J. (2016). The strength of associations among sexual strategy traits: Variations as a function of life history speed. Personality and Individual Differences, 98, 275–283.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Fethers, K., Marks, C., Mindel, A., & Estcourt, C. S. (2000). Sexually transmitted infections and risk behaviours in women who have sex with women. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 76, 345–349.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Figueredo, A. J., Cabeza de Baca, T., & Woodley, M. A. (2013). The measurement of human life history strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(3), 251–255.Google Scholar
  146. Figueredo, A. J., Jacobs, W. J., Gladden, P. R., Bianchi, J., Patch, E. A., Kavanagh, P. S., … Li, N. P. (2018). Intimate partner violence, interpersonal aggression, and life history strategy. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 12(1), 1–31.  https://doi.org/10.1037/ebs0000101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Figueredo, A. J., Vasquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., & Schneider, S. M. R. (2004). The heritability of life history strategy: The K-factor, covitality, and personality. Social Biology, 51, 121–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Figueredo, A. J., Vásquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., Schneider, S. M., Sefcek, J. A., Tal, I. R., … Jacobs, W. J. (2006). Consilience and life history theory: From genes to brain to reproductive strategy. Developmental Review, 26, 243–275.Google Scholar
  149. Figueredo, A. J., Vasquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., Sefcek, J. A., Kirsner, B. R., & Jacobs, W. J. (2005). The K-factor: Individual differences in life history strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1349–1360.Google Scholar
  150. Fisher, A., Ristori, J., Morelli, G., & Maggi, M. (2018). The molecular mechanisms of sexual orientation and gender identity. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 467, 3–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2017.08.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Fisher, R. A. (1930). The genetical theory of natural selection. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  152. Flatt, T., & Heyland, A. (Eds.). (2011). Mechanisms of life history evolution: The genetics and physiology of life history traits and trade-offs. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  153. Fleischman, D. S., & Fessler, D. M. (2011). Progesterone’s effects on the psychology of disease avoidance: Support for the compensatory behavioral prophylaxis hypothesis. Hormones and Behavior, 59, 271–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Fleischman, D. S., Fessler, D. M. T., & Cholakians, A. E. (2015). Testing the affiliation hypothesis of homoerotic motivation in humans: The effects of progesterone and priming. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44, 1395–1404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Fletcher, G. J. O., Simpson, J. A., Campbell, L., & Overall, N. C. (2015). Pair-bonding, romantic love, and evolution: The curious case of Homo sapiens. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 20–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Foo, Y., Nakagawa, S., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L. (2017). The effects of sex hormones on immune function: A meta-analysis. Biological Reviews, 92, 551–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Fragkaki, I., Cima, M., & Granic, I. (2018). The role of trauma in the hormonal interplay of cortisol, testosterone, and oxytocin in adolescent aggression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 88, 24–37.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.11.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Frankenhuis, W. E., Panchanathan, K., & Nettle, D. (2016). Cognition in harsh and unpredictable environments. Current Opinion in Psychology, 7, 76–80.Google Scholar
  159. Frisen, L., Nordenstrom, A., Falhammar, H., Filipsson, H., Holmdahl, G., Janson, P. O., … Nordenskjold, A. (2009). Gender role behavior, sexuality, and psychosocial adaptation in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to CYP21A2 deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 94(9), 3432–3439.Google Scholar
  160. Fruth, B., & Hohmann, G. (2006). Social grease for females. Same-sex genital contacts in wild bonobos. In S. Volker & P. L. Vasey (Eds.), Homosexual behaviour in animals: An evolutionary perspective (pp. 294–316). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Galis, F., Ten Broek, C. M. A., Van Dongen, S., & Wijnaendts, L. C. D. (2010). Sexual dimorphism in the prenatal digit ratio (2D:4D). Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 57–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Gangestad, S. W., & Grebe, N. M. (2017). Hormonal systems, human social bonding, and affiliation. Hormones and Behavior, 91, 122–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Gavrus-Ion, A., Sjøvold, T., Hernández, M., González-José, R., Esteban Torné, M. E., Martínez-Abadías, N., & Esparza, M. (2017). Measuring fitness heritability: Life history traits versus morphological traits in humans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 164(2), 321–330.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Georgiev, A. V., Kuzawa, C. W., & McDade, T. W. (2016). Early developmental exposures shape trade-offs between acquired and innate immunity in humans. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, 2016(1), 256–269.  https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eow022.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. Gettler, L. T., Ryan, C. P., Eisenberg, D. T., Rzhetskaya, M., Hayes, M. G., Feranil, A. B., … Kuzawa, C. W. (2017). The role of testosterone in coordinating male life history strategies: The moderating effects of the androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism. Hormones and Behavior, 87, 164–175.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2016.10.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Gilfillan, G. D., McNutt, J. W., Vitale, J. D., de Iongh, H. H., & Golabek, K. (2017). Rare observation of the existence and masculine behaviour of maned lionesses in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. African Journal of Ecology, 55(3), 383–385.  https://doi.org/10.1111/aje.12360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Gil-Llario, M. D., Morell-Mengual, V., Ballester-Arnal, R., Giménez-García, C., & Castro-Calvo, J. (2015). Sexual sensation seeking in Spanish young men and women with different sexual orientations. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 41, 525–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Giusti, R. M., Iwamoto, K., & Hatch, E. E. (1995). Diethylstilbestrol revisited: A review of the long-term health effects. Annals of Internal Medicine, 122, 778–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Gluckman, P. D., & Hanson, M. A. (2006). Evolution, development and timing of puberty. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 17(1), 7–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Gluckman, P. D., Hanson, M. A., & Beedle, A. S. (2007). Early life events and their consequences for later disease: A life history and evolutionary perspective. American Journal of Human Biology, 19(1), 1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.20590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Gluckman, P. D., Hanson, M. A., Cooper, C., & Thornburg, K. L. (2008). Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 359(1), 61–73.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra0708473.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Gorski, R. A., Gordon, J. H., Shryne, J. E., & Southam, A. M. (1978). Evidence for a morphological sex difference within the medial preoptic area of the rat brain. Brain Research, 148, 333–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Gorski, R. A., Harlan, R. E., Jacobson, C. D., Shryne, J. E., & Southam, A. M. (1980). Evidence for the existence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area of the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 193, 529–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Goy, R. W., & Deputte, B. L. (1996). The effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES) before birth on the development of masculine behavior in juvenile female rhesus monkeys. Hormones and Behavior, 30, 379–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Greaves, L. M., Barlow, F. K., Lee, K., Matika, C. M., Wang, W., Lindsay, C. J., … Sibley, C. G. (2017). The diversity and prevalence of sexual orientation self-labels in a New Zealand national sample. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(5), 1325–1336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Grebe, N. M., Thompson, M. E., & Gangestad, S. W. (2016). Hormonal predictors of women’s extra-pair vs. in-pair sexual attraction in natural cycles: Implications for extended sexuality. Hormones and Behavior, 78, 211–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Green, R. (1978). Sexual identity of 37 children raised by homosexual or transsexual parents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135(6), 692–697.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.135.6.692.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Grimbos, T., Dawood, K., Burriss, R. P., Zucker, K. J., & Puts, D. A. (2010). Sexual orientation and the second to fourth finger length ratio: A meta-analysis in men and women. Behavioral Neuroscience, 124, 278–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Gruijters, S. L., & Fleuren, B. P. (2018). Measuring the unmeasurable: The psychometrics of life history strategy. Human Nature, 29(1), 33–44.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-017-9307-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Guardia, A., Nelson, J., & Lertora, I. (2014). The impact of father absence on daughter sexual development and behaviors: Implications for professional counselors. The Family Journal, 22, 339–346.Google Scholar
  181. Gundlach, R. H. (1977). Sexual molestation and rape reported by homosexual and heterosexual women. Journal of Homosexuality, 2, 367–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Hall, J. M. (1996). Pervasive effects of childhood sexual abuse in lesbians’ recovery from alcohol problems. Substance Use and Misuse, 31, 225–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Hämäläinen, A., Immonen, E., Tarka, M., & Schuett, W. (2018). Evolution of sex-specific pace-of-life syndromes: Causes and consequences. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 72(3), 50.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-018-2466-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Harris, J. A., Vernon, P. A., & Boomsma, D. I. (1998). The heritability of testosterone: A study of Dutch adolescent twins and their parents. Behavior Genetics, 28(3), 165–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Harrison, M. A., Hughes, S. M., Burch, R. L., & Gallup, G. G. (2008). The impact of prior heterosexual experiences on homosexuality in women. Evolutionary Psychology, 6, 316–327.Google Scholar
  186. Hartman, M. J., Monnet, E., Kirberger, R. M., Venter, L. J., Bester, L., Schulman, M. L., … Schoeman, J. P. (2013). Laparoscopic sterilization of the African lioness (Panthera leo). Veterinary Surgery, 42, 559–564.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.2012.01049.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Hartnett, C. S., Lindley, L. L., & Walsemann, K. M. (2017). Congruence across sexual orientation dimensions and risk for unintended pregnancy among adult US women. Women’s Health Issues, 27, 145–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2016.10.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Hau, M., Ricklefs, R. E., Wikelski, M., Lee, K. A., & Brawn, J. D. (2010). Corticosterone, testosterone and life-history strategies of birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 277(1697), 3203–3212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Hau, M., & Wingfield, J. C. (2011). Hormonally-regulated trade-offs: Evolutionary variability and phenotypic plasticity in testosterone signaling pathways. In T. Flatt & A. Heyland (Eds.), Mechanisms of life history evolution: The genetics and physiology of life history traits and trade-offs (pp. 349–364). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  190. Hausfater, G., & Hrdy, S. B. (1984). Infanticide: Comparative and evolutionary perspectives. New York: Aldine Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  191. Henrichs-Beck, C. L., & Szymanski, D. M. (2017). Gender expression, body–gender identity incongruence, thin ideal internalization, and lesbian body dissatisfaction. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 4(1), 23–33.  https://doi.org/10.1037/sgd0000214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Hensley, C., & Tewksbury, R. (2002). Inmate-to-inmate prison sexuality: A review of empirical studies. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 3(3), 226–243.Google Scholar
  193. Hequembourg, A. L., Livingston, J. A., & Parks, K. A. (2013). Sexual victimization and associated risks among lesbian and bisexual women. Violence Against Women, 19, 634–657.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  194. Hiestand, K. R., & Levitt, H. M. (2005). Butch identity development: The formation of an authentic gender. Feminism & Psychology, 15, 61–85.Google Scholar
  195. Hill, E. M., & Chow, K. (2002). Life-history theory and risky drinking. Addiction, 97, 401–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Hines, M. (2011a). Gender development and the human brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 34, 69–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Hines, M. (2011b). Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 32, 170–182.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. Hines, M., Ahmed, S. F., & Hughes, I. A. (2003). Psychological outcomes and gender-related development in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 93–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Hines, M., Brook, C., & Conway, G. S. (2004). Androgen and psychosexual development: Core gender identity, sexual orientation, and recalled childhood gender role behavior in women and men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Journal of Sex Research, 41, 75–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Hines, M., Constantinescu, M., & Spencer, D. (2015). Early androgen exposure and human gender development. Biology of Sex Differences, 6(1), 3.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13293-015-0022-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. Howard, R. M., & Perilloux, C. (2017). Is mating psychology most closely tied to biological sex or preferred partner’s sex? Personality and Individual Differences, 115, 83–89.Google Scholar
  202. Hrdy, S. B. (2009). Mothers and others: The evolutionary origins of mutual understanding. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  203. Hrgović, J., & Hromatko, I. (2017). The time and social context in Sunk-Cost effect. Evolutionary Psychological Science.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-017-0134-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Hu, S., Pattatucci, A. M. L., Patterson, C., Li, L., Fulker, D. W., Cherny, S. S., … Hamer, D. H. (1995). Linkage between sexual orientation and chromosome Xq28 in males but not in females. Nature Genetics, 11, 248–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Hughes, T. L., Johnson, T., & Wilsnack, S. C. (2001). Sexual assault and alcohol abuse: A comparison of lesbians and heterosexual women. Journal of Substance Abuse, 13, 515–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Hughes, T. L., Szalacha, L. A., Johnson, T. P., Kinnison, K. E., Wilsnack, S. C., & Cho, Y. (2010). Sexual victimization and hazardous drinking among heterosexual and sexual minority women. Addictive Behaviors, 35, 1152–1156.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.07.004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. Hurst, J. E., & Kavanagh, P. S. (2017). Life history strategies and psychopathology: The faster the life strategies, the more symptoms of psychopathology. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(1), 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.06.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Hyde, J. S. (2014). Gender similarities and differences. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 373–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Immonen, E., Hämäläinen, A., Schuett, W., & Tarka, M. (2018). Evolution of sex-specific pace-of-life syndromes: Genetic architecture and physiological mechanisms. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 72(3), 60.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-018-2462-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  210. Isasi, C. R., Parrinello, C. M., Jung, M. M., Carnethon, M. R., Birnbaum-Weitzman, O., Espinoza, R. A., … Van Horn, L. (2015). Psychosocial stress is associated with obesity and diet quality in Hispanic/Latino adults. Annals of Epidemiology, 25, 84–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Jacobson, B. D. (1962). Hazards of norethindrone therapy during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 84, 962–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. James, J., Ellis, B. J., Schlomer, G. L., & Garber, J. (2012). Sex-Specific pathways to early puberty, sexual debut, and sexual risk taking: Tests of an integrated evolutionary-developmental model. Developmental Psychology, 48, 687–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Jankowiak, Ł., Tryjanowski, P., Hetmański, T., & Skórka, P. (2018). Experimentally evoked same-sex sexual behaviour in pigeons: Better to be in a female-female pair than alone. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1654.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-20128-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  214. Jansson, J. O., Eden, S., & Isaksson, O. (1985a). Sexual dimorphism in the control of growth hormone secretion. Endocrine Reviews, 6, 128–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Jansson, J. O., Ekberg, S., Isaksson, O., Mode, A., & Gustafsson, J. A. (1985b). Imprinting of growth hormone secretion, body growth, and hepatic steroid metabolism by neonatal testosterone. Endocrinology, 117, 1881–1889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Jasienska, G., Bribiescas, R. G., Furberg, A. S., Helle, S., & Núñez-de la Mora, A. (2017). Human reproduction and health: An evolutionary perspective. Lancet, 390(10093), 510–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Johnson, N. L., & Grove, M. (2017). Why us? Toward an understanding of bisexual women’s vulnerability for and negative consequences of sexual violence. Journal of Bisexuality, 17(4), 1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15299716.2017.1364201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Johnson, W., Penke, L., & Spinath, F. M. (2011). Heritability in the era of molecular genetics: Some thoughts for understanding genetic influences on behavioural traits. European Journal of Personality, 25(4), 254–266.Google Scholar
  219. Jonason, P. K., Foster, J. D., Egorova, M. S., Parshikova, O., Csathó, Á., Oshio, A., & Gouveia, V. V. (2017). The Dark Triad traits from a life history perspective in six countries. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1476.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01476.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  220. Jonason, P. K., Koenig, B. L., & Tost, J. (2010). Living a fast life. Human Nature, 21(4), 428–442.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-010-9102-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Jones, B. C., Little, A. C., Boothroyd, L., DeBruine, L. M., Feinberg, D. R., Smith, M. L., … Perrett, D. I. (2005). Commitment to relationships and preferences for femininity and apparent health in faces are strongest on days of the menstrual cycle when progesterone level is high. Hormones and Behavior, 48, 283–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Jones, J., Poole, A., Lasley-Bibbs, V., & Johnson, M. (2016). LGBT health and vaccinations: Findings from a community health survey of Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, USA. Vaccine, 34(16), 1909–1914.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.02.054.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Juster, R. P., Almeida, D., Cardoso, C., Raymond, C., Johnson, P. J., Pfaus, J. G., … Lupien, S. J. (2016). Gonads and strife: Sex hormones vary according to sexual orientation for women and stress indices for both sexes. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 72, 119–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Kanazawa, S. (2017). Possible evolutionary origins of human female sexual fluidity. Biological Reviews, 92(3), 1251–1274.  https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Kangassalo, K., Pölkki, M., & Rantala, M. J. (2011). Prenatal influences on sexual orientation: Digit ratio (2D:4D) and number of older siblings. Evolutionary Psychology, 9, 496–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Kaplan, H., Hill, K., Lancaster, J., & Hurtado, A. M. (2000). A theory of human life history evolution: Diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology, 9, 156–185.Google Scholar
  227. Kenrick, D. T., Griskevicius, V., Neuberg, S. L., & Schaller, M. (2010). Renovating the pyramid of needs: Contemporary extensions built upon ancient foundations. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), 292–314.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691610369469.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  228. Kenyon, F. E. (1968). Physique and physical health of female homosexuals. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 31, 487–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Ketterson, E. D., Nolan, V., Jr., & Sandell, M. (2005). Testosterone in females: Mediator of adaptive traits, constraint on sexual dimorphism, or both? American Naturalist, 166, S85–S98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. King, R. B., Cline, J. H., & Hubbard, C. J. (2004). Heritable variation in testosterone levels in male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis). Journal of Zoology, 264(2), 143–147.Google Scholar
  231. King, M., Semlyen, J., Tai, S. S., Killaspy, H., Osborn, D., Popelyuk, D., & Nazareth, I. (2008). A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people. BMC Psychiatry, 8, 1.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-8-70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Kinsey, A. C., & Institute for Sex Research. (1998). Sexual behavior in the human female. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  233. Klawitter, M. (2015). Meta-analysis of the effects of sexual orientation on earnings. Industrial Relations, 54, 4–32.Google Scholar
  234. Klug, H., Bonsall, M. B., & Alonzo, S. H. (2013a). The origin of parental care in relation to male and female life history. Ecology and Evolution, 3, 779–791.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.493.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. Klug, H., Bonsall, M. B., & Alonzo, S. H. (2013b). Sex differences in life history drive evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. Ecology and Evolution, 3(4), 792–806.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.494.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  236. Koebele, S. V., & Bimonte-Nelson, H. A. (2015). Trajectories and phenotypes with estrogen exposures across the lifespan: What does Goldilocks have to do with it? Hormones and Behavior, 74, 86–104.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.06.009.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  237. Konner, M. (2016). Hunter-gatherer infancy and childhood in the context of human evolution. In C. J. Meehan & A. N. Crittenden (Eds.), Childhood: Origins, evolution, and implications (pp. 123–154). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  238. Kontula, O. (2015). Sex life challenges: The Finnish case. In J. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (pp. 665–671). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  239. Krams, I., Inwood, S. E., Trakimas, G., Krams, R., Burghardt, G. M., Butler, D. M., … Krama, T. (2016). Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster. PeerJ, 4, e2314.  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2314.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  240. Krams, I., Kecko, S., Inashkina, I., Trakimas, G., Krams, R., Elferts, D., … Contreras-Garduño, J. (2017a). Food quality affects the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes upon simulated parasite attack in the larvae of greater wax moth. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 165(2–3), 129–137.  https://doi.org/10.1111/eea.12629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Krams, I. A., Kecko, S., Jõers, P., Trakimas, G., Elferts, D., Krams, R., … Fridmanis, D. (2017b). Microbiome symbionts and diet diversity incur costs on the immune system of insect larvae. Journal of Experimental Biology, 220(22), 4204–4212.  https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.169227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Krams, I., Rantala, M. J., Luoto, S., & Krama, T. (2018). Fat is not just an energy store. Journal of Experimental Biology, 221(Pt 12), jeb183756.  https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.183756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Krams, I. A., Rumvolt, K., Saks, L., Krams, R., Elferts, D., Vrublevska, J., … Krama, T. (2017c). Reproduction compromises adaptive immunity in a cyprinid fish. Ecological Research, 32, 559–566.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-017-1467-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Kruger, D. J. (2014). Social and environmental conditions intensifying male competition for resources, status, and mates lead to increased male mortality. In V. A. Weekes-Shackelford & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Evolutionary perspectives on human sexual psychology and behavior (pp. 153–172). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  245. Kubinski, J. S., Chopik, W. J., & Grimm, K. J. (2017). Change across the lifespan in a psychological measure of life history strategy. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(4), 434–441.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2017.04.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Kuhle, B. X., & Radtke, S. (2013). Born both ways: The alloparenting hypothesis for sexual fluidity in women. Evolutionary Psychology, 11, 304–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Kundakovic, M. (2017). Sex-specific epigenetics: Implications for environmental studies of brain and behavior. Current Environmental Health Reports, 4(4), 385–391.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40572-017-0172-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Kundakovic, M., & Jaric, I. (2017). The epigenetic link between prenatal adverse environments and neurodevelopmental disorders. Genes, 8(3), E104.  https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8030104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Kuperberg, A., & Walker, A. M. (2018). Heterosexual college students who hookup with same-sex partners. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(5), 1387–1403.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-018-1194-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Kuzawa, C. W., & Bragg, J. M. (2012). Plasticity in human life history strategy: Implications for contemporary human variation and the evolution of genus Homo. Current Anthropology, 53(S6), S369–S382.Google Scholar
  251. Laland, K. N., Sterelny, K., Odling-Smee, J., Hoppitt, W., & Uller, T. (2011). Cause and effect in biology revisited: Is Mayr’s proximate-ultimate dichotomy still useful? Science, 334(6062), 1512–1516.Google Scholar
  252. Langstrom, N., Rahman, Q., Carlstrom, E., & Lichtenstein, P. (2010). Genetic and environmental effects on same-sex sexual behavior: A population study of twins in Sweden. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 75–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Leclerc, M., Frank, S. C., Zedrosser, A., Swenson, J. E., & Pelletier, F. (2017). Hunting promotes spatial reorganization and sexually selected infanticide. Scientific Reports, 7, 45222.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep45222.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  254. Lee, J. G., Griffin, G. K., & Melvin, C. L. (2009). Tobacco use among sexual minorities, USA, 1987 to May 2007: A systematic review. Tobacco Control, 18, 275–282.  https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2008.028241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Lehavot, K., Molina, Y., & Simoni, J. M. (2012). Childhood trauma, adult sexual assault, and adult gender expression among lesbian and bisexual women. Sex Roles, 67, 272–284.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  256. Lehavot, K., & Simoni, J. M. (2011). The impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(2), 159–170.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022839.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  257. Lenz, K. M., Nugent, B. M., & McCarthy, M. M. (2012). Sexual differentiation of the rodent brain: Dogma and beyond. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 6, 26.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2012.00026.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  258. Levins, R. (1966). The strategy of model building in population biology. American Scientist, 54, 421–431.Google Scholar
  259. Levitt, H. M., Gerrish, E. A., & Hiestand, K. R. (2003). The misunderstood gender: A model of modern femme identity. Sex Roles, 48, 99–113.Google Scholar
  260. Levitt, H. M., & Horne, S. G. (2002). Explorations of lesbian-queer genders: Butch, femme, androgynous or “other”. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 6, 25–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Lewis, D. M., Al-Shawaf, L., Conroy-Beam, D., Asao, K., & Buss, D. M. (2017). Evolutionary psychology: A how-to guide. American Psychologist, 72(4), 353–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Lewis, R. J., Mason, T. B., Winstead, B. A., Gaskins, M., & Irons, L. B. (2016). Pathways to hazardous drinking among racially and socioeconomically diverse lesbian women: Sexual minority stress, rumination, social isolation, and drinking to cope. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40(4), 564–581.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684316662603.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  263. Li, G., Kung, K. T. F., & Hines, M. (2017). Childhood gender-typed behavior and adolescent sexual orientation: A longitudinal population-based study. Developmental Psychology, 53(4), 764–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Lin, X., Lim, I. Y., Wu, Y., Teh, A. L., Chen, L., Aris, I. M., … Yap, F. (2017). Developmental pathways to adiposity begin before birth and are influenced by genotype, prenatal environment and epigenome. BMC Medicine, 15, 50.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-017-0800-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  265. Lindley, L. L., Walsemann, K. M., & Carter, J. W., Jr. (2012). The association of sexual orientation measures with young adults’ health-related outcomes. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 1177–1185.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  266. Lippa, R. A. (2005). Sexual orientation and personality. Annual Review of Sex Research, 16, 119–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Lippa, R. A. (2006). Is high sex drive associated with increased sexual attraction to both sexes? It depends on whether you are male or female. Psychological Science, 17, 46–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Lippa, R. A. (2007). The relation between sex drive and sexual attraction to men and women: A cross-national study of heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 209–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Lippa, R. A. (2008). Sex differences and sexual orientation differences in personality: Findings from the BBC internet survey. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37, 173–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Lish, J. D., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F., Ehrhardt, A. A., Travis, B. G., & Veridiano, N. P. (1992). Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES): Childhood play behavior and adult gender-role behavior in women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 21, 423–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Loulan, J., & Thomas, S. (1990). The lesbian erotic dance: Butch, femme, androgyny, and other rhythms (1st ed.). San Francisco: Spinsters Book Co.Google Scholar
  272. Lovejoy, J. C., Sainsbury, A., & Stock Conference 2008 Working Group. (2009). Sex differences in obesity and the regulation of energy homeostasis. Obesity Reviews, 10(2), 154–167.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789x.2008.00529.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Lukas, D., & Huchard, E. (2014). The evolution of infanticide by males in mammalian societies. Science, 346(6211), 841–844.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1257226.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Luoto, S., & Rantala, M. J. (2017). Specificity of women’s sexual response: Proximate mechanisms and ultimate causes [Commentary]. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(5), 1195–1198.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-0961-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Luoto, S., & Rantala, M. J. (2018). On estrogenic masculinization of the human brain and behavior. Hormones and Behavior, 97, 1–2.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2017.07.017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Lyons, M., Lynch, A., Brewer, G., & Bruno, D. (2014). Detection of sexual orientation (“gaydar”) by homosexual and heterosexual women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43(2), 345–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. MacFarlane, G. R., Blomberg, S. P., & Vasey, P. L. (2010). Homosexual behaviour in birds: Frequency of expression is related to parental care disparity between the sexes. Animal Behaviour, 80, 375–390.Google Scholar
  278. MacLusky, N. J., & Naftolin, F. (1981). Sexual differentiation of the central nervous system. Science, 211, 1294–1302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Mailhos, A., Buunk, A. P., Del Arca, D., & Tutte, V. (2016). Soccer players awarded one or more red cards exhibit lower 2D:4D ratios. Aggressive Behavior, 42(5), 417–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Malas, M. A., Dogan, S., Evcil, E. H., & Desdicioglu, K. (2006). Fetal development of the hand, digits and digit ratio (2D:4D). Early Human Development, 82, 469–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Maner, J. K., Dittmann, A., Meltzer, A. L., & McNulty, J. K. (2017). Implications of life-history strategies for obesity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 114(32), 8517–8522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Mank, J. E. (2007). The evolution of sexually selected traits and antagonistic androgen expression in actinopterygiian fishes. American Naturalist, 169, 142–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Manning, J. T. (2010). Digit ratio (2D:4D), sex differences, allometry, and finger length of 12–30-year olds: Evidence from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Internet Study. American Journal of Human Biology, 22, 604–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Manning, J. T. (2011). Resolving the role of prenatal sex steroids in the development of digit ratio. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 108, 16143–16144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Manning, J., Barley, L., Walton, J., Lewis-Jones, D., Trivers, R., Singh, D., … Szwed, A. (2000). The 2nd: 4th digit ratio, sexual dimorphism, population differences, and reproductive success: Evidence for sexually antagonistic genes? Evolution and Human Behavior, 21, 163–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Manning, J. T., Churchill, A. J. G., & Peters, M. (2007). The effects of sex, ethnicity, and sexual orientation on self-measured digit ratio (2D:4D). Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 223–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Manning, J. T., Scutt, D., Wilson, J., & Lewis-Jones, D. I. (1998). The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: A predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen. Human Reproduction, 13, 3000–3004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Manzouri, A., & Savic, I. (2018). Cerebral sex dimorphism and sexual orientation. Human Brain Mapping, 39(3), 1175–1186.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.23908.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Martin, J. T., & Nguyen, D. H. (2004). Anthropometric analysis of homosexuals and heterosexuals: Implications for early hormone exposure. Hormones and Behavior, 45, 31–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Mascaro, J. S., Rentscher, K. E., Hackett, P. D., Lori, A., Darcher, A., Rilling, J. K., & Mehl, M. R. (2018). Preliminary evidence that androgen signaling is correlated with men’s everyday language. American Journal of Human Biology, 30, e2316.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Mathews, G. A., Fane, B. A., Conway, G. S., Brook, C. G., & Hines, M. (2009). Personality and congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Possible effects of prenatal androgen exposure. Hormones and Behavior, 55(2), 285–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Matson, K. D., Riedstra, B., & Tieleman, B. I. (2016). In ovo testosterone treatment reduces long-term survival of female pigeons: A preliminary analysis after nine years of monitoring. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 100(6), 1031–1036.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12469.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Matthews, A. K., Hotton, A., DuBois, S., Fingerhut, D., & Kuhns, L. M. (2011). Demographic, psychosocial, and contextual correlates of tobacco use in sexual minority women. Research in Nursing & Health, 34, 141–152.Google Scholar
  294. Mazur, T. (2005). Gender dysphoria and gender change in androgen insensitivity or micropenis. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34(4), 411–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. McCarthy, M. M. (2008). Estradiol and the developing brain. Physiological Reviews, 88, 91–134.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  296. McEwen, B. S., Lieberburg, I., Chaptal, C., & Krey, L. C. (1977). Aromatization: Important for sexual differentiation of the neonatal rat brain. Hormones and Behavior, 9, 249–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. McFadden, D. (2009). Masculinization of the mammalian cochlea. Hearing Research, 252, 37–48.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  298. McFadden, D., & Champlin, C. A. (2000). Comparison of auditory evoked potentials in heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual males and females. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 1, 89–99.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  299. McFadden, D., & Pasanen, E. G. (1998). Comparison of the auditory systems of heterosexuals and homosexuals: Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 95, 2709–2713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. McFadden, D., Pasanen, E. G., Raper, J., Lange, H. S., & Wallen, K. (2006). Sex differences in otoacoustic emissions measured in, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Hormones and Behavior, 50, 274–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. McFadden, D., Pasanen, E. G., Valero, M. D., Roberts, E. K., & Lee, T. M. (2009). Effect of prenatal androgens on click-evoked otoacoustic emissions in male and female sheep (Ovis aries). Hormones and Behavior, 55, 98–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. McRee, A. L., Katz, M. L., Paskett, E. D., & Reiter, P. L. (2014). HPV vaccination among lesbian and bisexual women: Findings from a national survey of young adults. Vaccine, 32(37), 4736–4742.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.07.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  303. Međedović, J. (2018). Exploring the links between psychopathy and life history in a sample of college females: A behavioral ecological approach. Evolutionary Psychological Science.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-018-0157-5.
  304. Međedović, J. & Bulut, T. (2018). A life-history perspective on body mass: Exploring the interplay between harsh environment, body mass, and mating success. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ebs0000136.
  305. Mendle, J., Harden, K. P., Turkheimer, E., Van Hulle, C. A., D’onofrio, B. M., Brooks-Gunn, J., … Lahey, B. B. (2009). Associations between father absence and age of first sexual intercourse. Child Development, 80(5), 1463–1480.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01345.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  306. Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Dolezal, C., Baker, S. W., & New, M. I. (2008). Sexual orientation in women with classical or non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a function of degree of prenatal androgen excess. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37, 85–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Ehrhardt, A. A., Rosen, L. R., Gruen, R. S., Veridiano, N. P., Vann, F. H., & Neuwalder, H. F. (1995). Prenatal estrogens and the development of homosexual orientation. Developmental Psychology, 31, 12–21.Google Scholar
  308. Mikach, S. M., & Bailey, J. M. (1999). What distinguishes women with unusually high numbers of sex partners? Evolution and Human Behavior, 20, 141–150.Google Scholar
  309. Miller, E. M. (2000). Homosexuality, birth order, and evolution: Toward an equilibrium reproductive economics of homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29, 1–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Minkov, M., & Bond, M. H. (2015). Genetic polymorphisms predict national differences in life history strategy and time orientation. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 204–215.Google Scholar
  311. Mishra, S., Templeton, A. J., & Meadows, T. J. (2017). Living, fast and slow: Is life history orientation associated with risk-related personality traits, risk attitudes, criminal outcomes, and gambling? Personality and Individual Differences, 117, 242–248.Google Scholar
  312. Moller, A. P., Garamszegi, L. Z., Gil, D., Hurtrez-Bousses, S., & Eens, M. (2005). Correlated evolution of male and female testosterone profiles in birds and its consequences. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 58, 534–544.Google Scholar
  313. Money, J., Schwartz, M., & Lewis, V. G. (1984). Adult erotosexual status and fetal hormonal masculinization and demasculinization: 46, XX congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia and 46, XY androgen-insensitivity syndrome compared. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 9, 405–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Mor, Z., & Davidovich, U. (2016). Sexual orientation and behavior of adult Jews in Israel and the association with risk behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(6), 1563–1571.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-015-0631-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Mor, Z., Eick, U., Wagner Kolasko, G., Zviely-Efrat, I., Makadon, H., & Davidovitch, N. (2015). Health status, behavior, and care of lesbian and bisexual women in Israel. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 12(5), 1249–1256.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jsm.12850.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Morris, J. A., Jordan, C. L., & Breedlove, S. M. (2004). Sexual differentiation of the vertebrate nervous system. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 1034–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Motta-Mena, N. V., & Puts, D. A. (2017). Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior. Hormones and Behavior, 91, 19–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Muehlenbein, M. P., & Bribiescas, R. G. (2005). Testosterone-mediated immune functions and male life histories. American Journal of Human Biology, 17, 527–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Muehlenbein, M. P., & Flinn, M. V. (2011). Patterns and processes of human life history evolution. In T. Flatt & A. Heyland (Eds.), Mechanisms of life history evolution: The genetics and physiology of life history traits and trade-offs (pp. 153–168). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  320. Muggleton, N. K., & Fincher, C. L. (2017). Unrestricted sexuality promotes distinctive short-and long-term mate preferences in women. Personality and Individual Differences, 111, 169–173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.01.054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Muller, M. N. (2017). Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates. Hormones and Behavior, 91, 36–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2016.09.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., Otgaar, H., & Meijer, E. (2017). The malevolent side of human nature: A meta-analysis and critical review of the literature on the Dark Triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 183–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Murray, D. R., Gildersleeve, K. A., Fales, M. R., & Haselton, M. G. (2017). MHC homozygosity is associated with fast sexual strategies in women. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology, 3(2), 101–117.Google Scholar
  324. Neel, R., Kenrick, D. T., White, A. E., & Neuberg, S. L. (2016). Individual differences in fundamental social motives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110(6), 887–907.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000068.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Nelson, R. J. (2011). An introduction to behavioral endocrinology (4th ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  326. Ngun, T. C., & Vilain, E. (2014). The biological basis of human sexual orientation: Is there a role for epigenetics? In D. Yamamoto (Ed.), Epigenetic shaping of sociosexual interactions: From plants to humans (Vol. 86). Advances in genetics (pp. 167–184). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press Inc.Google Scholar
  327. Nguyen, T. V., McCracken, J. T., Albaugh, M. D., Botteron, K. N., Hudziak, J. J., & Ducharme, S. (2016). A testosterone-related structural brain phenotype predicts aggressive behavior from childhood to adulthood. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 63, 109–118.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.09.021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Nield, J., Magnusson, B., Brooks, C., Chapman, D., & Lapane, K. L. (2015). Sexual discordance and sexual partnering among heterosexual women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(4), 885–894.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-014-0287-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2004). Gender differences in risk factors and consequences for alcohol use and problems. Clinical Psychology Review, 24(8), 981–1010.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2004.08.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Nugent, B. M., Wright, C. L., Shetty, A. C., Hodes, G. E., Lenz, K. M., Mahurkar, A., … McCarthy, M. M. (2015). Brain feminization requires active repression of masculinization via DNA methylation. Nature Neuroscience, 18, 690–697.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  331. Ostovich, J. M., & Sabini, J. (2004). How are sociosexuality, sex drive, and lifetime number of sexual partners related? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1255–1266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Pasterski, V. (2017). Fetal androgens and human sexual orientation: Searching for the elusive link [Commentary]. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(6), 1615–1619.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  333. Pasterski, V., Geffner, M. E., Brain, C., Hindmarsh, P., Brook, C., & Hines, M. (2011). Prenatal hormones and childhood sex segregation: Playmate and play style preferences in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Hormones and Behavior, 59, 549–555.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  334. Pasterski, V., Hindmarsh, P., Geffner, M., Brook, C., Brain, C., & Hines, M. (2007). Increased aggression and activity level in 3-to 11-year-old girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Hormones and Behavior, 52(3), 368–374.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  335. Pasterski, V., Zucker, K. J., Hindmarsh, P. C., Hughes, I. A., Acerini, C., Spencer, D., … Hines, M. (2015). Increased cross-gender identification independent of gender role behavior in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Results from a standardized assessment of 4-to 11-year-old children. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44, 1363–1375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Pepper, G. V., & Nettle, D. (2017). The behavioural constellation of deprivation: Causes and consequences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40, e314.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0140525x1600234x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Perkins, A., & Fitzgerald, J. A. (1997). Sexual orientation in domestic rams: Some biological and social correlates. In L. Ellis & L. Ebertz (Eds.), Sexual orientation: Toward biological understanding (pp. 107–128). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  338. Pine, A., Shiner, T., Seymour, B., & Dolan, R. J. (2010). Dopamine, time, and impulsivity in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 8888–8896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Playà, E., Vinicius, L., & Vasey, P. L. (2017). Need for alloparental care and attitudes toward homosexuals in 58 countries: Implications for the kin selection hypothesis. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 3(4), 345–352.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-017-0105-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Poeppl, T. B., Langguth, B., Rupprecht, R., Laird, A. R., & Eickhoff, S. B. (2016). A neural circuit encoding sexual preference in humans. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 68, 530–536.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.06.025.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  341. Poiani, A. (2010). Animal homosexuality: A biosocial perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  342. Polek, C., & Hardie, T. (2017). Changing HPV vaccination rates in bisexual and lesbian women. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 29(6), 333–339.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2327-6924.12453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Polo, P., Fernandez, A., Muñoz-Reyes, J. A., Dufey, M., & Buunk, A. P. (2018). Intrasexual competition and height in adolescents and adults. Evolutionary Psychology, 16(1), 1474704917749172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Ponseti, J., Siebner, H. R., Kloeppel, S., Wolff, S., Granert, O., Jansen, O., … Bosinski, H. A. (2007). Homosexual women have less grey matter in perirhinal cortex than heterosexual women. PLoS ONE.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000762.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  345. Puts, D., & Motta-Mena, N. V. (2018). Is human brain masculinization estrogen receptor-mediated? Reply to Luoto and Rantala. Hormones and Behavior, 97, 3–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2017.07.018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Rahman, Q., Collins, A., Morrison, M., Orrells, J. C., Cadinouche, K., Greenfield, S., & Begum, S. (2008). Maternal inheritance and familial fecundity factors in male homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37, 962–969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Rahman, Q., Kumari, V., & Wilson, G. D. (2003). Sexual orientation-related differences in prepulse inhibition of the human startle response. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 1096–1102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Rahman, Q., & Wilson, G. D. (2003). Sexual orientation and the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio: Evidence for organising effects of sex hormones or developmental instability? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28, 288–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Raman-Wilms, L., Tseng, A. L., Wighardt, S., Einarson, T. R., & Koren, G. (1995). Fetal genital effects of first-trimester sex hormone exposure: A meta-analysis. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 85, 141–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Rantala, M. J., Coetzee, V., Moore, F. R., Skrinda, I., Kecko, S., Krama, T., … Krams, I. (2013). Adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more valid cue to immunocompetence in human mate choice. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 280(1751), 20122495.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2012.2495.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Rantala, M. J., Luoto, S., Krams, I., & Karlsson, H. (2018). Depression subtyping based on evolutionary psychiatry: Proximate mechanisms and ultimate functions. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 69, 603–617.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2017.10.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Rantala, M. J., Moore, F. R., Skrinda, I., Krama, T., Kivleniece, I., Kecko, S., & Krams, I. (2012). Evidence for the stress-linked immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in humans. Nature Communications, 3, 694.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1696.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  353. Reinisch, J. M., Mortensen, E. L., & Sanders, S. A. (2017). Prenatal exposure to progesterone affects sexual orientation in humans. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46, 1239–1249.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-016-0923-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Reinisch, J. M., Ziemba-Davis, M., & Sanders, S. A. (1991). Hormonal contributions to sexually dimorphic behavioral development in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 16, 213–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Rice, W. R., Friberg, U., & Gavrilets, S. (2012). Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development. Quarterly Review of Biology, 87, 343–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Rice, W. R., Friberg, U., & Gavrilets, S. (2013). Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: A testing protocol for a new epigenetic model. BioEssays, 35, 764–770.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  357. Rice, W. R., Friberg, U., & Gavrilets, S. (2016). Sexually antagonistic epigenetic marks that canalize sexually dimorphic development. Molecular Ecology, 25(8), 1812–1822.  https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.13490.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Richards, M. A., Rothblum, E. D., Beauchaine, T. P., & Balsam, K. F. (2016). Adult children of same-sex and heterosexual couples: Demographic “thriving”. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 13(1), 1–15.Google Scholar
  359. Richardson, G. B., Dai, C. L., Chen, C. C., Nedelec, J. L., Swoboda, C. M., & Chen, W. W. (2016). Adolescent life history strategy in the intergenerational transmission and developmental stability of substance use. Journal of Drug Issues, 46(2), 102–121.Google Scholar
  360. Richter, N. (2011). Ambiguous bisexuality: The case of a shot at love with Tila Tequila. Journal of Bisexuality, 11(1), 121–141.Google Scholar
  361. Rieger, G., & Savin-Williams, R. C. (2012). The eyes have it: Sex and sexual orientation differences in pupil dilation patterns. PLoS ONE, 7, 256.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Rieger, G., Savin-Williams, R. C., Chivers, M. L., & Bailey, J. M. (2016). Sexual arousal and masculinity-femininity of women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111(2), 265–283.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000077.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Rodrigues, D., & Lopes, D. (2017). Sociosexuality, commitment, and sexual desire for an attractive person. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(3), 775–788.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-016-0814-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Roney, J. R. (2016). Theoretical frameworks for human behavioral endocrinology. Hormones and Behavior, 84, 97–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Roney, J. R., & Simmons, Z. L. (2013). Hormonal predictors of sexual motivation in natural menstrual cycles. Hormones and Behavior, 63, 636–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Rosario, M., & Schrimshaw, E. W. (2013). The sexual identity development and health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents: An ecological perspective. In C. J. Patterson & A. R. D’Augelli (Eds.), Handbook of psychology and sexual orientation (pp. 87–101). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  367. Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E. W., & Hunter, J. (2008). Butch/femme differences in substance use and abuse among young lesbian and bisexual women: Examination and potential explanations. Substance Use and Misuse, 43, 1002–1015.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10826080801914402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E. W., Hunter, J., & Levy-Warren, A. (2009). The coming-out process of young lesbian and bisexual women: Are there butch/femme differences in sexual identity development? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 34–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. Roselli, C. E., Reddy, R. C., & Kaufman, K. R. (2011). The development of male-oriented behavior in rams. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 32(2), 164–169.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  370. Rothman, E. F., Exner, D., & Baughman, A. L. (2011). The prevalence of sexual assault against people who identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual in the United States: A systematic review. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 12, 55–66.Google Scholar
  371. Sabia, J. J., Wooden, M., & Nguyen, T. T. (2017). Sexual identity, same-sex relationships, and labour market dynamics: New evidence from longitudinal data in Australia. Southern Economic Journal, 83(4), 903–931.  https://doi.org/10.1002/soej.12181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Saewyc, E. M., Bearinger, L. H., Blum, R. W., & Resnick, M. D. (1999). Sexual intercourse, abuse and pregnancy among adolescent women: Does sexual orientation make a difference? Family Planning Perspectives, 31, 127–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. Safron, A., Klimaj, V., Sylva, D., Rosenthal, A. M., Li, M., Walter, M., & Bailey, J. M. (2018). Neural correlates of sexual orientation in heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual women. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 673.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18372-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  374. Said-Mohamed, R., Pettifor, J. M., & Norris, S. A. (2018). Life history theory hypotheses on child growth: Potential implications for short and long-term child growth, development and health. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 165(1), 4–19.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23340.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. Salmon, C., Townsend, J., & Hehman, J. (2016). Casual sex and college students: Sex differences and the impact of father absence. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 2(4), 254–261.Google Scholar
  376. Sanders, S. A., & Reinisch, J. M. (1985). Behavioral effects on humans of progesterone-related compounds during development and in the adult. In D. Ganten & D. Pfaff (Eds.), Current topics neuroendocrinology: Actions of progesterone on the brain (Vol. 5, pp. 175–205). Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  377. Santi, D., Spaggiari, G., Gilioli, L., Potì, F., Simoni, M., & Casarini, L. (2018). Molecular basis of androgen action on human sexual desire. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 467, 31–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2017.09.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. Santtila, P., Sandnabba, N. K., Harlaar, N., Varjonen, M., Alanko, K., & von der Pahlen, B. (2008). Potential for homosexual response is prevalent and genetic. Biological Psychology, 77, 102–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. Sarma, M. S., Kuo, P. X., Bechayda, S. A., Kuzawa, C. W., & Gettler, L. T. (2018). Exploring the links between early life and young adulthood social experiences and men’s later life psychobiology as fathers. Physiology & Behavior, 193(Pt A), 82–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.11.029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Savic, I., & Lindstrom, P. (2008). PET and MRI show differences in cerebral asymmetry and functional connectivity between homo- and heterosexual subjects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 9403–9408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Savin-Williams, R. (2009). How many gays are there? It depends. In D. A. Hope (Ed.), Contemporary perspectives on lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities (pp. 5–41). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  382. Savin-Williams, R. C., & Ream, G. L. (2006). Pubertal onset and sexual orientation in an adolescent national probability sample. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35, 279–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Savin-Williams, R., & Vrangalova, Z. (2013). Mostly heterosexual as a distinct sexual orientation group: A systematic review of the empirical evidence. Developmental Review, 33, 58–88.Google Scholar
  384. Schlomer, G. L., & Cho, H. J. (2017). Genetic and environmental contributions to age at menarche: Interactive effects of father absence and LIN28B. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(6), 761–769.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2017.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Schmitt, D. P. (2007). Sexual strategies across sexual orientations: How personality traits and culture relate to sociosexuality among gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and heterosexuals. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 18, 183–214.Google Scholar
  386. Schmitt, D. P. (2014). Evaluating evidence of mate preference adaptations: How do we really know what homo sapiens sapiens really want? In V. A. Weekes-Shackelford & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Evolutionary perspectives on human sexual psychology and behavior (pp. 3–39). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  387. Schützwohl, A., Fuchs, A., McKibbin, W. F., & Shackelford, T. K. (2009). How willing are you to accept sexual requests from slightly unattractive to exceptionally attractive imagined requestors? Human Nature, 20(3), 282–293.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-009-9067-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Sell, A., Lukazsweski, A. W., & Townsley, M. (2017). Cues of upper body strength account for most of the variance in men’s bodily attractiveness. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 284(1869), 20171819.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.1819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Semenyna, S. W., Belu, C. F., Vasey, P. L., & Honey, L. (2018). Not straight and not straightforward: The relationships between sexual orientation, sociosexuality, and dark triad traits in women. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 4(1), 24–37.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-017-0111-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Shalev, I., & Belsky, J. (2016). Early-life stress and reproductive cost: A two-hit developmental model of accelerated aging? Medical Hypotheses, 90, 41–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Shields, G. S., Moons, W. G., & Slavich, G. M. (2017). Inflammation, self-regulation, and health: An immunologic model of self-regulatory failure. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(4), 588–612.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  392. Simpson, J. A., & Gangestad, S. W. (1992). Sociosexuality and romantic partner choice. Journal of Personality, 60, 31–51.Google Scholar
  393. Singh, D. (1993). Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: Role of waist-to-hip ratio. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 293–307.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.2.293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Singh, D., Vidaurri, M., Zambarano, R. J., & Dabbs, J. M. (1999). Lesbian erotic role identification: Behavioral, morphological, and hormonal correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 1035–1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. Sinha, R., & Jastreboff, A. M. (2013). Stress as a common risk factor for obesity and addiction. Biological Psychiatry, 73, 827–835.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  396. Sinnott, M. (2004). Toms and dees: Transgender identity and female same-sex relationships in Thailand. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
  397. Sisk, C. L. (2016). Hormone-dependent adolescent organization of socio-sexual behaviors in mammals. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 38, 63–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2016.02.004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  398. Sjoberg, E. A., & Cole, G. G. (2017). Sex differences on the Go/No-Go test of inhibition. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(2), 537–542.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-1010-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. Skorska, M. N., Geniole, S. N., Vrysen, B. M., McCormick, C. M., & Bogaert, A. F. (2015). Facial structure predicts sexual orientation in both men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44, 1377–1394.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-014-0454-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. Smith, C. A., & Stillman, S. (2002). Butch/femme in the personal advertisements of lesbians. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 6, 45–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. Sng, O., Neuberg, S. L., Varnum, M. E. W., & Kenrick, D. T. (2017). The crowded life is a slow life: Population density and life history strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 112(5), 736–754.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000086.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. Soler, H., Vinayak, P., & Quadagno, D. (2000). Biosocial aspects of domestic violence. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 721–739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. Spencer, D., Pasterski, V., Neufeld, S., Glover, V., O’Connor, T. G., Hindmarsh, P. C., … Hines, M. (2017). Prenatal androgen exposure and children’s aggressive behavior and activity level. Hormones and Behavior, 96, 156–165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2017.09.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  404. Stearns, S. C. (1992). The evolution of life histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  405. Stearns, S. C., Allal, N., & Mace, R. (2008). Life history theory and human development. In C. Crawford & D. Krebs (Eds.), Foundations of evolutionary psychology (pp. 47–69). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  406. Steed, J. J., & Templer, D. I. (2010). Gay men and lesbian women with molestation history: Impact on sexual orientation and experience of pleasure. The Open Psychology Journal, 3, 36–41.Google Scholar
  407. Stief, M. C., Rieger, G., & Savin-Williams, R. C. (2014). Bisexuality is associated with elevated sexual sensation seeking, sexual curiosity, and sexual excitability. Personality and Individual Differences, 66, 193–198.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.03.035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Stolarski, M., Czarna, A. Z., Malesza, M., & Szymańska, A. (2017). Here and now: Sociosexuality mediates the associations between Dark Triad and time perspectives (in females). Personality and Individual Differences, 111, 119–123.Google Scholar
  409. Stulp, G., & Barrett, L. (2016). Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation. Biological Reviews, 91(1), 206–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. Swaab, D. (2003). The human hypothalamus. Basic and clinical aspects. Part I: Nuclei of the hypothalamus. In M. J. Aminoff, F. Boller, & D. Swaab (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neurology (pp. 127–140). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  411. Swaab, D. F., Chung, W. C. J., Kruijver, F. P. M., Hofman, M. A., & Hestiantoro, A. (2003). Sex differences in the hypothalamus in the different stages of human life. Neurobiology of Aging, 24, S1–S16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. Swaab, D. F., & Garcia-Falgueras, A. (2009). Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation. Functional Neurology, 24, 17–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Swaab, D. F., & Hofman, M. A. (1988). Sexual differentiation of the human hypothalamus: Ontogeny of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Developmental Brain Research, 44, 314–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. Talarovicova, A., Krskova, L., & Blazekova, J. (2009). Testosterone enhancement during pregnancy influences the 2D:4D ratio and open field motor activity of rat siblings in adulthood. Hormones and Behavior, 55, 235–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. Tarttelin, M. F., & Gorski, R. A. (1988). Postnatal influence of diethylstilbestrol on the differentiation of the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the rat is as effective as perinatal treatment. Brain Research, 456, 271–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. Thornton, J. W. (2001). Evolution of vertebrate steroid receptors from an ancestral estrogen receptor by ligand exploitation and serial genome expansions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98, 5671–5676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. Tinbergen, N. (2005). On aims and methods of ethology. Animal Biology, 55, 297–321.Google Scholar
  418. Titus-Ernstoff, L., Perez, K., Hatch, E. E., Troisi, R., Palmer, J. R., Hartge, P., … Noller, K. (2003). Psychosexual characteristics of men and women exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol. Epidemiology, 14(2), 155–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1992). Psychological foundations of culture. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind (pp. 19–136). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  420. Travison, T. G., Zhuang, W. V., Lunetta, K. L., Karasik, D., Bhasin, S., Kiel, D. P., … Murabito, J. M. (2014). The heritability of circulating testosterone, oestradiol, oestrone and sex hormone binding globulin concentrations in men: The Framingham Heart Study. Clinical Endocrinology, 80(2), 277–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. Trivers, R. (1972). Parental investment and sexual selection. In B. Campbell (Ed.), Sexual selection and the descent of man: 1871–1971 (pp. 136–179). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  422. Trocki, K. F., Drabble, L. A., & Midanik, L. T. (2009). Tobacco, marijuana, and sensation seeking: Comparisons across gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual groups. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23, 620–631.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  423. Turanovic, J. J., Pratt, T. C., & Piquero, A. R. (2017). Exposure to fetal testosterone, aggression, and violent behavior: A meta-analysis of the 2D:4D digit ratio. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 33, 51–61.Google Scholar
  424. van Hemmen, J., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., Steensma, T. D., Veltman, D. J., & Bakker, J. (2017). Do sex differences in CEOAEs and 2D:4D ratios reflect androgen exposure? A study in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Biology of Sex Differences, 8, 11.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13293-017-0132-z.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  425. VanderLaan, D. P., & Vasey, P. L. (2008). Mate retention behavior of men and women in heterosexual and homosexual relationships. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(4), 572–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. Vasey, P. L. (2007). Function and phylogeny: The evolution of same-sex sexual behavior in primates. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 18, 215–244.Google Scholar
  427. Vasey, P. L., & Gauthier, C. (2000). Skewed sex ratios and female homosexual activity in Japanese macaques: An experimental analysis. Primates, 41, 17–25.Google Scholar
  428. Vásquez-Amézquita, M., Leongómez, J. D., Seto, M. C., Bonilla, F. M., Rodríguez-Padilla, A., & Salvador, A. (2018). No relation between digit ratio (2D:4D) and visual attention patterns to sexually preferred and non-preferred stimuli. Personality and Individual Differences, 120, 151–158.Google Scholar
  429. Veiga, J. P., & Polo, V. (2008). Fitness consequences of increased testosterone levels in female spotless starlings. American Naturalist, 172(1), 42–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. Ventura, T., Gomes, M. C., Pita, A., Neto, M. T., & Taylor, A. (2013). Digit ratio (2D:4D) in newborns: Influences of prenatal testosterone and maternal environment. Early Human Development, 89(2), 107–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. Vincke, E. (2017). Drinking high amounts of alcohol as a short-term mating strategy: The impact of short-term mating motivations on young adults’ drinking behavior. Evolutionary Psychology, 15(2), 1474704917707073.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1474704917707073.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. Visscher, P. M., Hill, W. G., & Wray, N. R. (2008). Heritability in the genomics era—Concepts and misconceptions. Nature Reviews Genetics, 9(4), 255–266.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. Voorhess, M. L. (1967). Masculinization of the female fetus associated with norethindrone-mestranol therapy during pregnancy. Journal of Pediatrics, 71, 128–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. Vrangalova, Z., & Savin-Williams, R. C. (2014). Psychological and physical health of mostly heterosexuals: A systematic review. Journal of Sex Research, 51, 410–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. Walker, R. S., Hill, K. R., Flinn, M. V., & Ellsworth, R. M. (2011). Evolutionary history of hunter-gatherer marriage practices. PLoS ONE, 6, e19066.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  436. Wang, Y., & Kosinski, M. (2018). Deep neural networks are more accurate than humans at detecting sexual orientation from facial images. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114(2), 246–257.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000098.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. Ward, B. W., Dahlhamer, J. M., Galinsky, A. M., & Joestl, S. S. (2014). Sexual orientation and health among US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2013. National Health Statistics Reports, 15, 1–10.Google Scholar
  438. Weber, J. C. (1996). Social class as a correlate of gender identity among lesbian women. Sex Roles, 35, 271–280.Google Scholar
  439. Weingourt, R. (1998). A comparison of heterosexual and homosexual long-term sexual relationships. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 12, 114–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. Wells, J. C. K. (2007). The thrifty phenotype as an adaptive maternal effect. Biological Reviews, 82, 143–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  441. Wells, J. C., Nesse, R. M., Sear, R., Johnstone, R. A., & Stearns, S. C. (2017). Evolutionary public health: Introducing the concept. Lancet, 390(10093), 500–509.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30572-X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. West, P. M., & Packer, C. (2002). Sexual selection, temperature, and the lion’s mane. Science, 297(5585), 1339–1343.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1073257.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  443. Whitam, F. L., Daskalos, C., Sobolewski, C. G., & Padilla, P. (1998). The emergence of lesbian sexuality and identity cross-culturally: Brazil, Peru, the Philippines, and the United States. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 27, 31–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. Whitehouse, A. J. O., Gilani, S. Z., Shafait, F., Mian, A., Tan, D. W., Maybery, M. T., … Eastwood, P. (2015). Prenatal testosterone exposure is related to sexually dimorphic facial morphology in adulthood. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1816), 20151351.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.1351.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. Wilkins, L. (1960). Masculinization of female fetus due to use of orally given progestins. Journal of the American Medical Association, 172, 1028–1032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. Wisniewski, A. B., Espinoza-Varas, B., Aston, C. E., Edmundson, S., Champlin, C. A., Pasanen, E. G., & McFadden, D. (2014). Otoacoustic emissions, auditory evoked potentials and self-reported gender in people affected by disorders of sex development (DSD). Hormones and Behavior, 66(3), 467–474.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  447. Wisniewski, A. B., Migeon, C. J., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Gearhart, J. P., Berkovitz, G. D., Brown, T. R., & Money, J. (2000). Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: Long-term medical, surgical, and psychosexual outcome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85, 2664–2669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. Wood, C. E. (2014). Estrogen in the fetus. In L. Zhang & C. Ducsay (Eds.), Advances in fetal and neonatal physiology (pp. 217–228). New York: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-1031-1_19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. Woodley, M. A., Cabeza de Baca, T., Fernandes, H. B. F., Madison, G., & Figueredo, A. J. (2017). Slow and steady wins the race: K positively predicts fertility in the USA and Sweden. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 3, 109–117.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-016-0077-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  450. Worthman, C. M., & Trang, K. (2018). Dynamics of body time, social time and life history at adolescence. Nature, 554(7693), 451–457.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature25750.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  451. Xu, Y., & Zheng, Y. (2017). Does sexual orientation precede childhood sexual abuse? Childhood gender nonconformity as a risk factor and instrumental variable analysis. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 29(8), 786–802.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1079063215618378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. Yancey, A. K., Cochran, S. D., Corliss, H. L., & Mays, V. M. (2003). Correlates of overweight and obesity among lesbian and bisexual women. Preventive Medicine, 36, 676–683.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  453. Young, L. C., & VanderWerf, E. A. (2014). Adaptive value of same-sex pairing in Laysan albatross. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 281(1775), 20132473.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.2473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. Young, L. C., Zaun, B. J., & VanderWerf, E. A. (2008). Successful same-sex pairing in Laysan albatross. Biology Letters, 4, 323–325.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  455. Zheng, Z., & Cohn, M. J. (2011). Developmental basis of sexually dimorphic digit ratios. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 108, 16289–16294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. Zheng, L., Lippa, R. A., & Zheng, Y. (2011). Sex and sexual orientation differences in personality in China. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40, 533–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. Zheng, L., Wen, G., & Zheng, Y. (2018). Butch–femme identity and visuospatial performance among lesbian and bisexual women in China. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47, 1015–1024.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-1128-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. Zheng, Y., & Zheng, L. (2011). Sexual self-labels and personality differences among Chinese lesbians. Social Behavior and Personality, 39, 955–961.Google Scholar
  459. Zheng, L., & Zheng, Y. (2013). Butch-femme identity and empathizing-systemizing cognitive traits in Chinese lesbians and bisexual women. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 951–956.Google Scholar
  460. Zheng, L., & Zheng, Y. (2015). Sex and sexual orientation differences in empathizing-systemizing cognitive styles in China. Personality and Individual Differences, 87, 267–271.Google Scholar
  461. Zheng, L., & Zheng, Y. (2016). Gender nonconformity and butch–femme identity among lesbians in China. Journal of Sex Research, 53, 186–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. Zietsch, B. P., Morley, K. I., Shekar, S. N., Verweij, K. J. H., Keller, M. C., Macgregor, S., … Martin, N. G. (2008). Genetic factors predisposing to homosexuality may increase mating success in heterosexuals. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 424–433.Google Scholar
  463. Zietsch, B. P., Verweij, K. J. H., Bailey, J. M., Wright, M. J., & Martin, N. G. (2010). Genetic and environmental influences on risky sexual behaviour and its relationship with personality. Behavior Genetics, 40, 12–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  464. Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.English, Drama and Writing StudiesUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.School of PsychologyUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.Department of Zoology and Animal EcologyUniversity of LatviaRigaLatvia
  4. 4.Institute of Ecology and Earth SciencesUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia
  5. 5.Department of Biology & Turku Brain and Mind CenterUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations