Advertisement

Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 1161–1179 | Cite as

The Specificity of Women’s Sexual Response and Its Relationship with Sexual Orientations: A Review and Ten Hypotheses

  • Meredith L. ChiversEmail author
Target Article

Abstract

Category-specific sexual response describes a pattern wherein the individual shows significantly greater responses to preferred versus nonpreferred categories of sexual stimuli; this pattern is described as gender specific for sexual orientation to gender, or gender nonspecific if lacking response differentiation by gender cues. Research on the gender specificity of women’s sexual response has consistently produced sexual orientation effects, such that androphilic women (sexually attracted to adult males) typically show gender-nonspecific patterns of genital response and gynephilic women (sexually attracted to adult females) show more gender-specific responses. As research on the category specificity of sexual response has grown, this pattern has also been observed for other measures of sexual response. In this review, I use the Incentive Motivation and Information Processing Models as complementary frameworks to organize the empirical literature examining the gender specificity of women’s sexual response at each stage of sexual stimulus processing and response. Collectively, these data disconfirm models of sexual orientation that equate androphilic women’s sexual attractions with their sexual responses to sexual stimuli. I then discuss 10 hypotheses that might explain variability in the specificity of sexual response among androphilic and gynephilic women, and conclude with recommendations for future research on the (non)specificity of sexual response.

Keywords

Women Sexual arousal Sexual desire Sexual psychophysiology Genital response Sexual orientation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Portions of this article were presented at the 2015 Puzzles of Sexual Orientation Workshop, Lethbridge, Alberta, with travel supported by a meeting grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, and a Discovery Grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Grant No. 386198-10) awarded to the author. Many thanks to Samantha Dawson, Jackie Huberman, Michael Seto, Kelly Suschinsky, and Amanda Timmers for their comments on a previous version of this article. Special thanks to Paul Vasey for his thoughtful and meticulous editorial work. Last, heartfelt thanks to all the people who have participated in these studies and made significant contributions to the science of sexual response; without your participation, none of this work is possible.

Funding

Travel to attend the Puzzle of Sexual Orientation meeting was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada and a meeting grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declares no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

The material contained in this article is a review of previously published or presented data. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author.

References

  1. Ågmo, A. (1999). Sexual motivation: An inquiry into events determining the occurrence of sexual behavior. Behavioural Brain Research, 105(1), 129–150. doi: 10.1016/S0166-4328(99)00088-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ågmo, A. (2011). On the intricate relationship between sexual motivation and arousal. Hormones and Behavior, 59(5), 681–688. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.08.013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alho, J., Salminen, N., Sams, M., Hietanen, J. K., & Nummenmaa, L. (2015). Facilitated early cortical processing of nude human bodies. Biological Psychology, 109, 103–110. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.04.010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amoruso, L., Couto, J. B., & Ibanez, A. (2011). Beyond extrastriate body area (EBA) and fusiform body area (FBA): Context integration in the meaning of actions. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5(124), 1–3. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2011.00124.Google Scholar
  5. Babchishin, K. M., Nunes, K. L., & Hermann, C. A. (2013). The validity of Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures of sexual attraction to children: A meta-analysis. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(3), 487–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, J. M. (2009). What is sexual orientation and do women have one? In D. A. Hope (Ed.), Contemporary perspectives on lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities (pp. 43–63). New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-09556-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bailey, J. M., Vasey, P., Diamond, L. M., Breedlove, M., Vilain, E., & Epprecht, M. (2016). Sexual orientation, controversy, and science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17(2), 45–101. doi: 10.1177/1529100616637616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bancroft, J., & Graham, C. A. (2011). The varied nature of women’s sexuality: Unresolved issues and a theoretical approach. Hormones and Behavior, 59(5), 717–729. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2011.01.005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barlow, D. H. (1986). Causes of sexual dysfunction: The role of anxiety and cognitive interference. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54(2), 140–148. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.54.2.140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baumeister, R. F. (2000). Gender differences in erotic plasticity: The female sex drive as socially flexible and responsive. Psychological Bulletin, 126(3), 347–374. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.126.3.347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bossio, J. A., Spape, J., Lykins, A. D., & Chivers, M. L. (2013). Observational stance as a predictor of subjective and genital sexual arousal in men and women. Journal of Sex Research, 51(3), 303–315. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2012.729276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bossio, J. A., Suschinsky, K. D., Puts, D. A., & Chivers, M. L. (2014). Does menstrual cycle phase influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women’s genital and subjective sexual arousal? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43(5), 941–952. doi: 10.1007/s10508-013-0233-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Both, S., Everaerd, W., & Laan, E. (2003). Modulation of spinal reflexes by aversive and sexually appetitive stimuli. Psychophysiology, 40(2), 174–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Both, S., Laan, E., & Everaerd, W. (2011). Focusing “hot” or focusing “cool”: Attentional mechanisms in sexual arousal in men and women. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 8(1), 167–179. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02051.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bouchard, K. N., Timmers, A. D., & Chivers, M. L. (2015). Gender-specificity of genital response and self-reported sexual arousal in women endorsing facets of bisexuality. Journal of Bisexuality, 15(2), 180–203. doi: 10.1080/15299716.2015.1022924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradley, M. M., Costa, V. D., & Lang, P. J. (2015). Selective looking at natural scenes: Hedonic content and gender. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98(1), 54–58. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.06.008.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chivers, M. L. (2005). A brief review and discussion of sex differences in the specificity of sexual arousal. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 20(4), 377–390. doi: 10.1080/14681990500238802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chivers, M. L. (2010). A brief update on the specificity of sexual arousal. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 25, 407–414. doi: 10.1080/14681994.2010.495979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chivers, M. L. (2016). The rainbow becomes a spectrum. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45, 491–493. doi: 10.1007/s10508-016-0711-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chivers, M. L., & Bailey, J. M. (2005). A sex difference in features that elicit genital response. Biological Psychology, 70(2), 115–120. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.12.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chivers, M. L., Bouchard, K. N., & Timmers, A. D. (2015). Straight but not narrow: Within-gender variation in the gender-specificity of women’s sexual response. PLoS ONE, 10(12), e0142575. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142575.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chivers, M. L., Rieger, G., Latty, E., & Bailey, J. M. (2004). A sex difference in the specificity of sexual arousal. Psychological Science, 15(11), 736–744. doi: 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00750.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chivers, M. L., Roy, C., Grimbos, T., Cantor, J. M., & Seto, M. C. (2014). Specificity of sexual arousal for sexual activities in men and women with conventional and masochistic sexual interests. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43(5), 931–940. doi: 10.1007/s10508-013-0174-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chivers, M. L., Seto, M. C., & Blanchard, R. (2007). Gender and sexual orientation differences in sexual response to sexual activities versus gender of actors in sexual films. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(6), 1108–1121. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.93.6.1108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chivers, M. L., Seto, M. C., Lalumière, M. L., Laan, E., & Grimbos, T. (2010). Agreement of self-reported and genital measures of sexual arousal in men and women: A meta-analysis. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(1), 5–56. doi: 10.1007/s10508-009-9556-9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chivers, M. L., & Timmers, A. D. (2012). Effects of gender and relationship context in audio narratives on genital and subjective sexual response in heterosexual women and men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(1), 185–197. doi: 10.1007/s10508-012-9937-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coleman, E. M., Hoon, P. W., & Hoon, E. F. (1983). Arousability and sexual satisfaction in lesbian and heterosexual women. Journal of Sex Research, 19(1), 58–73. doi: 10.1080/00224498309551169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cooper, A. J., Swaminath, S., Baxter, D., & Poulin, C. (1990). A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: A psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry/La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, 35(4), 334–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dawson, S. J., & Chivers, M. L. (2014a). Gender differences and similarities in sexual desire. Current Sexual Health Reports, 6(4), 211–219. doi: 10.1007/s11930-014-0027-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dawson, S. J., & Chivers, M. L. (2014b). Gender-specificity of solitary and dyadic sexual desire among gynephilic and androphilic women and men. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 11(4), 980–994. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dawson, S. J., & Chivers, M. L. (2016). Gender-specificity of initial and controlled visual attention to sexual stimuli in women and men. PLoS ONE, 11(4), e0152785. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152785.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dawson, S. J., Fretz, K. M., & Chivers, M. L. (2015, October). Can where you look tell us about what you like? Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Sex Research Forum, Kelowna, BC.Google Scholar
  33. Dawson, S. J., Fretz, K. M., & Chivers, M. L. (2016). Visual attention patterns of women with androphilic and gynephilic sexual attractions: An initial study. Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi: 10.1007/s10508-016-0825-0.Google Scholar
  34. Dawson, S. J., Suschinsky, K. D., & Lalumière, M. L. (2012). Sexual fantasies and viewing times across the menstrual cycle: A diary study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(1), 173–183. doi: 10.1007/s10508-012-9939-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deller, R. A., & Smith, C. (2013). Reading the BDSM romance: Reader responses to Fifty Shades. Sexualities, 16(8), 932–950. doi: 10.1177/1363460713508882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Diamond, L. M. (2003). What does sexual orientation orient? A biobehavioral model distinguishing romantic love and sexual desire. Psychological Review, 110, 173–192. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.110.1.173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Diamond, L. M. (2007). The evolution of plasticity in female–female desire. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 18(4), 245–274. doi: 10.1300/J056v18n04_01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Diamond, L. M. (2013). Concepts of female sexual orientation. In C. J. Patterson & A. R. D'Auguelli (Eds.), Handbook of psychology and sexual orientation (pp. 3–17). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Diamond, L. M. (2015, July). Sexual fluidity in women and men: What is the relevant time scale? Invited presentation for The Puzzle of Sexual Orientation Workshop, Lethbridge, Alberta.Google Scholar
  40. Diamond, L. M., & Wallen, K. (2011). Sexual minority women’s sexual motivation around the time of ovulation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(2), 237–246. doi: 10.1007/s10508-010-9631-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ebsworth, M., & Lalumière, M. L. (2012). Viewing time as a measure of bisexual sexual interest. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(1), 161–172. doi: 10.1007/s10508-012-9923-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Frank, K. (2013). Plays well in groups: A journey through the world of group sex. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  43. Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberst, T.-A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s live experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173–206. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gallese, V., & Goldman, A. (1998). Mirror neurons and the simulation theory mind-reading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2(12), 493–501. doi: 10.1016/S1364-6613(98)01262-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gallese, V., Keysers, C., & Rizzolatti, G. (2004). A unifying view of the basis of social cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(9), 396–403. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.07.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gangestad, S. W., & Scheyd, G. J. (2005). The evolution of human physical attractiveness. Annual Review of Anthropology, 34(1), 523–548. doi: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gangestad, S. W. W., & Simpson, J. A. (2000). The evolution of human mating: trade-offs and strategic pluralism. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(4), 573–644. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X0000337X.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gildersleeve, K., Haselton, M. G., & Fales, M. R. (2014). Do women’s mate preferences change across the ovulatory cycle? A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 140(2), 1–55. doi: 10.1037/a0035438.Google Scholar
  49. Goldey, K. L., Posh, A. R., Bell, S. N., & van Anders, S. M. (2016). Defining pleasure: A focus group study of solitary and partnered sexual pleasure in queer and heterosexual women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45, 2137–2154. doi: 10.1007/s10508-016-0704-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Goldey, K. L., & van Anders, S. M. (2011). Sexy thoughts: Effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women. Hormones and Behavior, 59(5), 754–764. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.12.005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hahn, A. C., Fisher, C. I., DeBruine, L. M., & Jones, B. C. (2015). Sex-specificity in the reward value of facial attractiveness. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45, 871–875. doi: 10.1007/s10508-015-0509-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hamann, S., Herman, R. A., Nolan, C. L., & Wallen, K. (2004). Men and women differ in amygdala response to visual sexual stimuli. Nature Neuroscience, 7(4), 411–416. doi: 10.1038/nn1208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hamann, S., Stevens, J., Vick, J. H., Bryk, K., Quigley, C. A., Berenbaum, S. A., & Wallen, K. (2014). Brain responses to sexual images in 46, XY women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome are female-typical. Hormones and Behavior, 66(5), 724–730. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2014.09.013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Haselton, M. G., & Gildersleeve, K. (2011). Can men detect ovulation? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(2), 87–92. doi: 10.1177/0963721411402668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Heiman, J. R. (1980). Female sexual repsonse patterns: Interactions of physiological, affective, and contextual cues. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37(11), 1311–1316. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1980.01780240109013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hietanen, J. K., & Nummenmaa, L. (2011). The naked truth: The face and body sensitive N170 response is enhanced for nude bodies. PLoS ONE, 6(11), e24408. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024408.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Huberman, J. S., & Chivers, M. L. (2015). Examining gender specificity of sexual response with concurrent thermography and plethysmography. Psychophysiology, 52(10), 1382–1395. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Huberman, J. S., Maracle, A. C., & Chivers, M. L. (2014). Gender-specificity of women’s and men's self-reported attention to sexual stimuli. The Journal of Sex Research, 52(9), 983–995. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2014.951424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Huberman, J. S., Suschinsky, K. D., Lalumière, M. L., & Chivers, M. L. (2013). Relationship between impression management and three measures of women’s self-reported sexual arousal. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 45, 259–273. doi: 10.1037/a0033397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Imhoff, R., Schmidt, A. F., Nordsiek, U., Luzar, C., Young, A. W., & Banse, R. (2010). Viewing time effects revisited: Prolonged response latencies for sexually attractive targets under restricted task conditions. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(6), 1275–1288. doi: 10.1007/s10508-009-9595-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Israel, E., & Strassberg, D. S. (2009). Viewing time as an objective measure of sexual interest in heterosexual men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(4), 551–558. doi: 10.1007/s10508-007-9246-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jackson, S. (2006). Gender, sexuality and heterosexuality: The complexity (and limits) of heteronormativity. Feminist Theory, 7(1), 105–121. doi: 10.1177/1464700106061462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Janssen, E., Everaerd, W., Spiering, M., & Janssen, J. (2000). Automatic processes and the appraisal of sexual stimuli: Toward an information processing model of sexual arousal. Journal of Sex Research, 37(1), 8–23. doi: 10.1080/00224490009552016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jiang, Y., Costello, P., Fang, F., Huang, M., & He, S. (2006). A gender- and sexual orientation-dependent spatial attentional effect of invisible images. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(45), 17048–17052. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0605678103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Knack, N. M., Murphy, L., Ranger, R., Meston, C., & Fedoroff, J. P. (2015). Assessment of female sexual arousal in forensic populations. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17, 18. doi: 10.1007/s11920-015-0557-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kuffel, S. W., & Heiman, J. R. (2006). Effects of depressive symptoms and experimentally adopted schemas on sexual arousal and affect in sexually healthy women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35(2), 160–174. doi: 10.1007/s10508-005-9015-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kukkonen, T. M. (2014). What is the best method of measuring the physiology of female sexual arousal? Current Sexual Health Reports, 6(1), 30–37. doi: 10.1007/s11930-013-0010-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Laan, E. (1994). Determinants of sexual arousal in women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  69. Laan, E., & Everaerd, W. (1995). Determinants of female sexual arousal: Psychophysiological theory and data. Annual Review of Sex Research, 6, 32–76. doi: 10.1080/10532528.1995.10559901.Google Scholar
  70. Laan, E., Everaerd, W., van Bellen, G., & Hanewald, G. (1994). Women’s sexual and emotional responses to male- and female-produced erotica. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 23(2), 153–169. doi: 10.1007/BF01542096.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Laan, E., Sonderman, M., & Janssen, E. (1995, September). Straight and lesbian women’s sexual responses to straight and lesbian erotica: No sexual orientation effects. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the International Academy of Sex Research, Provincetown, MA.Google Scholar
  72. Lippa, R. A. (2012). Effects of sex and sexual orientation on self-reported attraction and viewing times to images of men and women: Testing for category specificity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(1), 149–160. doi: 10.1007/s10508-011-9898-y.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lippa, R. A. (2013). Men and women with bisexual identities show bisexual patterns of sexual attraction to male and female “swimsuit models”. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(2), 187–196. doi: 10.1007/s10508-012-9981-z.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lippa, R. A., Patterson, T. M., & Marelich, W. D. (2010). Looking at and longing for male and female “swimsuit models”: Men are much more category specific than women. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1(3), 238–245. doi: 10.1177/1948550609359814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lykins, A. D., Meana, M., & Kambe, G. (2006). Detection of differential viewing patterns to erotic and non-erotic stimuli using eye-tracking methodology. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35(5), 569–575. doi: 10.1007/s10508-006-9065-z.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lykins, A. D., Meana, M., & Strauss, G. P. (2008). Sex differences in visual attention to erotic and non-erotic stimuli. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(2), 219–228. doi: 10.1007/s10508-007-9208-x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Maner, J. K., Gailliot, M. T., & DeWall, C. N. (2007a). Adaptive attentional attunement: Evidence for mating-related perceptual bias. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28(1), 28–36. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2006.05.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Maner, J. K., Gailliot, M. T., Rouby, D. A., & Miller, S. L. (2007b). Can’t take my eyes off you: Attentional adhesion to mates and rivals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(3), 389–401. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.93.3.389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Maner, J. K., Miller, S. L., Rouby, D. A., & Gailliot, M. T. (2009). Intrasexual vigilance: The implicit cognition of romantic rivalry. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(1), 74–87. doi: 10.1037/a0014055.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Middleton, L. S., Kuffel, S. W., & Heiman, J. R. (2008). Effects of experimentally adopted sexual schemas on vaginal response and subjective sexual arousal: A comparison between women with sexual arousal disorder and sexually healthy women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(6), 950–961. doi: 10.1007/s10508-007-9310-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Money, J., & Ehrhardt, A. A. (1972). Man and woman, boy and girl: Differentiation and dimorphism of gender identity from conception to maturity. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Mustanski, B. S., Chivers, M. L., & Bailey, J. M. (2002). A critical review of recent biological research on human sexual orientation. Annual Review of Sex Research, 13, 89–140. doi: 10.1080/10532528.2002.10559803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Nummenmaa, L., Hietanen, J. K., Santtila, P., & Hyönä, J. (2012). Gender and visibility of sexual cues influence eye movements while viewing faces and bodies. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(6), 1439–1451. doi: 10.1007/s10508-012-9911-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Penke, L., & Asendorpf, J. B. (2008). Beyond global sociosexual orientations: A more differentiated look at sociosexuality and its effects on courtship and romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1113–1135. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.95.5.1113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Peterson, Z. D., Janssen, E., & Laan, E. (2010). Women’s sexual responses to heterosexual and lesbian erotica: The role of stimulus intensity, affective reaction, and sexual history. Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 39(4), 880–897. doi: 10.1007/s10508-009-9546-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ponseti, J., & Bosinski, H. A. G. (2009). Subliminal sexual stimuli facilitate genital response in women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(5), 1073–1079. doi: 10.1007/s10508-009-9587-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ponseti, J., Bosinski, H. A., Wolff, S., Peller, M., Jansen, O., Mehdorn, H. M., … Siebner, H. R. (2006). A functional endophenotype for sexual orientation in humans. Neuroimage, 33(3), 825–833. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.08.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pulverman, C. S., Hixon, J. G., & Meston, C. M. (2015). Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique. Psychophysiology, 52(10), 1396–1408. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Puts, D. A. (2010). Beauty and the beast: Mechanisms of sexual selection in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(3), 157–175. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.02.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Quinsey, V. L., Ketsetzis, M., Earls, C., & Karamanoukian, A. (1996). Viewing time as a measure of sexual interest. Ethology and Sociobiology, 17(5), 341–354. doi: 10.1016/S0162-3095(96)00060-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rieger, G., Cash, B. M., Merrill, S. M., Jones-Rounds, J., Dharmavaram, S. M., & Savin-Williams, R. C. (2015a). Sexual arousal: The correspondence of eyes and genitals. Biological Psychology, 104, 56–64. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.11.009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rieger, G., & Savin-Williams, R. C. (2012). The eyes have it: Sex and sexual orientation differences in pupil dilation patterns. PLoS ONE, 7(8), e40256. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040256.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rieger, G., Savin-Williams, R. C., Chivers, M. L., & Bailey, J. M. (2015b). Sexual arousal and masculinity-femininity of women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111(2), 265–283. doi: 10.1037/pspp0000077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rullo, J. E., Strassberg, D. S., & Israel, E. (2010). Category-specificity in sexual interest in gay men and lesbians. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(4), 874–879. doi: 10.1007/s10508-009-9497-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rullo, J. E., Strassberg, D. S., & Miner, M. H. (2015). Gender-specificity in sexual interest in bisexual men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(5), 1449–1457. doi: 10.1007/s10508-014-0415-y.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rupp, H. A., & Wallen, K. (2009). Sex-specific content preferences for visual sexual stimuli. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(3), 417–426. doi: 10.1007/s10508-008-9402-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sawatsky, M. L., Dawson, S. J., & Lalumière, M. L. (2016). Genital lubrication: A cue-specific sexual response in women? Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  98. Schimmack, U., & Derryberry, D. (2005). Attentional interference effects of emotional pictures: Threat, negativity, or arousal? Emotion, 5(1), 55–66. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.5.1.55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schmidt, G., Sigusch, V., & Schäfer, S. (1973). Responses to reading erotic stories: Male–female differences. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2(3), 181–199. doi: 10.1007/BF01541755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Seto, M. C. (2008). Pedophilia and sexual offending against children: Theory, assessment, and intervention. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Seto, M. C. (2016). The puzzle of male chronophilias. Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi: 10.1007/s10508-016-0799-y.Google Scholar
  102. Slob, A. K., Ernste, M., & van der Werff ten Bosch, J. J. (1991). Menstrual cycle phase and sexual arousability in women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20(6), 567–577. doi: 10.1007/BF01550955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Snowden, R. J., & Gray, N. S. (2013). Implicit sexual associations in heterosexual and homosexual women and men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(3), 475–485. doi: 10.1007/s10508-012-9920-z.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Spape, J., Timmers, A. D., Yoon, S., Ponseti, J., & Chivers, M. L. (2014). Gender-specific genital and subjective sexual arousal to prepotent sexual features in heterosexual women and men. Biological Psychology, 102, 1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.07.008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Steinman, D. L., Wincze, J. P., Sakheim, D. K., Barlow, D. H., & Mavissakalian, M. (1981). A comparison of male and female patterns of sexual arousal. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10(6), 477–492. doi: 10.1007/BF01541588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Stock, W. E. (1983). The effects of violent pornography on the sexual responsiveness and attitudes of women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  107. Suschinsky, K. D., Bossio, J. A., & Chivers, M. L. (2014). Women’s genital sexual arousal to oral versus penetrative heterosexual sex varies with menstrual cycle phase at first exposure. Hormones and Behavior, 65(3), 319–327. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2014.01.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Suschinsky, K. D., Dawson, S. J., & Chivers, M. L. (2016). Sexual concordance across the spectrum: Assessing the relationship between sexual concordance and sexual orientation in women. Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi: 10.1007/s10508-016-0874-4.
  109. Suschinsky, K. D., & Lalumière, M. L. (2011). Category-specificity and sexual concordance: The stability of sex differences in sexual arousal patterns. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 20(3), 93–108.Google Scholar
  110. Suschinsky, K. D., Lalumière, M. L., & Chivers, M. L. (2009). Sex differences in patterns of genital sexual arousal: Measurement artifacts or true phenomena? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(4), 559–573. doi: 10.1007/s10508-008-9339-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sylva, D., Safron, A., Rosenthal, A. M., Reber, P. J., Parrish, T. B., & Bailey, J. M. (2013). Neural correlates of sexual arousal in heterosexual and homosexual women and men. Hormones and Behavior, 64(4), 673–684. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2013.08.003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Timmers, A. D., Bouchard, K., & Chivers, M. L. (2015). Effects of gender and sexual activity cues on the sexual responses of women with multidimensionally defined bisexuality. Journal of Bisexuality, 15, 154–179. doi: 10.1080/15299716.2015.1023389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Timmers, A. D., & Chivers, M. L. (2012). Sociosexuality and sexual arousal. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 21(3–4), 135–146.Google Scholar
  114. Timmers, A. D., Hildebrand, L., & Chivers, M. L. (2013, August). Category-specificity and prepotent sexual cues. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the International Academy of Sex Research, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  115. Toates, F. (2009). An integrative theoretical framework for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior. Journal of Sex Research, 46(2–3), 168–193. doi: 10.1080/00224490902747768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. van Anders, S. M. (2015). Beyond sexual orientation: Integrating gender/sex and diverse sexualities via sexual configurations theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(5), 1177–1213. doi: 10.1007/s10508-015-0490-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wade, L. D., Kremer, E. C., & Brown, J. (2005). The incidental orgasm: The presence of clitoral knowledge and the absence of orgasm for women. Women and Health, 42(1), 117–138. doi: 10.1300/J013v42n01_07.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wallen, K., & Rupp, H. A. (2010). Women’s interest in visual sexual stimuli varies with menstrual cycle phase at first exposure and predicts later interest. Hormones and Behavior, 57(2), 263–268. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2009.12.005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wilson, G. T., & Lawson, D. M. (1978). Expectancies, alcohol, and sexual arousal in women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87(3), 358–367. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.87.8.358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wincze, J. P., Hoon, P., & Hoon, E. F. (1977). Sexual arousal in women: A comparison of cognitive and physiological responses by continuous measurement. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6(2), 121–133. doi: 10.1007/BF01541704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wincze, J. P., & Qualls, C. B. (1984). A comparison of structural patterns of sexual arousal in male and female homosexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 13(4), 361–370. doi: 10.1007/BF01541908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wright, L. W., & Adams, H. E. (1999). The effects of stimuli that vary in erotic content on cognitive processes. Journal of Sex Research, 36(2), 145–151. doi: 10.1080/00224499909551979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations