Religion and Sexual Identity Fluidity in a National Three-Wave Panel of U.S. Adults
- 443 Downloads
Research has shown that cross-sectional estimates of sexual identities overlook fluidity in those identities. Research has also shown that social factors, such as competing identities, can influence sexual identity fluidity. We contributed to this literature in two ways. First, we utilized a representative panel of US adults (N = 1034) surveyed in 2010, 2012, and 2014 by the General Social Survey. The addition of a third observation allowed us to examine more complexity in sexual identity fluidity. We found that 2.40% of US adults reported at least one change in sexual identity across the 4 years, with 1.59% reporting one change and 0.81% reporting two changes. Our second contribution came from examining the role of religion, as past research has suggested that religion can destabilize and prolong sexual identity development. We found that lesbian or gay individuals (N = 17), bisexuals (N = 15), and females (N = 585) showed more sexual identity fluidity compared to heterosexuals (N = 1003) and males (N = 450), respectively. Marital status, age, race, and education did not have significant associations with sexual identity fluidity. Regarding the role of religion, we found that participants identifying as more religious in Wave 1 showed more fluidity in sexual identity across later observations. Further analysis showed that higher levels of religiosity make it more likely that lesbian or gay individuals will be fluid in sexual identity, but this is not the case for heterosexual individuals. This finding reinforces past qualitative research that has suggested that religion can extend or complicate sexual minorities’ identity development.
KeywordsSexual identity Sexual orientation Sexual fluidity Religiosity
The authors did not receive funding to conduct this research.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The data used in this research come from the General Social Survey (GSS), which is publicly available at gss.norc.org. Informed consent is obtained from all GSS participants. This research is in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- American Psychological Association. (2009). Report of the American Psychological Association’s Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Gates, G. J. (2011). How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? The Williams Institute. http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Gates-How-Many-People-LGBT-Apr-2011.pdf
- Herek, G. M., Norton, A. T., Allen, T. J., & Sims, C. L. (2010). Demographic, psychological, and social characteristics of self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in a US probability sample. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 7, 176–200. doi: 10.1007/s13178-010-0017-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Institute of Medicine. (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Johnson, E. P., & Henderson, M. G. (Eds.). (2005). Black queer studies: A critical anthology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- National Research Council. (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?recordid=13128
- Release Notes for GSS Panel 2010-Sample Wave 3. (2015). Accessed at http://gss.norc.org/Get-Documentation
- Smith, T. W. (1987). Classifying protestant denominations. General Social Survey Methodological Report #43. http://gss.norc.org/Documents/reports/methodological-reports/MR043.pdf
- Smith, T. W., Marsden, P. V., & Hout, M. (2015). General Social Surveys, 1972–2014 Cumulative Codebook. National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago.Google Scholar