Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 46, Issue 7, pp 2165–2172 | Cite as

Perceived Devaluation and STI Testing Uptake among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youth in a Canadian Setting

  • Mohammad Karamouzian
  • Jean Shoveller
  • Huiru Dong
  • Mark Gilbert
  • Thomas Kerr
  • Kora DeBeck
Original Paper


Perceived devaluation has been shown to have adverse effects on the mental and physical health outcomes of people who use drugs. However, the impact of perceived devaluation on sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing uptake among street-involved youth, who face multiple and intersecting stigmas due to their association with drug use and risky sexual practices, has not been fully characterized. Data were obtained between December 2013 and November 2014 from a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs aged 14–26 in Vancouver, British Columbia. Multivariable generalized estimating equations were constructed to assess the independent relationship between perceived devaluation and STI testing uptake. Among 300 street-involved youth, 87.0% reported a high perceived devaluation score at baseline. In the multivariable analysis, high perceived devaluation was negatively associated with STI testing uptake after adjustment for potential confounders (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 0.38, 95% Confidence Interval 0.15–0.98). Perceived devaluation was high among street-involved youth in our sample and appears to have adverse effects on STI testing uptake. HIV prevention and care programs should be examined and improved to better meet the special needs of street-involved youth in non-stigmatizing ways.


Perceived devaluation Stigma Sexually transmitted infections Homeless youth Substance use Sexual behavior 



The authors thank the study participants for their contribution to the research, as well as current and past researchers and staff. We would specifically like to thank Cody Callon, Deborah Graham, Peter Vann, Steve Kain, Kristie Starr, Tricia Collingham, Sabina Dobrer, and Carmen Rock for their research and administrative assistance.


The study was supported by the US National Institutes of Health (U01DA038886). This research was undertaken, in part, thanks to funding from the Canada Research Chairs program through a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in Inner City Medicine which supports Dr. Evan Wood. Dr. Kora DeBeck is supported by a MSFHR/St. Paul’s Hospital Foundation-Providence Health Care Career Scholar Award and a CIHR New Investigator Award.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the UBC-Providence Health Care Research Ethics Board (Approval #: H04-50160; Approval date: May 20, 2016) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Karamouzian
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jean Shoveller
    • 1
    • 2
  • Huiru Dong
    • 1
  • Mark Gilbert
    • 2
    • 5
  • Thomas Kerr
    • 1
    • 4
  • Kora DeBeck
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDSSt. Paul’s HospitalVancouverCanada
  2. 2.School of Population and Public HealthUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in HealthKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  4. 4.Department of MedicineUniversity of British Columbia, St. Paul’s HospitalVancouverCanada
  5. 5.Clinical Prevention ServicesBC Centre for Disease ControlVancouverCanada
  6. 6.School of Public PolicySimon Fraser UniversityVancouverCanada

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